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An outbreak of Japanese encephalitis in elderly people in Baotou, Inner Mongolia, 2018
Hanbing Wan, Yurong Yang, Liang Lin, Jingxian Peng, Jing Wang
Accepted Manuscript , DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2019.12.014
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ObjectiveTo investigate an outbreak of Japanese encephalitis(JE)in elderly people in Tuyou banner of Baotou in Inner Mongolia in 2018 and provide scientific evidence for the standardized response to such events in the future.MethodsCase investigation was conducted for all cases, and the blood and cerebrospinal fluid samples of patients were used for the detection of JE virus nucleic acid with PCR and the samples from some villagers and domestic pigs were collected for the detection of JE virus antibody with ELISA.ResultsThe outbreak occurred in August and 5 cases were reported, including 2 deaths. The cases were elderly people in rural areas with underlying diseases and without immunization histories of JE vaccine. In the 5 cases, the serum and cerebrospinal fluid samples were negative for JE virus nucleic acid and positive for IgM antibody, while the serum samples of 5 villagers and 2 domestic pigs were IgM positive, and 108 serum samples of villagers were IgG positive.ConclusionThe investigation confirmed that an outbreak of JE occurred in elderly people in Tuyou banner of Baotou in 2018, and infection of JE virus was detected in local people and pigs. The surveillance for JE and mosquito vector should be strengthened in the future.
Distribution of non-polio enteroviruses and molecular characteristics of coxsackievirus B5 isolated from environmental sewage in Shanghai, 2015–2018
Yunyi Li, Jing Lu, Yuying Yang, Jie Fei, Liping Zhang, Zhi Li, Jiayu Hu, Chongshan Li
Accepted Manuscript , DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2019.12.013
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ObjectiveTo understand the distribution of non-polio enterovirus (NPEV) isolated from environmental sewage in Minghang and Jiading district of Shanghai from 2015 to 2018, and explore the circulation and evolution of coxsackievirus B5 (CVB5) in environmental sewage, healthy children and acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases.MethodsThe sewage plants in Minhang and Jiading were selected as long-term surveillance sites. Sewage samples were collected monthly from two sewage plants for concentration and enrichment. The supernatant was collected and inoculated with human rhabdomyosarcoma and Hep-2 cells for virus isolation. VP1 region was obtained by RT-PCR and sequenced.ResultsA total of 84 sewage samples were collected, in which 242 NPEV strains were isolated, and 19 genotypes were detected. CVB5 was a genotype with high proportion, accounting for 18.18% (44/242). CVB5 formed three transmission chains of two genotypes, namely C3, C4 and D3 genotypes. C3 was the predominant genotype in Shanghai, while the D3 genotype was a new transmission chain during 2016-2018.ConclusionFrom 2015 to 2018, the predominant genotypes of NPEV were ECHO11, CVB5, CVB3 and ECHO6 in environmental sewage in Shanghai. CVB5 co-circulated in environmental sewage, healthy children and AFP cases. NPEV related disease surveillance system has not been established in China. Environmental sewage surveillance can be used as an important supplementary method for case surveillance.
Retrospective analysis on 51 epidemics of norovirus infection in Nanning, Guangxi
Hao Nong, Haohui Liu, Cheng Yang, Xinjie Zhan, Liujiang Yin, Jianqiu Qin
Accepted Manuscript
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ObjectiveTo understand the epidemiological characteristics of norovirus infection in Nanning and provide scientific evidence for the prevention and control of norovirus infection.MethodsThe test results of norovirus infection epidemics, case information and 3 epidemic investigation reports in Nanning from January 2015 to January 2019 were collected for statistical analysis.ResultsA total of 51 norovirus epidemics were laboratory confirmed. The epidemics occurred in 2016 and 2017 accounted for 62.75%, and the epidemic caused by norovirus GII accounted for 90.20%, and the epidemics caused by norovirus GI and GII accounted for 9.80%. The incidence was high during September-January. Two incidence peaks with different intensities were found. The epidemics mainly occurred in Qingxiu, Binyang, Jiangnan and Xingning districts, where the reported epidemics accounted for 68.63%. Twenty five epidemics occurred in child care settings, accounting for 49.02%. There was no significant difference in positive rate between males and females. The clinical symptoms were mainly vomiting and diarrhea. In 481 case samples, 289 samples of asymptomatic persons and 36 water samples, the positive rates of norovirus were 60.50%, 8.30%, and 16.67%, respectively. The transmission routes of 48 epidemics were unknown, accounting for 94.12%.ConclusionNorovirus GII was the major pathogen causing norovirus epidemics in Nanning. Autumn and winter were the seasons with high incidences, showing the incidence peaks synchronized with the epidemics occurred both at home and abroad. It is necessary to pay attention to the prevention and control of norovirus infection in areas or settings with high-incidences, strengthen health education, improve the power of epidemic response for the rapid identification of infection source of infection and blocking the transmission route and conduct norovirus gene sequencing to identify epidemic genotypes and detect variants or recombinant strains in time.
Influencing factors for delay in case-finding of active pulmonary tuberculosis in students in Sichuan, 2016–2018
Ni Yang, Zhengyuan Rao, Lan Xia, Yang Song
Accepted Manuscript
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ObjectiveTo understand the delay of active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) case-finding in students and related influencing factors in Sichuan province, and provide evidence for the development of intervention strategies.MethodsThe data of 2 666 untreated TB cases in students were randomized collected from National Tuberculosis Management Information System, and the information about the delays in the finding of these cases were analyzed, and χ2 test and multiple logistic regression model were used to analyze the risk factors associated with the casefinding delay.ResultsThe median of delay in the finding of 2 666 pulmonary TB cases in students in Sichuan was 24 days from 2016 to 2018, the proportion of the pulmonary TB cases reported without delay (0–30 days) was 57.1%, the pulmonary TB cases reported with delay of 1–2 months (31–60 days) and those reported with delay of ≥2 months (>60 days) accounted for 23.3% and 19.6% respectively. Age <16 and >19 years, minority ethnic group, non-local residence, case source (tracing), first medical seeking in health facilities at county level, positive results of Mycobacterium tuberculosis test were the risk factors for over 2 month case finding delay.ConclusionThe case-finding delay of pulmonary TB in students was common in Sichuan. It is necessary for schools and health facilities to take effective and comprehensive intervention measures targeting risk factors to reduce the delay in pulmonary TB case finding in students.
