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2019年7月中国甲乙丙类传染病疫情动态简介National Data of Class A, B and C Communicable Disease in July 2019
Accepted Manuscript , DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2019.08.001
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Spread and characteristics of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Lishui, Zhejiang, 2014–2018
Xiuying Chen, Jianhua Mei, Shabin Chen, Fuming Liu, Xialiang Ye
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ObjectiveTo investigate the spread, serotype, virulence gene and molecular typing characteristics of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Lishui of Zhejiang province and provide evidence for the prevention of foodborne diseases.MethodsA total of 11420 stool samples of clinical diarrhea patients in foodborne disease surveillance and 497 food samples in food safety risk surveillance were collected in Lishui from 2014 to 2018 for the isolation and culture of V. parahaemolyticus, and the distribution characteristics of positive strains were analyzed. Serological typing, virulence gene detection and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) for molecular typing were performed for the strains.ResultsA total of 296 strains of V. parahaemolyticus were isolated, in which 251 were from diarrhea patients and 45 were from foods. V. parahaemolyticus was mainly detected during July-September, The cases were mainly adults and most of them usually dined at home. O3:K6 was the main serotype and tdh+trh-tlh+ was the virulence genotype detected in patients. O2 was the main serotype and tdh-trh-tlh+ was the virulence genotype detected in foods. Forty eight strains of V. parahaemolyticus could be classified into 42 PFGE banding patterns, and the banding pattern similarity values were from 6.16% to 100%.ConclusionIt is necessary to strengthen the health supervision for V. parahaemolyticus infection and health education about having a good dining habit and improving the household cooking process of aquatic products during July-September. The genetic similarity of the V. parahaemolyticus strains spreading in Lishui was low and polyclonal sources might exist. Serotype O3:K6 was mainly detected in patients, and O2 was mainly in foods.
2019年7月中国甲乙丙类传染病疫情动态概要
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Analysis on sentinel surveillance quality of influenza and influencing factors for influenza virus nucleic acid detection in Jingzhou, Hubei
Tian Liu, Xijun Weng, Lijie Zhang, Menglei Yao, Jigui Huang, Maoyi Chen, Jie Hu
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ObjectiveTo evaluate the surveillance quality of influenza and influencing factors for influenza virus nucleic acid detection in two influenza sentinel hospitals in Jingzhou of Hubei province, and provide evidence for the improvement of the quality of influenza surveillance.MethodsThe surveillance data of influenza-like illness (ILI) and pathogens from two influenza sentinel hospitals (hospital A and hospital B) in Jingzhou from 2010 to 2018 were collected from the China Influenza Surveillance Information System,. ILI case proportion (ILI rate) and nucleic acid positive rate of ILI cases were used to evaluate the surveillance quality. Factors such as hospital, case sex, season, interval between onset and sampling, interval between sampling and detection were used as independent variables. Pathogen test result of ILI case was used as dependent variables, and the influencing factors was analyzed by two-category Logistic regression.ResultsThe ILI rates of hospital A and hospital B were 2.34% and 1.34%, respectively, and the difference was significant (χ2=3096.26, P=0.000). The influenza virus nucleic acid positive rates of hospital A and hospital B were 13.63% and 14.84%, respectively, and the difference was significant (χ2=4.69, P=0.030). The change trends of ILI rate and nucleic acid positive rate of the two sentinel hospitals were consistent (rs=0.568, P=0.000; rs=0.824, P=0.000). Hospital A and Hospital B had consistent change trends of ILI rate and nucleic acid positive rate (rs=0.306, P=0.026; rs=0.477, P=0.000). Logistic regression results showed that sentinel hospital (OR=1.15, 95% CI: 1.05 ~ 1.26) and season (OR=3.19, 95% CI: 2.88 ~ 3.52) were associated with the positive rate of influenza virus nucleic acid detection. ConclusionThe overall performance of influenza sentinel surveillance was well in Jingzhou. There were differences in ILI rate and positive rate of influenza virus nucleic acid detection between two influenza sentinel hospitals. Sentinel hospital and season were the main factors affecting the positive rate of influenza virus nucleic acid detection.
Analysis on drug resistance of pulmonary tuberculosis cases in Ningbo, Zhejiang, 2017
Tong Chen, Tianchi Yang, Xiang Lin, Sijia Wang, Guohua Ping, Yang Che, Lyu Lin, Mei Yu
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ObjectiveTo evaluate the levels and patterns of drug resistance in initially treated smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients in Ningbo, and provide scientific evidence for the prevention and control of drug-resistant TB.MethodsSputum samples of 1 434 initially treated smear-negative pulmonary TB patients enrolled from March to December 2017 were isolated by liquid culture method. Strain identification and drug susceptibility tests were performed for all culture positive samples with proportion method.ResultsA total of 387 sputum samples from the 1 434 enrolled pulmonary TB patients were culture positive, in which 60 were non-tuberculosis mycobacterium positive. Eight six of 327 pulmonary TB cases were drug-resistant, the overall drug-resistance rate was 27.04%, with the highest resistance rate to isoniazid (17.92%, 57/86), and the lowest drug-resistance rate to rifampicin (5.35%, 17/86). The resistance rate to rifampicin in pulmonary TB patients with cavitation was significantly higher than that in those without cavitation (χ2=5.319, P<0.05).ConclusionThe drug resistance in initially treated smear-negative pulmonary TB cases was relatively severe in Ningbo. Further efforts should be made to expand drug susceptibility test coverage to find drug-resistant patients timely and improve the treatment and management of pulmonary TB cases.
