Objective The study was conducted to investigate the morbidity and epidemiological characteristics of pulmonary tuberculosis （TB） in Zongyang county, provide the evidence for the development of prevention and control strategies. Methods A descriptive epidemiological investigation was conducted on the epidemic data of pulmonary TB in Zongyang from 2004 to 2006, a questionnaire survey of smoking behaviors was performed among 3051 pulmonary TB patients, and chi-square test was used to reveal statistical differences. Results From 2004 to 2006, the reported incidence of pulmonary TB in Zongyang was 103.74/lakh, 128.09/lakh, 133.91/lakh, respectively, the incidence of men was higher than that of women （2 = 54.11, P0.01）. Farmers accounted for 84.18% of total reported cases, and people aged 30 to 70-years accounted for 72.27% of total reported cases. No significant seasonality was observed on the pulmonary TB incidence. Among the pulmonary TB patients, the smoking rate in male was higher than that in female.（2=129.08, P0.01）. Conclusion The reported incidence of pulmonary TB increased year by year in Zongyang county. Consequently, intensified prevention and control of pulmonary TB and health education on control of smoking among the patients is required, particularly in middle-aged farmers.