Epidemiological characteristics of measles in Xinjiang, 2012–2018
Shawulaxi·Rejiafu, Mahemutijiang·Kuerban, Na Xie, Kaisaier·Wusiman, Lu Sun
Accepted Manuscript
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ObjectiveTo understand the epidemiological characteristics of measles in Xinjiang from 2012 to 2018.MethodsDescriptive epidemiologic method was used to analyze the incidence data of measles collected from Chinese Disease Surveillance Information Reporting System.ResultsA total of 9 817 measles cases, including 24 deaths, were reported in Xinjiang from 2012 to 2018. The incidence of measles was in increase since 2012 and peaked in 2016. The reported incidence was 12.09/100 000. The incidence of measles declined in 2017 and 2018, and the incidence rate was lowest in 2018 (0.36/100 000). The measles cases were mainly distributed in Kashgar, Hetian, Kezhou, Aksu, Urumqi and Yili in Xinjiang, accounting for 71.48% of the total cases. The annual incidence peak of measles was during March-June. In 2016, the measles incidence began to increase in November and December, and peaked in January and February in 2017. From 2012 to 2018,The cases proportions in age groups 8 months and 8–17 months decreased, the case proportions in age groups 18–47 months and 15–39 years showed no significant change, and the case proportions in age groups 4–14 years and ≥40 years increased year by year. In children aged 8–23 months, 20.94% had one dose of measles immunization, 1.40% had two doses of measles immunization. In children aged 2–6 years, 14.73% had one dose of measles immunization, 21.30% had two doses of measles immunization, and the proportions of the cases receiving no measles immunization and with unknown immunization status were 51.93% and 25.86% respectively; From 2012 to 2018, 2 595 measles cases (26.43%) had complications.Conclusion Measles incidence declined year by year from 2016 to 2018 in Xinjiang, but areas or populations at high risk still existed. We should improve routine immunization coverage rate and timely immunization rate (>95%) for measles, vaccination certificate checking for school and kindergarten entrances and strengthen measles epidemiology and laboratory testing to achieve the goal of eliminating measles.
Etiological analysis of rotavirus infection in infants in Urumqi
Shabiremu·Tuohetamu, Senlu Wang, Mahemuti
Accepted Manuscript
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ObjectiveTo understand the infection status of rotavirus in children under 5 years old in Urumqi from 2016 to 2017, analyze its etiological characteristics and provide evidence for the prevention and control of rotavirus infection.MethodsThe epidemiological data and stool samples were collected from 597 infants hospitalized in Urumuqi Children's Hospital due to diarrhea from January 1, 2016 to December 31, 2017. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was conducted to detect rotavirus antigen, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used for rotavirus nucleic acid detection and genotyping. The test results and epidemiological data were analyzed.ResultsThe positive rate of group A rotavirus antigen was 32.5% (194/597). In genotyping of the rotavirus strains isolated from positive cases, genotype G1, G2, G3, G4 and G9 were detected, G9 was predominant (11.6%, 69/597), and genotype P[4], P[6] and P[8] were detected, and the detection rate of P[8] was highest (22.7%, 44/194). In the combinations of G and P genotypes, G3P[8] (31.4%), G9P[8] (25.3%), G2P[4] (18.0%) and G1P[8](8.8%) were detected more frequently. The positive rate of rotavirus was highest in age group 13–18 months (40.0%) and lowest in age group 0–6 months (23.4%). The infection rate of rotavirus varied with age group, the differences were significant(χ2=13.698, P=0.033). The positive rate of rotavirus was 35.8% in 2016 (108/302) and 29.2% in 2017 (86/295) (χ2=2.971, P=0.085). The rotavirus positive rate in urban children was 32.8% (173/527), higher than that in rural children (30.0%, 21/70) (χ2=0.225, P=0.635).ConclusionInfants and young children in Urumqi are generally susceptible to rotavirus, and RV strains had diverse genotypes, mainly G3P[8] type. Urban children aged 1–2 years are the key population for vaccination in the prevention and control of rotavirus infection.
Molecular characteristics and antibiotic susceptibility of clinical strains of Streptococcus agalactiae
Zheng Nan, Fang Zhou, Donghui Yan, Jianrong Su, Yanyan Zhou
Accepted Manuscript
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ObjectiveTo understand the serotypes, antibiotic susceptibility, virulence gene carriage and multi locus sequence typing (MLST) results of clinical isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae in a class III (A) hospital in Beijing.MethodsS. agalactiae strains were isolated from the hospitalized patients in 2018. The serotyping, MLST and virulence gene detection were conducted by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The susceptibility test of S. agalactiae strains to 7 antibiotics was conducted with VITEK 2 system.ResultsA total of 31 strains of S. agalactiae were isolated in the hospital in 2018. In the sequence types (STs), ST10 (29.03%) was predominant, followed by ST17, ST19, ST1, ST12, ST24, ST485 and 2 new types. In the 4 identified serotypes, Ib was predominant, accounting for 45.16%, followed by III, V and Ia. The antibiotic susceptibility test showed that 31 strains were all sensitive to ampicillin, quinupristin, linezolid and vancomycin. The highest resistance rate was 64.52% for tetracycline, followed by 58.06% for levofloxacin and 38.7% for 1clindamycin. Clindamycin resistance was only found in the Ib and V serotype strains. PCR detection of virulence genes showed that all the strains were positive for hylB, cylE, cfb and lmb genes. The carriage of bac and fbsA genes varied in strains with different serotypes, and these virulence genes were carried in almost all the Ib serotype strains.ConclusionBased on MLST and serotyping, our study showed that different types of S. agalactiae had different antibiotic resistance and varied different virulence genes, suggesting that close attention should be paid to the antibiotic resistance of Ib and V serotypes and virulence genes of Ib serotypes of S. agalactiae.
Spatial and temporal distribution of human brucellosis in Inner Mongolia, 2009–2018
Hanwei Liang, Na Ta, Jingchuan Mi, Ruiping Yu, Wei Guo, Wenqiang Zhang
Accepted Manuscript
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ObjectiveTo understand the epidemiologic characteristics and spatial distribution of human brucellosis (hereinafter referred to as brucellosis) in Inner Mongolia from 2009 to 2018, and provide evidence for the development of the strategies and measures for brucellosis prevention and control and the adjustment of prevention and control resources.MethodsThe incidence data of brucellosis in Inner Mongolia during 2009–2018 were obtained from the National Notifiable Disease Reporting System (NNDRS). Descriptive epidemiology method was used to analyze the epidemiologic characteristics of brucellosis, and software ArcGIS was used to analyze the spatial and temporal characteristics of brucellosis. The spatial and temporal distribution map of brucellosis in Inner Mongolia was generated to analyze the global and local spatial correlation.ResultsFrom 2009 to 2018, a total of 119 249 new cases of brucellosis were reported in Inner Mongolia, and brucellosis occurred in all 103 counties of 12 cities (league). The cases were mainly young adults, males and farmers or herdsmen. From the perspective of spatial distribution: the global spatial autocorrelation analysis showed clustering distribution from 2009 to 2013 and from 2016 to 2018, and there were hot spots in local spatial autocorrelation analysis. The high incidence areas of brucellosis in Inner Mongolia were mainly in the central and eastern areas in the past decade. The areas with high incidence of brucellosis moved from the middle-east to the west and from the north to the south.ConclusionIt is necessary to further strengthen the prevention and control of brucellosis in Inner Mongolia, focusing on health education and behavior intervention in high-risk groups and targeted measures in areas with serious disease burden.