Analysis on molecular characteristics and drug resistance of Aeromonas from environmental Sources in Ma'anshan, Anhui
Yonglu Wang, Zhenzhou Huang, Li Wang, Rong Wang, Hang Dai, Hongyan Cai, Xiaoli Du, Duochun Wang
Accepted Manuscript
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ObjectiveTo understand the epidemiological characteristics, virulence gene characteristics and drug resistance of Aeromonas from environmental sources in Ma’anshan of Anhui province.MethodsFrom January to December, 2017, Aeromonas strains isolated from seawater products, packaged foods, domestic water, swimming pool water and food poisoning samples in Ma'anshan were detected. The species of Aeromonas were identified through housekeeping gene rpoD sequence analysis. PCR was used to detect six virulence genes (Fla, Elastase, hlyA, ast, act and ASCF-G), the molecular types of the strains were detected by using pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and drug susceptibility test of the strains was also conducted.ResultsA total of 66 Aeromonas strains were isolated from 869 samples (7.6%), and the isolated rates were higher in rural domestic water, food poisoning samples and seafood products respectively. Sixty-six strains of Aeromonas belonged to seven species, mainly including A. veronii (24, 36.4%), A. hydrophila (13, 19.7%) and A. jandaei (13, 19.7%) respectively. 64 strains of Aeromonas (97.0%) carried one or more virulence genes, with the highest detection rate of Fla and act (53.1%), Fla was mainly detected in A. caviae (83.3%) and act was mainly detected in A. hydrophila (69.2%). Sixty six strains of Aeromonas were divided into 64 PFGE types, indicating the diversity of molecular biotypes. Drug susceptibility test showed that Aeromonas was sensitive to seven antibiotics including cefotetan, and partially sensitive to five antibiotics (1.5%–21.2%) such as cefazolin, and highly resistant to ampicillin and ampicillin/sulbactam (94.0%).ConclusionThe contamination of Aeromonas, which carries multiple virulence genes and has high resistances to several antibiotics, is severe in Maanshan. It is necessary to strengthen the surveillance for Aeromonas and its drug resistance.
Isolation of two rare Shewanella spp. from specimens of patients in Liaocheng
Shengnan Liang, Xiangkun Jiang, Yinju Du, Pu Zhou, Li Liu, Lihong Cheng, Duochun Wang
Accepted Manuscript
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ObjectiveTo identify the isolates of Shewanella spp. from two patient specimens in Liaocheng and explore the biochemical characteristics and drug susceptibility of the Shewanella spp.MethodsTwo specimens from the two patients and other 6 Shewanella spp. strains revived were cultured by using selective medium, and biochemical test, hemolytic test, salt-resistant and heat-resistant tests, drug-resistance test were conducted for the strains. API and VITEK 2 Compact, VITEK MS systems were used for the identification of the strains, 16S rRNA and gyrB sequence analyses were conducted.ResultsThe morphology and biochemical characteristics of 8 strains were consistent, the hemolytic state was different. The clinical identification system could only identified Shewanella putrefaciens and Shewanella algae. Two strains isolated from the patients were further identified as rare Shewanella haliotis and Shewanella upenei through 16S rRNA and gyrB gene sequence analyses.ConclusionIt was the first time to isolate rare Shewanella spp. from clinical cases in China. Further attention needs to be paid to clinical infection caused by Shewanella and the surveillance should be strengthened.
Analysis on surveillance for pathogen spectrum of infectious diarrhea in Tongzhou district of Beijing, 2016–2018
Ping Zhang, Haoliang Yang, Bojun Zhen, Xiang Gao, Fengling Zhao, Jie Gao, Yang Zhang, Zhaohui Li, Duochun Wang, Jinglin Zhou
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ObjectiveTo understand the bacterial pathogen spectrum of infectious diarrhea in Tongzhou district of Beijing from 2016 to 2018, and provide evidence for the prevention and control of bacterial infectious diarrhea.MethodsStool samples were collected from intestinal outpatient diarrhea patients of two sentinel hospitals of Tongzhou district for detection of related pathogenic bacteria. The molecular biology identification of Salmonella, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and diarrheagenic Escherichia coli was carried out according to serotype and virulence gene, and the epidemic characteristics were analyzed.ResultsA total of 298 strains of pathogenic bacteria were isolated from 1 269 stool samples with a detection rate of 23.48%. The detection rates of pathogenic bacteria in different age groups were statistically significant (χ2=33.584, P<0.001). Among the positive strains, diarrheagenic E. coli was predominant (140/298, 46.98%), mainly including EAEC and ETEC, followed by V. parahaemolyticus (73/298, 24.50%) and Salmonella (58/298, 19.46%). The seasonality of bacteria spread was obvious, mainly in summer and autumn. The major Salmonella serotype were S. Enteritis and S. Typhimurium. The serotype of V. parahaemolyticus was mainly O3:K6.ConclusionFrom 2016 to 2018, pathogenic bacteria of infectious diarrhea in Tongzhou district were mainly diarrheagenic E. coli, V. parahaemolyticus and Salmonella were also the common pathogens of infectious diarrhea. It is necessary to strengthen the routine surveillance for pathogens of infectious diarrhea and health education in population at high risk, and risk factor investigation and prevention and control should be further strengthened.