Evaluation on quality of internet based reporting of brucellosis in China, 2005–2017
Cuihong Zhang, Shuaibing Dong, Hai Jiang, Mengguang Fan, Yuexi Li, Xiang Ren, Mengjie Geng, Zhongjie Li, Liping Wang
Accepted Manuscript
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ObjectiveTo evaluate the quality of internet based reporting of brucellosis in China from 2005 to 2017, find out the main problems and propose measures for the improvement of the reporting quality in the future.MethodsFrom China Disease Prevention and Control Information System, the information about all the brucellosis case reporting cards from 2005 to 2017 were collected according to the final review date. The timeliness and accuracy of the reporting, and area, year and province specific differences in reporting quality were analyzed.ResultsA total of 499 421 case cards of brucellosis were reported during this period with an average increase rate of 6.14%. The overall timely reporting rate was 95.97%, the timely reporting rate increased gradually from 61.90% in 2005 to 99.47% in 2017. The median interval between diagnosis and reporting was 0.08 d (1.92 h). The overall timely verifying rate was 99.41%, the timely verifying rate increased gradually from 95.25% in 2005 to 99.70% in 2017. The overall accuracy rate of the reporting cards was 99.86%, the accuracy rate increased with year and reached 100.00% during 2015–2017. Most case reporting cards were from northern China (98.22%), but the annual case reporting cards from southern China showed an increasing trend. There was some delay in the timely case reporting in northern China, and the timely verifying rate in southern China was slightly lower. Untimely and inaccurate reporting of brucellosis cases mainly occurred in provinces with high-incidences of brucellosis, such as Inner Mongolia, Shanxi, and Hebei.ConclusionDuring 2005–2017, the quality of internet based reporting of brucellosis in China were improved obviously, resulting in better reflection of the epidemic trend of brucellosis in China, however, the problems of untimely and inaccurate reporting still existed, especially in northern China. It is necessary to conduct serial training on brucellosis reporting standards, strengthen the supervision of the reporting quality and optimize the reporting items in surveillance system to further improve the quality of the internet based brucellosis reporting in China.
Epidemiological analysis of brucellosis in Yunnan, 2006–2018
Xiangdong Yang, Xue Yuan, Binbin Yu, Qing Zhang, Qiuju Yang
Accepted Manuscript
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ObjectiveTo understand the prevalence of brucellosis in Yunnan province in recent years and assess risk factors causing brucellosis, provide a scientific basis for developing effective prevention strategies.MethodsThe epidemiological data of brucellosis in Yunnan were collected from 2006 to 2018 through China Disease Prevention and Control System, the database was set up and the geographical distribution maps were drawn with software ArcGIS 10.2.ResultsBrucellosis was detected in 1 county in 2006 and in 48 counties in 2018 in Yunnan and had been reported in 77 counties accumulatively, accounting for 59.69%(77/129)of total counties. Brucellosis occurred in every year during this period and a total of 1 239 brucellosis cases reported without death. The prefectures (municipality) with high incidence rate were Honghe, Kunming and Qujing, where 67.23% of the cases were reported. Although the disease occurred all the year round, 59.48% of cases were reported in summer and autumn. Cases aged 20–69 years accounted for 88.22%, most cases was farmers (78.53%), and more men (71.99%) were infected compared with women (28.01%).ConclusionThe prevalence of brucellosis increased rapidly in Yunnan, resulting in more infected areas and cases. The important prevention and control measures include health education, stff training, improvement of surveillance and detection, enhanced cooperation between different departments to find and response epidemic as early as possible, standardized case management and reducing chronic rate caused by the disease.
Analysis on performance of human brucellosis control in Xilingol league, Inner Mongolia, 2010–2018
Yanwei Bi, Siyuan Zhang, Rile Ge
Accepted Manuscript
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ObjectivesTo evaluate the performance of human brucellosis prevention and control in Xilingol league of Inner Mongolia from 2010 to 2018 and provide evidence for the local brucellosis prevention and control in the future.MethodsThe incidence data of human brucellosis in Xilingol from 2010 to 2018 were collected to analyze the incidence level. The infection status and morbidity of brucellosis in population at high-risk were evaluated by using blood test positive rate and brucellosis detection rate, the effects of occupational training and health education were evaluated respectively by using the professional training rate in medical staff and the awareness rate of brucellosis related knowledge in population at high-risk, and the effects of patient treatment and management were evaluated by using standardized treatment rate and cure rate.ResultsDuring 2010–2018, a total of 198 915 blood samples were tested in population at high-risk, in which 8 434 were positive (4.24%), and 2 319 new brucellosis cases were detected (1.17%). There were significant differences in annual proportion of new cases detected in active investigation in cases reported through network (χ2=574.878, P<0.001). The positive rate, case detection rate of active investigation and the incidence rate reported through network in population at high risk showed decline trends (χ2=1 520.332, 2 654.121, and 4 665.313, P<0.001). The awareness rate of brucellosis in population at high risk increased from 69.04% to 90.83%. The annual qualified rates of medical staff engaged in brucellosis prevention and control in professional training were all higher than 98%. During 2010–2013, the cure rate of patients was low, the lowest was 52.78%, and the rate of follow up loss was higher than 30%. During 2014–2018, the cure rate was over 75%, and the rate of follow up loss dropped to about 10%.ConclusionThe prevention and control of brucellosis has made achievement in Xilingol, however, it remains challengeable. It is still necessary to strengthen the prevention and control of brucellosis by fully implementation of all the measures.
Diagnosis performance of brucellosis in China, 2013–2018
Shu Li, Qiulan Chen, Wenwu Yin, Yu Li, Di Mu, Zhongjie Li
Accepted Manuscript
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ObjectiveTo understand the diagnosis performance of brucellosis in China from 2013 to 2018, and provide reference for the improvement of the diagnosis quality of brucellosis.MethodsThe incidence data of brucellosis in China from 2013 to 2018 were collected from the infectious disease information management system of Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention(CDC). The diagnosis performance of brucellosis was described by analyzing the intervals between onset and diagnosis of brucellosis and the laboratory confirmation rates in different medical institutions and in northern and southern China.ResultsFrom 2013 to 2018, a total of 282 264 brucellosis cases were reported nationwide. Most cases were reported in northern China, accounting for 95.1% of the total. The cases reported by hospitals, CDCs and primary medical units accounted for 50.3%, 39.1% and 7.7% respectively. The proportion of the cases reported by hospitals increased gradually from 35.9% in 2013 to 62.5% in 2018. The median onset-diagnosis interval was 14 days, and 7.0% of the reported cases were diagnosed beyond acute phase (3 months). The median onset-diagnosis interval was shorter in southern China (11 d) than in northern China (14 d), and in hospitals and primary medical units (9 d, 11 d) than in CDCs and other medical units (20 d, 25 d). The overall laboratory conformation rate was 91.6% (92.0% in northern China and 84.4% in southern China). In northern China, the laboratory confirmation rate was only 88.8% in hospitals and 87.5% in primary medical units. The overall rate of non-local hospital visits was 48.0% (47.0% in northern China and 68.0% in southern China).ConclusionIn northern China, the brucellosis epidemic was serious from 2013 to 2018, but the laboratory diagnostic capacity was still inadequate, resulting in some delays in diagnosis. It is suggested to strengthen the building of laboratory diagnostic capacity of the medical institutions in northern China and improve the accessibility of diagnosis and treatment of brucellosis.