Characteristics of phenotype and molecular type of Vibrio cholerae O1 in Beijing, 2018
Hanqiu Yan, Fu Li, Bing Lyu, Ying Huang, Xin Zhang, Lei Jia, Haijian Zhou, Mei Qu, Quanyi Wang
Accepted Manuscript
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ObjectiveTo understand the characteristics of the phenotype and molecular type of Vibrio cholerae O1 in Beijing in 2018.MethodsThe strains of V. cholerae were isolated from cholera cases and external environments. Serotyping was performed for the strains with routine identification methods, and V. cholerae toxin gene were detected by using real-time PCR. The sensitivities of the strains to 21 kinds of antibiotics was conducted with micro-broth dilution method. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with Xba Ⅰ and Not Ⅰ restriction enzymes was performed for the molecular typing of V. cholerae O1 strains.ResultsIn 29 V. cholerae O1 strains isolated, the proportions of non-toxin producing Ogawa strains, non-toxin producing Inaba strains and toxin producing Ogawa strains were 62.07% (18/29), 24.14% (7/29) and 13.79% (4/29) respectively. The resistance rate of the strains to cefazolin was highest (82.76%), all the strains were sensitivity to meropenem (100.00%). Twenty eight strains were drug resistant with 9 drug resistance types, the highest was resistant to 13 antibiotics; there were 13 resistance categories to 11 classes of antibiotics, the highest was resistant to 7 classes of antibiotics. Results from PFGE indicated that the 29 V. cholerae strains were classified into 16 molecular types.ConclusionV. cholerae O1 was mainly non-toxic in Beijing, and multi drug resistance of V. cholerae O1was severe. The results of PFGE molecular typing suggested that the attention should be paid to food safety, especially to strengthen the monitoring of aquatic products.
Correlation between atmospheric particulate matter pollution and number of patients admitted to hospital due to unstable angina in Taiyuan, Shanxi
Dianying Lu, Hai Jiang, Junfeng Zhang, Xiaofang Qiao, Jin Shang, Juanjuan He, Junni Wei
Accepted Manuscript
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ObjectiveTo investigate the effect of atmospheric particulate matter pollution on the number of patients admitted to hospital due to unstable angina (UA).MethodsThe number of hospitalized patients with UA from December 1, 2013 to August 31, 2016 was collected, as well as meteorological surveillance data during the same period. Based on the control of long-term trends, meteorological factors, holidays and the effects of the day of the week, a semi-parametric generalized additive model was constructed to analyze the relationship between atmospheric particulate matter (including PM10 and PM2.5) and the number of hospitalized patients with UA.ResultsAfter one day lag, as the PM10 increased by 10μg/m3, the number of UA patients admitted to hospital increased by 1.0%(95% CI: 0.6%-1.3%), and as the PM2.5 increased by 10μg/m3, the number of UA patients admitted to hospital increased by1.5%(95% CI: 0.9%-2.0%). Two pollutant models were constructed by using particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) and ozone (lag one day). The results of PM10 pollutant model was statistically significant after the substitution of O3, and the RR value increased (P<0.05). For PM2.5, the results were statistically significant after the substitution of O3, and the RR value increased (P<0.05).ConclusionAtmospheric particulate matter can cause an increase in the number of hospitalizations due to UA.
2019年全球鼠疫疫情概况
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Summary of global surveillance data of infectious diseases in July 2019
Hui Han, Bo Wu, Yajing Song, Runqi Huang
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In July 2019, a total of 57 infectious diseases were reported globally, affecting 108 countries and regions. Except for influenza, the top five infectious diseases affecting greatest number of countries and regions were measles (56), dengue fever(32),Chikungunya fever(16),cholera(11) and malaria(7). The top three infectious diseases with highest case fatality rates were Ebola hemorrhagic fever (67.2%), Middle East respiratory syndrome (34.5%) and Lassa fever (22.5%). The top five infectious diseases with greatest number of deaths were Ebola hemorrhagic fever, dengue fever, cholera, measles and Lassa fever. The prevalent infectious diseases in Africa were Ebola hemorrhagic fever, cholera, yellow fever and Lassa fever, the prevalent infectious diseases in Asia were Middle East respiratory syndrome and dengue fever, the prevalent infectious diseases in America and Europe were dengue fever and measles.
Progress in research of Orientia tsutsugamushi and its host and vector
Yunyan Luo, Jiaxiang Yin
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Orientia tsutsugamushi is a Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacterium and the causative agent of human scrub typhus, which is transmitted by mites. In recent years, with the rise of tourism and outdoor sports, human contact with mites has increased, and the possibility of scrub typhus outbreak exists. Orientia tsutsugamushi is the only pathogen of scrub typhus. Fully understanding of the morphological structure, genotype, pathogenic mechanism, host and vector of Orientia tsutsugamushi plays an important role in the prevention and control of scrub typhus and vaccine development. This paper summarizes the progress in research of Orientia tsutsugamushi and its host and vectors.
Influence of two dose immunization schedule of varicella vaccine on epidemiological characteristics of varicella in Taizhou
Yafei Hu, Haijiang Lin, Wei Li
Accepted Manuscript
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ObjectiveTo understand the epidemiological characteristics of varicella in Taizhou after the implementation of two dose immunization schedule of varicella vaccine.MethodsThe incidence data of varicella in Taizhou from 2011 to 2017 were collected, the epidemiological characteristics of varicella cases were analyzed by descriptive epidemiology.ResultsA total of 16 895 cases of varicella were reported in Taizhou from 2011 to 2017 with an average annual reported incidence of 40.02/100 000. The highest incidence was 55.81/100 000 in 2015 and the lowest was 26.24/100 000 in 2011. The incidence of varicella increased from 2011 to 2015, and decreased during 2016-2017 after the implementation of two dose immunization schedule of varicella vaccine. The highest annual reported incidence was 103.77/100 000 in Tiantai county and the lowest was 17.46/100 000 in Yuhuan county. After the implementation of two dose immunization schedule of varicella vaccine, the vaccination rate increased, and there were no obvious changes in the sex ratio, seasonal distribution and age distribution of varicella cases. The incidence rate of increased in age group over 10 years and decreased in age group 0-9 years.ConclusionThe rising trend of varicella incidence in Taizhou was eased and the incidence in vaccinated population decreased after the implementation of two dose immunization schedule of varicella vaccine, but the proportion of varicella cases in non-vaccinated population aged ≥10 years increased. It is necessary to continue the two dose immunization schedule of varicella vaccine.
Influence of daily mean temperature on incidence of hand foot and mouth disease in Jingzhou, Hubei
Tian Liu, Xijun Weng, Lijie Zhang, Menlei Yao, Jigui Huang, Qinqin Xu, Yang Wu, Qi Chen, Yeqing Tong
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ObjectiveTo discuss the 1ag effects of daily mean temperature on incidence of hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in Jingzhou of Hubei province.MethodsThe data of daily cases of HFMD in Jingzhou from 2010 to 2017 were collected, and local meteorological data during the same period were collected too. Spearman correlation test was used to analyze the relationship between the meteorological factors and the daily case number of HFMD, and the distributed lag non-linear model was used to analyze the relationship between the daily mean temperature and the daily case number of HFMD. The temperature of 18.18 ℃ was used as reference for the estimation of RRs at different temperature (P25, P50, P95). The delayed and cumulative effects of daily mean temperature on daily case number of HFMD were also assessed.ResultsA total of 48591 cases were reported in Jingzhou from 2010 to 2017. The daily mean case number of HFMD was related to daily average temperature, daily precipitation, daily average pressure, daily relative humidity and wind speed. An inverse U-shaped relationship was found consistently between daily mean temperature and the daily case number of HFMD, and the maximum value of effect at 18.19 ℃ was 2.67 (95% CI: 2.12 ~ 3.37). When the temperature was set to 9.76 ℃ (P25), 18.35 ℃ (P50) and 30.96 ℃ (P95), the lag effect time of the significant positive influence (RR>1.00) on daily case number of HFMD was 6 ~ 19 d, 6 ~ 21 d and 0 d respectively. The 1ag effect was highest on lag 0-14 d, and the RR values of HFMD was 1.11(95% CI: 1.04 ~ 1.19), 1.56(95% CI:1.31 ~ 1.86), 2.67, (95% CI: 2.12 ~ 3.37), 1.58 (95% CI: 1.19 ~ 2.10) for 5.17 ℃(P10), 9.76 ℃(P25), 18.35 ℃(P50) and 25.21 ℃(P95) respectively.ConclusionAverage temperature had significant influence on the risk of HFMD in Jingzhou. High temperature and low temperature could reduce the risk of HFMD, and the influence on the daily case number of HFMD was nonlinear and lagging.
Risk assessment of public health emergencies concerned in the mainland of China, August 2019
Wenxiao Tu, Di Mu, Zhaorui Chang, Xiaoye Wang, Jinghuan Ren, Dan Li, Yuan Yuan, Ling Meng, Nijuan Xiang, Zhongjie Li
Accepted Manuscript
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ObjectiveTo assess the risks of public health emergencies, both the indigenous ones and imported ones, which might occur in the mainland of China in August 2019.MethodsAn internet based expert counsel was conducted to analyze the surveillance data of public health emergencies and priority communicable diseases in China reported through different channels, and the experts in all the provincial centers for disease control and prevention attended this meeting through video terminal.ResultsIt is predicted that the number of public health emergencies reported in August would be similar to that in July, which would be at a low level of whole year. The local transmissions of dengue fever in Guangdong, Yunnan and other provinces would continue, and some of these transmissions might develop into larger scale outbreaks. Attention should be paid to the prevention and control of nosocomial outbreak of echovirus 11 in neonates, especially in premature infants. The incidences of food poisoning and heatstroke would be at the peaks of the year. The risks of waterborne, foodborne and vector-borne communicable diseases might increase after flood disasters predicted by meteorological department. The risk of bee stings will increase from August in some provinces. The epidemic of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) will continue, but the risk of the spread to China is low.ConclusionIn August 2019, there is no special concern about risk of public health emergencies in the mainland of China. Close attention should be paid to the risk of local transmission of dengue fever, and general attention should be paid to the public health risks of echovirus infection cluster, food poisoning, heat stroke, flood related illness, bee stings and EVD in DRC.