Epidemiologic characteristics and drug resistance of Campylobacter in Zhuzhou, Hunan, 2016–2018
Qizhi Long, Huayun Jia, Li He, Lan Wang, Shixiong Hu, Lidong Gao, Junhua Li
Accepted Manuscript
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ObjectiveTo understand the epidemiologic characteristics and drug resistance of Campylobacter in Zhuzhou of Hunan province.MethodsEpidemiologic investigation was conducted in diarrhea cases and children without diarrhea in Zhuzhou from July 2016 to June 2018, and their stool samples were collected. The stool samples were used for the isolation of Campylobacter. The isolated Campylobacter strains were tested for drug susceptibility.ResultsA total of 450 cases were surveyed. The detection rate of Campylobacter was 6.44% (29/450). The detection rate in children without diarrhea was 1.00% (1/100), and the detection rate in diarrhea cases was 8.00% (28/350). The clinical symptoms of Campylobacter infection were diarrhea, abdominal pain, mucus stool, and the stool microscopic examination results were mainly characterized by the detections of erythrocyte and leukocyte. The detection rate in age group 5~years was 19.44% (7/36). The infection cases were mainly students 17.65% (6/34). There was no significant difference in the detection rate between man and woman (χ2=1.354, P=0.245). The detection rate of Campylobacter was higher in spring and autumn than in summer and winter. In the 29 strains, 24 were Campylobacter jejuni and 5 were C. colon. In the 29 strains, 41.38% were multidrug resistant. The resistant rates to nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, tetracyvline were 96.15%, 88.46% and 76.92%, respectively.ConclusionCampylobacter has become one of the important pathogens causing diarrhea in Zhuzhou, and it showed serious drug resistance and multi-drug resistance, to which the monitoring and control measures should be strengthened.
Infection status of Campylobacter and its etiologic characteristics in diarrhea patients in Nanshan district, Shenzhen
Min Liu, Changyan Ju, Yanping Ma, Yongxiang Duan, Muhua Yu, Maojun Zhang, Guoqing Wang
Accepted Manuscript
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ObjectiveTo understand the infection status of Campylobacter and its etiologic characteristics in diarrheal patients in autumn in Nanshan district of Shenzhen.MethodsThe stool samples were collected from local diarrheal patients during September-November in 2018. Campylobacter was isolated with new filtration method and the species identification was performed by real time PCR. Molecular sub-typing was carried out by using multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 11 antibiotics to the isolates were obtained with agar dilution method. The genetic cluster analysis was performed by using minimum spanning tree analysis based on the STs of the isolates.ResultsA total of 150 stool samples were collected from 150 diarrheal patients, including 74 men and 76 women. The age of the patients ranged from 1 year to 86 years. Eighteen Campylobacter strains were isolated from 150 stool samples. Among the 18 isolates, 14 were C. jejuni positive (77.78%) and 4 were C. coli positive (22.22%). Fourteen C. jejuni isolates could be classified into 11 PFGE patterns and 8 STs, and ST-9763, a novel ST identified in this study, was the predominant ST (35.71%, 5/14). All of the tested isolates were resistant to tetracycline and completely sensitive to erythromycin, azithromycin, telithromycin, gentamicin, streptomycin and clindamycin. The minimum spanning tree analysis for 14 C. jejuni strains isolated in Nanshan showed no significant clustering characteristics, the strains were distributed in groups from different sources.ConclusionThe new filtration isolation method increased the isolation rate of Campylobacter in diarrheal patients. C. jejuni was the major species causing Campylobacter infection. The isolates in this study showed high drug resistances to tetracycline and quinolones. No significant genetic cluster was found in C. jejuni strains isolated in Nanshan district.
2018年美国科罗拉多州丹佛市首次发现一例汉坦病毒肺综合征(HPS)本地感染病例
Zhenyu Gong, Xunliang Gong
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Etiological analysis of 1 case of a patient with Listeria monocytogenes infection
Huiru Feng, Jing Shi, Qian Chen, Xiuxia Wei, Hong Yu, Tao Yan, Zhaoe Wang, Meng Qin, Zhimin Zhang, Xiaogen Dong
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ObjectivesTo investigate the etiology and traceability of an infection case caused by Listeria monocytogenes.MethodsOn the basis of Field epidemiological investigation, samples of patient, foods, kitchen environmental appliances were collected for strain isolation and identification. Six pairs of virulence genes (prfA, plcB, hly, actA, iap, inlA) of positive strains were tested. The positive strains were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus-sequence typing (MLST) techniques. The homologous analysis was finally performed on the isolated strain.ResultsSix strains of Listeria monocytogenes were isolated, one from the case, two from the kitchen environmental kit, and three from the food of patient's family. In addition to the deletion of the virulence gene of the strain plcB detected by the two samples of the refrigerator inner wall and canned sweet corn, the other five virulence and all the virulence genes of other strains were all positive.. The isolated strains were all ST121 type, and the PFGE band type was 100% consistent.ConclusionThe reason for the prevalence of this patient was due to poor hygiene in the home kitchen and contamination of both food and the environment.
Prediction of rabies cases in China by using autoregressive moving average model
Yanrong Li, Liling Zhu, Wuyang Zhu, Xiaoyan Tao
Corrected proof
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ObjectiveTo predict the monthly incidence of rabies in the mainland of China by using autoregressive moving average model (ARIMA), and provide reference for the prevention and control of rabies in China.MethodsUsing SPSS 19.0 software, a time series model was established by using the monthly incidence data of rabies in China from January 2007 to December 2016, and the optimal model was validated by the monthly incidence data of rabies from January to December 2017. The optimal model was used to predict the incidence trend and case number of rabies in 2018.ResultsThe optimal model was ARIMA(0,1,1)(2,1,0)12, with a stationary R2=0.539, RMSE=17.653, Ljung-Box Q=8.932, P=0.881. In predicting the data for January-December 2017, the relative error of prediction was 1.55%. A total of 516 rabies cases occurred actually in 2017. It was predicted that the case number of rabies in China would drop to 398 in 2018.ConclusionThe ARIMA(0,1,1)(2,1,0)12 model can well fit the long-term trend and seasonal trend of rabies incidence, and the results of retrograde fitting and short-term prediction are ideal.
cover
2019, 34(11).