Analysis on etiological surveillance results of other infectious diarrhea in Zhuzhou, Hunan, 2015–2018
Qizhi Long, Li He, Shixiong Hu, Lidong Gao, Junhua Li
Corrected proof
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ObjectiveTo study the epidemiological characteristics and pathogen spectrum of other infectious diarrhea in Zhuzhou, Hunan province, from 2015 to 2018.MethodsThe relevant information were collected from diarrhea cases diagnosed in sentinel hospitals from May 2015 to November 2018. Stool samples were collected for the detection of intestinal pathogenic bacteria and viral nucleic acid detections.ResultsA total of 580 samples of diarrhea cases were collected and detected.Bacterial infection cases accounted for 30.17%, and the Salmonella was the major pathogen in bacterial infection, followed by Campylobacter jejuni and Diarrheogenic Escherichia coli. Viral infection cases accounted for 37.07%, rotavirus A was the predominant pathogen in viral infection, followed by norovirus GⅡ. The detection rate of virus was higher than those of bacterium in all age groups. The cases were mainly children aged under 5 years old (82.59%, 479/580). The seasonality was obvious with detection peaks in autumn and winter. The main pathogen causing infectious diarrhea was Salmonella in summer. Most cases occurred in autumn were caused by norovirus, while most cases occurred in winter and spring were caused by rotavirus. The gender specific pathogen spectrums were similar. The detection rates in rural area (bacterium 31.63%, virus 41.83%) was higher than those in urban area (bacterium 29.88%, virus 36.09%).ConclusionThe viral infection rate was higher than bacterial infection rate in other infectious diarrhea cases in Zhuzhou, while rotavirus A, Salmonella, and norovirus GⅡwere the main pathogens causing other infectious diarrhea in Zhuzhou.
Progress in research of early diagnosis of blood-borne pathogens
Xiaoli Chen, Xiaoping Chen, Jinxing Lu
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Blood borne pathogen infection often occurs in hospitalized patients with high mortality rate, the early and rapid identification of pathogens and appropriate antimicrobial treatment are the key measures to reduce the mortality. Blood culture is the gold standard in the diagnosis of blood borne pathogen infection, blood culture, however, is not only time-consuming but also non-sensitive with low positive rate. Molecular biology method can greatly reduce diagnosis time, improve the sensitivity and specificity of diagnosis and provide reliable evidence for the rational clinical drug use and accurate treatment, which can greatly improve the patient's survival rate. This paper summarizes the progress in the research of molecular biology methods for the diagnosis of blood-borne pathogens, including nucleic acid hybridization technique, nucleic acid amplification technique, fluorescence real-time quantitative PCR, DNA microarray and MALDI-TOF-MS.
Epidemiological characteristics of infectious diseases in children in child care settings in Huairou district of Beijing, 2008–2017
Juntao Chen, Liping Wang, Liwen Sun
Corrected proof
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Objective To understand the epidemiological characteristics of infectious diseases reported in children in child care settings in Huairou district of Beijing from 2008 to 2017 and provide scientific evidence for the effective prevention and control of infectious diseases in children in child care settings and development of long-term prevention and control strategies of infectious diseases in child care settings. Methods Descriptive epidemiological method was used to analyze the incidence of infectious diseases in children in child care settings in Huairou from 2008 to 2017 by using the dada collected from Infectious Disease Reporting Information Management System and local CDC of Huairou. Results A total of 3 414 cases of 11 infectious diseases were reported in children in child care settings in Huairou from 2008 to 2017. The average annual reported incidence was 4 157.63/100 000, which was higher than the average level in China. No deaths caused by infectious diseases were reported. The annual reported incidence fluctuated, but the overall incidence showed a downward trend. The top five reported diseases were hand foot and mouth disease(HFMD), influenza, other infectious diarrhea, varicella and mumps, accounting for 95.08% of the total reported cases. The first 3 townships reporting high incidences were Huairou, Beifang and Yanqi in urban-rural fringe. Conclusion Although the reported incidence of infectious diseases in child care settings in Huairou declined significantly in recent ten years, children in child care settings are still at high risk for infectious diseases. HFMD and influenza are the main infectious diseases affecting the health of children in child care settings. In urban-rural fringe with high incidence of infectious diseases, where the population structure is complex and more private child care settings exit, the supervision and health education about infectious disease prevention and control should be strengthened.
Spatial-temporal distribution characteristics of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Jingzhou, Hubei, 2005–2017
Menglei Yao, Tian Liu, Jigui Huang, Xiaopei Nie, Tianyan Li, yang Wu
Corrected proof
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ObjectiveTo analyze the spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Jingzhou, Hubei province from 2005 to 2017 and provide reference for the development of HFRS prevention and control strategies.MethodsThe incidence data of HFRS were collected from Infectious Disease Reporting Information System in China, and the annual statistical analysis was conducted by using the data from March to next February. Spatial autocorrelation analysis and space-time scan statistics were applied to analyze the incidence of HFRS in Jingzhou from March 2005 to February 2018 to describe the spatial and temporal clustering characteristics.ResultsFrom 2005 to 2017, a total of 551 cases of HFRS were reported in Jingzhou. The annual incidence rate showed an increasing trend (rs =0.901, P<0.05). The incidence rate increased rapidly from 2016 to 2017. Spring and autumn-winter were the incidence peak seasons, and more than one subtypes of HFRS were detected in Jingzhou. The results of spatial and temporal scanning (upper limit of 15% population) showed that high incidence clustering areas were in the north of the Yangtze river from November 2011 to February 2018, including urban area of Shashi city, Jiangling and Jianli counties (29 streets and townships were involved). And 12 townships in Honghu city were added in the high risk clustering area list after December 2016.ConclusionFrom 2005 to 2017, a new round of HFRS epidemic with increasing incidence occurred in Jingzhou, the key prevention and control areas were Jiangling, Shashi, Jianli and Honghu.
Epidemiological investigation of a case of human infection with Streptococcus suis serotype 14
Songjian Xiao, Yi Zhou, Chudong Zhang, Yanmei Fang, Huitao Huang
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In September 2018, a case of human infection with Streptococcus suis serotype 14 was reported in Zhuhai, Guangdong province. The patient and one co-exposed person showed clinical manifestations of meningitis, arthritis and permanent deafness. One week before illness they had no contacts with sick or dead pigs, but ate pork every day. According to the investigation, the patient might be infected due to damaged oral mucosa.
An investigation of Norovirus gastroenteritis outbreak in a scenic spot caused by well water contamination
Shujun Ye, Qiucui Qin, Yu Huang, Zhi Li, Chunhua Lu
Corrected proof
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From 25 September to October 1, 2017, an outbreak of Norovirus gastroenteritis occurred in Huangyao ancient town scenic spot in Hezhou of Guangxi zhuang autonomous region. A total of 104 cases were reported. The epidemiological investigation indicated that the outbreak was caused by well water contamination. After taking the measures such as stopping well water use, disinfection and case isolation, the outbreak was effectively controlled. It is suggested to improve sewage facilities, improve the management of drinking water and food hygiene and strengthen health education.
Epidemiological and etiological characteristics of hand-foot-mouth disease in reservoir and non-reservoir areas of three gorges area in China, 2009–2016
Han Li, Jing Zhang, Zhaorui Chang
Corrected proof
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Objective To understand the epidemiological and pathogenic characteristics of hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) and influence factors in the reservoir area and non-reservoir area in three gorges area, and provide evidence for the development of prevention and control strategies of HFMD. Methods The HFMD surveillance data in these areas from 2009 to 2016 were collected from National Notifiable Infectious Disease Reporting Information System for a descriptive epidemiologic analysis, the results in reservoir area and non-reservoir area were compared. Results From 2009 to 2016, the average annual morbidity rate of HFMD was 145.66/100 000, the proportion of severe cases was 0.19%, and the reported case fatality rate was 0.045% in reservoir area. The average annual morbidity rate of HFMD was 78.42/100 000, the proportion of severe cases was 0.28%, and the reported fatality rate was 0.05% in non-reservoir area. The reported morbidity rate of HFMD in reservoir area was higher than that in non-reservoir area. The proportion of severe cases in reservoir area was lower than that in non-reservoir area (χ2=28.732, P<0.01). There was no significant difference in reported case fatality rate between reservoir area and non-reservoir area (χ2=0.876, P=0.349). The pathogen causing severe cases was mainly EV71 (79.17%) in reservoir area, while the pathogen causing severe cases were mainly EV71 (47.37%) and other enterovirus (35.34%) in non-reservoir area. Other enteroviruses (37.83%) were more common in mild cases in reservoir area, while EV71 (41.19%) was more common in mild cases in non-reservoir area too. Conclusion From 2009 to 2016, the reported morbidity rate of HFMD in reservoir area was higher than that in non-reservoir area in three gorges area, but the severe case rate in the reservoir area was lower than that in the non-reservoir area. The cases were mainly children aged ≤3 years in both reservoir and non-reservoir areas. There was difference in pathogen condtituent of HFMD between reservoir area and non-reservoir area. It is suggested that the prevention and control of HFMD should be focused on the pathogen changes, and EV71 vaccination and comprehensive measures should be taken to protect the population at high risk to reduce the overall incidence of HFMD in three gorges area.
Epidemiological characteristics and temporal-spatial clustering analysis on severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome in Jinan, 2013–2018
Shang Gao, Xiaodong Zhao, Yaru Ren, Xiaolin Jiang, Caiyun Chang
Accepted Manuscript
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ObjectiveTo analyze the epidemiological characteristics and temporal-spatial clustering of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) in Jinan of Shandong province, and provide scientific evidence for SFTS prevention and control.MethodsThe data of SFTS cases in Jinan during 2013—2018 were downloaded from National Notifiable Infectious Disease Reporting System of China, and comprehensive analysis on the epidemiological characteristics of SFTS was conducted by using descriptive epidemiological methods and spatial-temporal scan statistics method.ResultsA total of 385 SFTS cases, including 49 deaths, were reported in Jinan from 2013 to 2018. The average case fatality rate was 12.73%.The cases mainly occurred between April and October with the incidence peak in August. The cases over 50 years old accounted for 90.13% and farmers accounted for 90.91% of the total cases, respectively. The male-female ratio of the cases was 1.07∶1.The top three high-incidence areas were Zhangqiu, Licheng and Changqing, the cases in these areas accounted for 83.12% of the total. Spatial-temporal clustering analysis detected three clusters (one first-class cluster, two second-class clusters) and one suspected cluster with the characteristics of significant spatial-temporal clustering.ConclusionThe incidence of SFTS had spatial-temporal clustering in Jinan during 2013—2018. According to the spatial and temporal distribution and epidemiological characteristics of SFTS, prevention and control measures, such as health education, surveillance and staff training, should be carried out in key populations in areas with high incidences.