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2019-11-ml 目录
2019, 34(11): 1-3.
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National Data of Class A, B and C Communicable Diseases in October 2019
2019, 34(11): 955-955. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2019.11.001
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Summary of National Data of Class A, B and C Communicable Diseases in China, October 2019
2019, 34(11): 956-956. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2019.11.002
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Summary of global surveillance data of infectious diseases in October 2019
Hui Han, Bo Wu, Xiangjuan Li, Yajing Song, Jiaojiao Jia
2019, 34(11): 957-959. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2019.11.003
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In October 2019, a total of 60 infectious diseases were reported globally, affecting 59 countries and regions. Except for influenza, the top five infectious diseases affecting greatest number of countries and regions were dengue fever (27), measles (14), malaria (10), West Nile fever (10) and cholera (9). The top five infectious diseases with highest case fatality rates were Ebola virus disease (66.7%), Middle East respiratory syndrome (34.5%), plague (25.8%), Lassa fever (19.8%) and West Nile fever (10.0%). The top five infectious diseases with greatest number of deaths were dengue fever, cholera, Ebola virus disease, measles and West Nile fever. The prevalent infectious diseases in Africa were Ebola virus disease, plague, cholera, yellow fever and Lassa fever, the prevalent infectious diseases in Asia were dengue fever and Middle East respiratory syndrome, the prevalent infectious diseases in America were dengue fever, the prevalent infectious diseases in Europe were West Nile fever.
Risk assessment of public health emergencies concerned in the mainland of China, November 2019
Yun Li, Jing Yang, Miao Jin, Jinghuan Ren, Wenxiao Tu, Nijuan Xiang, Yanping Zhang
2019, 34(11): 960-962. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2019.11.004
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ObjectiveTo assess the risks of public health emergencies, both the indigenous ones and the imported ones, which might occur in the mainland of China in November 2019.MethodsAn internet based expert counsel was conducted to analyze the surveillance data of public health emergencies and priority communicable diseases in China reported through different channels, and the experts in all provincial centers for disease control and prevention attended this conference through video terminal.ResultsIt is predicted that the incidence of public health emergencies, which might be the epidemics of varicella, seasonal influenza, mumps, other infectious diarrhea and hand foot and mouth disease, would be higher in November than in October 2019, but it might be lower than the average of same month in previous three years. There would be a seasonal increase of the incidence of influenza, and the incidence of infectious diarrhea caused by norovirus would continue to increase. In November, the incidence of non-occupational carbon monoxide poisoning would increase due to heating as the approaching of winter.ConclusionClose attention should be paid to the incidence of non-occupational carbon monoxide poisoning, and general attention should be paid to the public health risks of seasonal influenza and infectious diarrhea caused by norovirus.
Introduction
2019, 34(11): 963-963.
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Establishment and evaluation of a pathogen identification assay based on waste components of MALDI-TOF MS pre-extraction sample preparation
Huifang Zhang, Jie Gong, Binghua Zhang, Jianzhong Zhang, Di Xiao
2019, 34(11): 964-968. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2019.11.005
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ObjectiveTo improve the pathogen identification power, especially the identification of trace pathogen, of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), a new sample adoption assay was established by using the waste components of its pre-extraction sample preparation.MethodsIn this study, 63 freshly cultured pathogen strains (including 23 strains of bacteria and 40 strains of fungi) were used. After ethanol/formic acid extraction of protein of the pathogen strains, the waste sediment was used to smear the sample target, then the MALDI-TOF MS data collection and analysis were conducted after the combination with the matrix. The identification power for the pathogens was compared with conventional analysis components.ResultsUsing the conventional ethanol/formic acid assay, 50 strains (79.37%) were identified at species level, 10 strains (15.87%) were identified at genus level and 3 strains (4.76%) were not identified. Using precipitation smear assay, 49 strains (77.78%) were identified at species level, 14 strains (22.22%) were identified at genus level. Under the same collection condition, the data collection ability of precipitation smear assay was slightly better than that of conventional assay, and there was no statistical difference in the number of mass spectra peaks obtained by two methods under the same signal-to-noise ratio.ConclusionIn this study, a new pathogen identification assay based on waste components of MALDI-TOF MS pre-extraction sample preparation was established. Two samples can be obtained in one experiment, maximizing the use of sample resources. This method can improve the identification power of MALDI-TOF MS for pathogens, especially for single colony pathogen, providing us a new way for the enhancement of high-throughput and rapid identification of pathogens by mass spectrometry.
Genetic differentiation of Candida krusei based on matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry
Jie Gong, Shenxi Zhang, Huifang Zhang, Meng Xiao, Lihua He, Fei Zhao, Yingchun Xu, Jianzhong Zhang, Di Xiao
2019, 34(11): 969-973. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2019.11.006
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ObjectiveTo identify the genetic differentiation characteristics of Candida krusei at the level of protein and establish different lineage identification methods based on matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS).MethodsMALDI-TOF MS coupled to ClinProTools was used to discover MALDI-TOF MS biomarker peaks and establish a classification model based on a genetic algorithm (GA) to differentiate the different lineages of C. krusei. Twenty strains of C. krusei were used to establish an analysis model, and 25 strains of were used for the validation.ResultsFor the GA typing model using 20 strains of C. krusei, the recognition capability (RC) value, which reflects the model’s ability to correctly identify its component spectra was 100%, and the cross-validation (CV) value, which reflects the ability of the model to handle variability among the test spectra was 97.89% and the classification power value of the validation model for 25 C. krusei strains and 150 mass spectrums was 95.30%. This model contained 13 biomarker peaks (m/z 3 971.40, 3 136.95, 3 427.33, 2 405.28, 2 996.73, 2 913.95, 3 376.97, 6 736.13, 5 819.03, 4 045.16, 5 869.00, 3 618.10 and 3 946.14) and can be used to correctly identify different lineages of C. krusei.ConclusionThis study demonstrated not only the population genetic differentiation of C. krusei from the peptide level, but also confirmed the existence of this event, and more importantly, a simple and effective rapid lineage typing method was established in this study.
Progress in research of antibiotic resistance of pathogens based on MALDI-TOF MS
Wentao Yang, Jianzhong Zhang, Di Xiao
2019, 34(11): 974-979. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2019.11.007
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As a microorganism identification system, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been developed as a mature technique system. MALDI-TOF MS has shown great potential in the field of pathogen resistance analysis due to its simplicity, rapidity, cost-effectiveness, high throughput, high sensitivity and specificity. In addition to the wide use in bacterial identification, the researches on antibiotic resistance of pathogens based on MALDI-TOF MS have made great progress in recent years. This paper summarizes the progress in research of the application of MALDI-TOF MS in pathogen antibiotic resistance analysis from qualitative and quantitative perspectives and descripts the application prospect of this technique.