Analysis on surveillance results of avian influenza virus in external environment in Quzhou, Zhejiang, 2013–2018
Shiteng Huang, Ruijun Yang, Lei Lyu, Xufu Chen, Sheng Wan
Accepted Manuscript
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ObjectiveTo understand the distribution of avian influenza virus in the external environment in Quzhou, Zhejiang province, from 2013 to 2018, and provide scientific evidence for the prevention and control of human infection with avian influenza virus.MethodThe external environmental samples were collected from different surveillance sites of Quzhou for the nucleic acid detection of avian influenza viruses by using real-time RT PCR during 2013—2018, and the results were used for statistical analysis.ResultsA total of 5290 environmental samples were collected from 2013 to 2018, in which 1809 were positive for avian influenza A virus (34.20%), The subtype identification showed that H9 and unspecific type were main subtypes, the positive rate were 44.50% and 29.13% respectively. The positive rate was highest in Kaihua county (54.85%) and lowest in Longyou county (17.25%).The detection rate in live poultry markets was highest (45.94%) in 5 types of places, and the detection rate in surface swabs of chopping boards for slaughtering or placing poultry products was highest (58.96%) in 6 types of samples. The positive rates were significantly higher during January-March (38.06%) and during October-December (37.23%). There were significant differences in time, area, place and sample type specific distributions of avian influenza viruses (all P<0.001).ConclusionsThere were different subtypes and mixed types of avian influenza virus contamination in the environment in Quzhou. It is important to strengthen the surveillance for avian influenza virus in environment and take comprehensive prevention and control measures to reduce the risk of human infection with avian influenza virus.
Epidemiological characteristics of hand foot and mouth disease cases caused by enterovirus 71 in Guangzhou, 2013–2017
Chun Chen, Huaping Xie, Hui Wang, Jinmei Geng, Ying Lu, Dahu Wang, Meixia Li, Tiegang Li
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ObjectiveTo understand the epidemiological characteristics of hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD) cases caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71) in Guangzhou from 2013 to 2017.MethodsThe incidence data of HFMD cases caused by EV71 were collected from 5 sentinel hospitals in Guangzhou, including severe and fatal cases and outbreaks of HFMD, the estimation formula was defined, and χ2 test was used for the data comparison.ResultsFrom 2013 to 2017, severe cases and fatal cases in Guangzhou accounted for 53.85% and 100.00%, respectively, in EV71 caused HFMD cases. The positive rate of EV71 in mild HFMD cases from sentinel hospitals was 12.21%. The highest estimated incidence rate of EV71 infection was in 2014 (134.36/100 000). The annual incidence peak was during April-June. The incidence was higher in age group below 5 years old, especially in children aged 1–3 years. However, severe and fatal cases mostly occurred in infants aged 0–1 year.ConclusionIn Guangzhou, EV71 was the most important pathogen causing severe and fatal cases of HFMD. Medical institutions should focus on the early identification and treatment of EV71 caused severe cases of HFMD, especially in children aged 1–3 years.
Analysis on etiological surveillance results of infectious diarrhea in Wuxi, Jiangsu, 2014–2018
Hongxia Guan, Dan Sha, Weihong Feng, Qianqian Qi, Yong Xiao
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ObjectiveTo understand the pathogen spectrum and epidemiological characteristics of infectious diarrhea in Wuxi from 2014 to 2018.MethodsFrom January 2014 to December 2018, stool samples were collected from 3 408 outpatients with diarrhea in sentinel hospitals in Wuxi. Salmonella, Shigella, Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli and Vibrio parahaemolyticus were isolated by conventional culture, and the nucleic acid of norovirus, rotavirus, enteric adenovirus, astrovirus and sapovirus were detected with real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR.ResultsA total of 946 positive samples, including 65 multi pathogen positive samples, were detected in 3 408 stool samples with the positive rate of 27.76%. Among the positive samples, 529 were bacteria positive with the positive rate of 15.52%. The isolation rate of Diarrheagenic E. coli was highest (6.60%), followed by Salmonella (5.11%), V. parahaemolyticus (4.05%) and Shigella (0.32%). The diseases mainly occurred in summer. And among the positive samples, 460 were virus positive with the positive rate of 13.50%. The positive detection rates of norovirus (8.92%) and rotavirus (3.29%), which mainly spread in winter and spring, ranked 1-2. The positive rates of pathogens were different in different age groups. The infection rate of rotavirus in children under 5 years old was significantly higher than those in other age groups.ConclusionThe main pathogens causing infectious diarrhea were Diarrheagenic E. coli, Salmonella, V. parahaemolyticus, norovirus and rotavirus in Wuxi from 2014 to 2018. Bacterial diarrhea dominated in summer and viral diarrhea dominated in winter and spring. For infants and young children under 5 years old and the elderly, it is necessary to take different control measures in different seasons.
Comparison of effectiveness of prevention and control measures for clusters and outbreaks of priority communicable diseases in Hubei, 2017
Danqin Huang, Xuesen Xing, Meihua Chen
Corrected proof
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ObjectiveTo analyze the characteristics of cluster and outbreaks of major acute communicable diseases in Hubei province in 2017 and compare the effectiveness of different prevention and control measures.MethodsAn active surveillance system for clusters or outbreaks of communicable diseases in Hubei was established. Descriptive epidemiological analysis was conducted on the constituent and place distribution of cluster and outbreaks of communicable diseases in Hubei and compare the effectiveness of epidemic control measures by logistic regression analysis.ResultsA total of 1 128 clusters or outbreaks were detected in Hubei in 2017. In clusters, hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD) accounted for highest proportion (46.6%), and in outbreaks, influenza accounted for highest proportion (46.1%). Schools were the main places where the outbreak occurred (95.1%). Univariate Logistic regression analysis showed that the effective cluster control measures included school suspension (OR=0.191, 95% CI: 0.116−0.314), environmental disinfection (OR=0.505, 95% CI: 0.320−0.798) or health education (OR=0.395, 95% CI: 0.230−0.679). Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that the effective outbreak control measures included school suspension (OR=0.187, 95% CI: 0.111−0.314) or health education (OR=0.439, 95% CI: 0.233−0.825).ConclusionThe priority acute communicable diseases detected in clusters or outbreaks in Hubei in 2017 were HFMD, varicella and mumps, which were mainly transmitted through respiratory tract and personal contact. The most effective control measures were school suspension or health education, which should be implemented as early as possible, and other prevention and control measures must also be implemented in parallel.