Evaluation of the clinical application of MALDI-TOF MS with directly smeared target in rapid identification of filamentous fungi
Gui Zhang, Liyun Wang, Mei Wang, Haitong Gu, Xinxin Lu
2019, 34(11): 980-986. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2019.11.008
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ObjectiveTo evaluate the clinical application of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) with directly smeared target (MS direct smear method) in the rapid identification of filamentous fungi.MethodsA study was performed on 133 strains of filamentous fungi cultured from clinical samples in Beijing Tongren Hospital affiliated to Capital Medical University from January 2010 to December 2017, and these strains were identified by morphological observation, gene sequence analysis and MS direct smear method, respectively. The results were analyzed and compared. χ2 test was performed in the enumeration data analysis by using software SPSS 16.0.ResultsBased on the results of 133 strains of filamentous fungi identified by gene sequence analysis and morphological observation, the identification rates of species, complex and genera of the filamentous fungi strains by MS direct smear method were 64.66%, 79.70% and 96.24%, respectively, while the rates obtained by gene sequence analysis were 69.17%, 83.46% and 99.25%, respectively, and then the rates by morphological identification were 68.42%, 84.21% and 93.23%, respectively. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in the identification rates of the species, complexes and genera between MS direct smear method and latter two methods (χ2=0.611, 0.625, 2.728, respectively, and χ2=0.516, 0.915, 1.206, respectively, P>0.05). MS direct smear method identified 61.04%, 88.31% and 98.70% of the 77 strains of Aspergillus, respectively, at species, complex and genera levels, 64.29% and 92.86% of the 14 strains of Penicillium at species and genera levels, and 71.43% and 92.86% of 42 other filamentous fungi strains at species and genera levels. Five strains (3.76%, 5/133) were not identified due to the insufficient species of fungi in the database.ConclusionMALDI-TOF MS with directly smeared target can accurately identify clinical filamentous fungi with similar results to morphological observation and gene sequence analysis. It is the test which is rapid, easy and simple to handle for use in clinical practice.
Epidemiological characteristics of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium isolated from diarrhea patients in Shunyi, Beijing, 2013–2018
Guoqiang Ji, Ying Li, Hongmei Ma, Songjian Zhang
2019, 34(11): 987-993. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2019.11.009
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ObjectiveTo analyze the epidemiological characteristics of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium isolated from diarrhea patients in Shunyi district of Beijing during 2013–2018, and provide evidence for the effective prevention and control of diarrhea.MethodsIsolated Salmonella strains were from stool samples of diarrhea patients in surveillance project in Shunyi from 2013–2018. Serotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were conducted for the isolated strains of S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium, and χ2 test was conducted for the analyses on the population distribution and clinical symptoms of S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium infections.ResultsThe overall isolation rate of Salmonella was 5.63% (109/1 936), and the constituent ratios of S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium were 32.73% (36/110) and 28.18% (31/110). The isolation rates of S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium were 1.85% and 1.60% respectively, the latter's fluctuation range was significantly larger than the former, and the isolation rates of the two pathogens showed an annual one fall but another one rise trend. Two detection peaks were found for S. Enteritidis, i.e. during April - May and during September - October, and three detection peaks of S. Typhimurium were in April, July and September. The isolation rate of S. Typhimurium was higher in the western part of Shunyi (2.49%) than in other parts of Shunyi. PFGE pattern of S. Enteritidis showed two banding clusters in a short time, and PFGE pattern of S. Typhimurium showed six banding clusters in a short time.ConclusionS. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium spread had certain epidemiological characteristics in diarrhea cases in Shunyi, the serotype level analysis is more conducive to discover potential outbreaks, and the epidemiological investigation of " sporadic outbreaks” should be carried out to provide evidence for the effective prevention and control of Salmonella infection.
Spread and evolution of influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 virus in Hubei, 2015–2019
Bin Fang, Hui Xu, Xiao Yu, Xiang Li, Guojun Ye, Linlin Liu
2019, 34(11): 994-1000. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2019.11.010
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ObjectiveTo understand spread, phylogenetic characteristics, epitope and drug-resistance site of influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 virus in Hubei province during 2015–2019.MethodsThe spread period of the virus were divided according to the positive rate of influenza virus nucleic acid detection downloaded from influenza surveillance information system in China. Sequencing of 39 strains of influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 virus isolated from the positive samples in real-time fluorescence PCR in Hubei during 2015–2019 was conducted and 13 sequences of the strains isolated from Hubei were downloaded from global influenza database to analyze the distribution of phylogenetic clade, epitope and drug-resistant mutation sites by using bioinformatics software and simulate the structure of mutation sites by 3D modeling.ResultsThe annual spread of influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 virus lasted for 11–14 weeks in Hubei from 2015 to 2019, and the spread intensity increased year by year. Multiple branches of 6B.1A to 6B.1A7 evolved from 6B clade in phylogenetic tree of the HA and NA genes. Twelve epitope substitutions of HA and two drug-resistance sites of NA were detected, and there were obvious differences in D222G substitution virulence identifying marker and drug-resistance site I223V on homology in 3D modeling structure.ConclusionThe spread intensity and phylogenetic clade number of influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 virus increased In Hubei during 2015–2019. Sporadic virulence marker and drug-resistance site were detected for influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 virus. The results of this analysis can be used to improve the epidemiological research and genetic evolution surveillance of influenza virus in Hubei.
Virological surveillance for poliomyelitis in Shanxi, 2014–2018
Jianfang Yang, Hong Li, Na Li, Binzhi Ren, Shuangli Zhu
2019, 34(11): 1001-1004. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2019.11.011
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ObjectiveTo analyze and evaluate result of virological surveillance for poliomyelitis in Shanxi province from 2014 to 2018.MethodsAccording to the 4th edition of the polio laboratory manual for virus isolation and identification of World Health Organization, the virological surveillance for poliomyelitis was conducted in the acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases and contacts in Shanxi during this period, the detection results of stool samples from the AFP cases and contacts were analyzed. The isolated L20B positive strains were identified through intra-typic differentiation. The nucleotide sequencing and analyzing of the capsid protein VP1 coding region of poliovirus were performed by National Polio Laboratory, National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).ResultsDuring 2014–2018, Polio Laboratory of Shanxi CDC tested 2 042 stool samples of 927 AFP cases and contacts. A total of 21 poliovirus strains were isolated with the isolation rate of 1.03%, in which 11 were Sabin like strains. 9 were highly variant vaccine strains and 1 was vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) strain. A total of 103 non-polio enterovirus strains were isolated with the isolation rate of 5.04%.ConclusionThe AFP surveillance system of Shanxi is sensitive. During 2014–2018, no wild poliovirus were found from the stool samples of AFP cases and contacts in Shanxi. The polio-free status was kept in Shanxi.
Clinical and molecular epidemiological characteristics of hand foot and mouth disease caused by Coxsackievirus A6 in Ninghai, Zhejiang, 2018
Zhifang Kong, Hongxia Ni, Bin Yang, Lei Xie, Dan Zhang, Xiaoying Wang, Haibin Zhang, Lili Hu, Baoxiang Ge, Wei Chen, Fan Wang
2019, 34(11): 1005-1009. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2019.11.012
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ObjectiveTo understand the clinical characteristics of hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD) caused by Coxsackievirus A6 (Cox A6) in Ninghai county of Zhejiang province and discuss its prevention and control strategies and measures.MethodsThe information about HFMD in Ninghai in 2018 were obtained from the National Disease Surveillance Information System, and the stool samples and/or pharynx swabs were collected from the outpatients and inpatients of HFMD in the First Hospital of Ninghai for the detection of enteroviruses and nucleic acid typing by fluorescence RT-PCR. VP1 total length gene amplification, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of Cox A6 positive samples were further studied by RT-PCR.ResultsA total of 635 cases were enterovirus nucleic acid positive, the positive rate was 75.42%, among them, 412 were CV-A6 positive (64.88 %) and 223 were non-Cox A6 positive (35.12 %). The clinical manifestations of Cox A6 positive cases and non-Cox A6 positive cases were compared. There were significant differences in age, fever and heat range, distribution of rash, incidence of herpes and large herpes, skin pain and itching, desquamation and pigmentation, as well as nail separation rate in 16 weeks follow-up between Cox A6 positive cases and non-Cox A6 positive cases. Sequence analysis showed that the Cox A6 viruses detected in Ninghai in 2018 belonged to D3 gene subgroups and D3.2 clade.ConclusionIn 2018, Cox A6 virus D3 gene subgroup spread in Ninghai, the infection cases were clinically characterized by fever and herpes pharyngitis, followed by severe skin mucosa reaction. The rash was distributed more widely in Cox A6 cases than in non-Cox A6 cases. Nail separation was mainly caused by the attack of Cox A6.
Etiologic and epidemiologic characteristics of diarrheogenic Escherichia coli in diarrhea patients in Maanshan, Anhui, 2014–2018
Li Wang, Ying Hong, Jin Chen, Rong Wang, Ying Luo, Jian Chen, Yong Sun, Wanfu Hu, Bin Su, Daoli Chen
2019, 34(11): 1010-1016. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2019.11.013
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ObjectiveTo investigate infection status, virulence genes, antibiotic resistance and molecular types of diarrheogenic Escherichia coli (DEC) in diarrhea patients in Maanshan of Anhui province and provide scientific basis for the prevention and control of DEC infection.MethodsThe stool samples were collected from outpatients with acute diarrhea in three sentinel hospitals in Maanshan during 2014–2018 for DEC isolation, identification and virulence genes detection, and drug susceptibility test and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were conducted for the positive strains.ResultsAmong 1 711 stool samples of diarrhea cases, 120 were DEC positive, and 123 DEC strains were isolated. The positive rate was 7.01% (120/1 711). The DEC positive cases were mainly infants aged 0-5 years and young adults aged 20–39 years. The cases mainly occurred in summer (June-August). Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) were the main types of DEC, accounting for 58.54% and 31.71%, respectively. Drug susceptibility test of 123 DEC strains showed that extended-spectrum beta-lactamase strains were resistant to more than 6 antibiotics. PFGE results of 123 DEC strains showed 119 banding patterns, which were relatively dispersed, and the similarity of banding patterns was 49.7%–97.7%.ConclusionFrom 2014 to 2018, DEC infections in diarrhea patients in Maanshan were mainly caused by ETEC and EPEC. The age and seasonal distributions of the infection cases was obvious. The antibiotic resistance of DEC strains was serious. The PFGE molecular bands of the strains were dispersed. The non-rational use of antibiotics should be controlled, and more attention should be paid to epidemic risk of ETEC or EPEC infections.
Characteristics of heterosexual behaviors and associated factors in men who have sex with men in Taizhou, Zhejiang, 2018
Zhen Zhang, Jing Li, Lingjuan Chen, Xiaohui Xu, Shanling Wang, Yuanyuan Xu, Xiaoxiao Chen
2019, 34(11): 1017-1021. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2019.11.014
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ObjectiveTo explore the characteristics of heterosexual behaviors and associated factors in men who have sex with men (MSM) in Taizhou of Zhejiang province, and provide references for further health education about AIDS in MSM.MethodsQuestionnaire survey was carried out in MSM who had anal or oral homosexual behaviors from April to August in 2018 in Taizhou to obtain the information about their heterosexual behaviors in terms of demographic or sexual behavior characteristics and HIV, syphilis and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection rates. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was carried out to explore associated factors of heterosexual behaviors in MSM.ResultsA total of 400 MSM were included for analysis. Among them 45.0% (180/400) were married, 46.7% (187/400) thought they were bisexual in sex orientation, 32.8% (131/400) had heterosexual behaviors and 67.2% (269/400) had no heterosexual behaviors within six months. The infection rates of HIV, syphilis and HCV were 10.3% (41/400), 6.0% (24/400) and 0.8% (3/400), respectively. There were no significant differences in infection rates between MSM with heterosexual behaviors and MSM without heterosexual behaviors (all P>0.05). In those who had both heterosexual behaviors and homosexual anal intercourses within six months, the rates of never using condom in each heterosexual activity and using no condom in the last heterosexual behavior were higher than those in homosexual anal intercourse behaviors (50.5% and 4.0%, 58.6% and 18.2%). The multivariate logistic regression analysis results showed that associated factors of heterosexual behaviors in MSM were being married and bisexual orientation. ConclusionThe HIV infection rate was high in MSM in Taizhou. The condom use rate was lower in MSM who have heterosexual behaviors. MSM who were married and bisexual in sex orientation were more likely to have heterosexual behaviors. Intervention should be strengthened and safe sexual behavior using condom should be promoted in MSM who were married and bisexual in sex orientation
Investigation of the status of Bartonella infection among rodents in Jianchuan county of Yunnan, 2017
Shanshan Dong, Yanping Li, Cunjuan Duan, Ying Guo, Liyuan Shi, Youhong Zhong, Dongmei Li, Peng Wang
2019, 34(11): 1022-1025. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2019.11.015
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ObjectiveNatural Bartonella infection in myomorph rodents was investigated in Jianchuan county of Yunnan province.MethodsMyomorph rodents were captured through cage trapping. Their femoral arterial bloods were collected with aseptic technique for DNA extraction. Fluorescent quantitative PCR was used for Bartonella detection. The positive blood samples were kept for Bartonella isolation and culture.ResultsA total of 372 myomorph rodents were captured from Shilong village, Shaxi township and Ximen community, Jinhua township of Jianchuan county. According to fluorescent quantitative PCR detection results, 208 animals were positive, the positive rate was 55.91%, of the 11 myomorph species, 10 were detected to be positive. The positive rate was 38.73% in Eothenomys miletus, 72.49% in Apodemus chevrieri, 7.14% in Tupaia belangeri, 77.78% in Apodemus draco, 50.00% in Callosciurus erythraeus, 50.00% in Niviventer confucianus, 50.00% in Rattus norvegicus and 100.00% in Rattus nitidus and Micromys minutus respectively. After the isolation and culture of the positive samples, 19 strains of Bartonella were obtained.ConclusionTaqMan probe fluorescent PCR is a rapid diagnostion method for the detection of Bartonella infection. Bartonella infection rate was high in Myomorph rodents in Jianchuan. The infection were detected in multi myomorph species, and Apodemus chevrieri and Eothenomys miletus were mainly affected. There is risk for human infection through contact with myomorph rodents in the wild.
Application of Excel to realize maximum spatial scanning scale screening of spatial scan statistics based on MCS-P
Tian Liu, Yang Wu, Yeqing Tong, Qi Chen, Li Qi, Menglei Yao, Jigui Huang, Shuqiong Huang
2019, 34(11): 1026-1030. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2019.11.016
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ObjectiveTo evaluate the feasibility of application of Excel to realize the maximum spatial scanning scale screening of spatial scan statistics based on MCS-P.MethodsBased on the incidence data of hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in Hubei province in 2016, the parameters of the maximum spatial scan scale were set to 1%, 2%, 3%... 50% of the total population of Hubei. The parameter evaluation index MCS-P was calculated by Excel software. The optimal parameter was the largest MCS-P value, which was used to detect the spatial clustering of HFMD in Hubei in 2016.ResultsHFMD cases were reported in 102 counties (districts) in Hubei in 2016, with the incidence rates ranging from 17.92/100 000 to 898.69/100 000. When the maximum spatial scan scale was 3% of the total population of Hubei, MCS-P was 0.869, which was the maximum value in the results. Spatial clustering analysis was carried out with the optimal parameter. A total of 29 clusters were detected, which were distributed in 41 counties (districts) mainly in the northern and southeastern parts of Hubei.ConclusionExcel can be used to realize the maximum spatial scanning scale screening of spatial scan statistics based on MCS-P, which has some application value.
Investigation of Haemophilus and its antibiotic susceptibility analysis in Suizhou, Hubei
Fei He, Fu Nie, Yating Zhang, Jing Lyu, Hongmei Yang, Guoming Li, Bingqing Zhu, Zhujun Shao
2019, 34(11): 1031-1035. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2019.11.017
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ObjectiveTo investigative the antibiotic susceptibility of common Haemophilus in healthy population in Suizhou of Hubei province.MethodsIn 2011 and 2016, the throat swabs of healthy population in Suizhou were collected for Haemophilus isolation and culture, slide agglutination test and fluorescence PCR were conducted to identify the serotype and genotype of Haemophilus. Disk diffusion method (K-B method) was used to detect the antibiotic susceptibility of Haemophilus in vitro.ResultThe positive detection rates of Haemophilus, Hemophilus hemolyticus and Haemophilus parainfluenzae in 2011 and 2016 were 11.90%, 4.76%,2.86% and 14.76%, 13.81%, 3.33%, respectively. The sensitivity rates of Haemophilus to ampicillin, cefaclor, cefixime, azithromycin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ciprofloxacin and meropenem were 35.71%, 57.14%, 83.93%, 83.93%, 87.50%, 96.43% and 96.43% respectively; the sensitivity rates of H. hemolyticus to these antibiotics were 41.03%, 56.41%, 94.87%, 94.87%, 76.92%, 97.44% and 92.31% respectively and the sensitivity rates of H. parainfluenzae to these antibiotics were 53.85%, 76.92%, 84.62%, 100%, 76.92%, 53.85% and 76.92%, respectively. The sensitivity rates of Haemophilus and H. parainfluenzae to meropenem (P=0.015) and ciprofloxacin (P<0.001) showed significant differences. However, the sensitivity rates to other five antibiotics exhibited no significant differences (P>0.05). Compared with the Haemophilus isolated in 2011, the isolates of 2016 showed an obvious decrease in sensitivity to ampicillin (P=0.025), cefaclor (P=0.044), cefixime (P=0.027) and azithromycin (P=0.003). The sensitivity to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (P=0.045) and azithromycin (P=0.013) of H. hemolyticus showed significant decreases. The sensitivity rates of H. parainfluenzae to the 7 antibiotics showed no significant differences.ConclusionThe sensitivity of Haemophilus varied with its species. Over time, the sensitivity of Haemophilus showed obvious decreases to some antibiotics.
Incidence trend of injury death in residents in Ningbo, 2004–2018
Yinchao Zhu, Yong Wang, Hui Li
2019, 34(11): 1036-1040. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2019.11.018
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ObjectiveTo analyze the incidence level and trend of injury death in the residents in Ningbo of Zhejiang province.MethodsThe incidence data of injury-related deaths in Ningbo during 2004–2018, collected through the death registry system in Ningbo, were analyzed by using linear regression models to understand the epidemiological characteristics of injury death in total population and the following major 4 subgroups: urban males, urban females, rural males and rural females.ResultsThe annual standardized injury mortality rate decreased significantly from 48.47/100 000 person-years in 2004 to 26.81/100 000 person-years in 2018 in total population (β=−0.039, P<0.01). The average male to female ratio of annual standardized injury mortality rate was 1.74, with a significant decrease (β=−0.021, P<0.01). And the average rural to urban ratio of annual standardized injury mortality rate was 1.38, with no obvious change (β=−0.010, P=0.131). And the mean age of injury death cases increased significantly from 54 years old in 2004 to 80 years old in 2018 (β=1.861, P<0.01). The standardized mortality rates of motor vehicle traffic accident and drowning dropped and fall increased in all the 4 sub-groups. The standardized mortality rates of poisoning and suicide declined only in rural residents.ConclusionThough the injury mortality rate was in decline in Ningbo in recent years, the age of injury death cases was in increase. The difference in injury mortality still existed between urban area and rural area, but the gender specific difference became smaller. It is necessary to take target prevention and control measures in populations at high risks for motor vehicle traffic accident, fall, drowning and suicide.
Trends in meeting physical activity guidelines among urban and rural dwelling adults — United States, 2008–2017
Fuzhe Gong, Zhenyu Gong
2019, 34(11): 1041-1042. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2019.11.019
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CN 11-2928/R

ISSN 1003-9961

Established in:1986 , Monthly

Responsible Institution:National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China

Sponsor: Editorial Board of Disease Surveillance,National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention,Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention

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