Prediction of rabies cases in China by using autoregressive moving average model
Yanrong Li, Liling Zhu, Wuyang Zhu, Xiaoyan Tao
Corrected proof
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ObjectiveTo predict the monthly incidence of rabies in the mainland of China by using autoregressive moving average model (ARIMA), and provide reference for the prevention and control of rabies in China.MethodsUsing SPSS 19.0 software, a time series model was established by using the monthly incidence data of rabies in China from January 2007 to December 2016, and the optimal model was validated by the monthly incidence data of rabies from January to December 2017. The optimal model was used to predict the incidence trend and case number of rabies in 2018.ResultsThe optimal model was ARIMA(0,1,1)(2,1,0)12, with a stationary R2=0.539, RMSE=17.653, Ljung-Box Q=8.932, P=0.881. In predicting the data for January-December 2017, the relative error of prediction was 1.55%. A total of 516 rabies cases occurred actually in 2017. It was predicted that the case number of rabies in China would drop to 398 in 2018.ConclusionThe ARIMA(0,1,1)(2,1,0)12 model can well fit the long-term trend and seasonal trend of rabies incidence, and the results of retrograde fitting and short-term prediction are ideal.
Surveillance and drug resistance analysis of non-typhoid Salmonella in Yuyao, Zhejiang, 2014–2018
Shijie Yuan, Jianqun Zhang, Shaojun Huang
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ObjectiveTo understand the spread and drug resistance of non-typhoid Salmonella (NTS) in Yuyao, and provide scientific basis for clinical treatment and prevention of NTS infection.MethodsThe samples of diarrhea patients collected from sentinel hospitals were tested for bacterial enrichment (using selenite brilliant green), isolation, identification, serotyping and drug susceptibility testing from 2014 to 2018.ResultsA total of 299 NTS strains (12.85%) were detected from 2 327 samples of diarrhea patients, and 35 serotypes and 1 unspecified serotype were identified. The first four predominant serotypes were S. 4,5,12:i:-, S. typhimurium, S. Stanley and S. enteritidis. The detection rate of NTS was highest in summer (16.29%) and lowest in winter (2.33%). The infection cases in children aged ≤5 years accounted for 60.54% of the total. Drug susceptibility test showed that NTS had high resistance rates to penicillin and cephalosporin, low resistance rate to ciprofloxacin. And 111 strains were multidrug resistant. The resistance pattern of ACSSuT mainly existed in S.4,5,12:i:- and S. typhimurium strains.ConclusionThe predominant serotypes of NTS were S.4,5,12:i:- and S. typhimurium in Yuyao. Children aged ≤5 years were susceptible to NTS infection, suggesting that it is necessary to strengthen the surveillance in children aged ≤5 years. The multidrug resistance of NTS was serious. It is necessary to have a rational use of antibiotics in clinical practice.
Screening specific genes and virulence genes of Bacillus cereus for its rapid identification and detection
Huijuan Zhang, Enmin Zhang, Jinrong He, Wei Li, Jianchun Wei
Corrected proof
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ObjectiveToscreen the specific genes and virulence genes of Bacillus cereus for its rapid identification and detection. MethodsA total of 329 B. cereus strains isolated from food and soil were used to evaluate the specificity of gyrB and groEL genes for the identification of B. cereus and investigate the distribution of virulence genes with PCR method. The appropriate genes were selected to develop a multiplex PCR assay for rapid detection of B. cereus. ResultsAmong the studied B. cereus and closely related Bacillus strains, gyrB gene was specific for B. cereus except for one B. thuringiensis strain, however, groEL gene was amplified in four species. The carrying rates of six virulence genes of nheA, entFM, bceT, hblC, cytK and ces were 84.19%, 79.64%, 49.24%, 47.72%, 47.11% and 1.52%, respectively. Six genes, gyrB, hblC, nheA, entFM, ces and cytK, were selected. Two multiplex PCR systems, including one duplex PCR (gyrB and cytK) and one quadruple PCR (nheA, hblC, entFM and ces), were optimized.ConclusionThe specific genes and virulence genes of B. cereus screened can be used in the detection of B. cereus in a comprehensive, specific, simple and effective way and have good potential in laboratory detection practice.
Analysis on hepatitis C virus infection status and risk behaviors of drug users in Anhui, 2010–2018
Yuelan Shen, Xiaoli Cheng, Hui Yao, Ping Ai, Xiang Wang, Hongbin Zhu, Xinping Ding, Qin Yue, Bin Su
Corrected proof
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ObjectiveTo understand the hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection status and risk behavior characteristics of drug users in Anhui province, and provide evidence for the establishment of measures to prevent HCV infection in drug users.MethodsQuestionnaire survey and serological test were conducted for drug users in Anhui during 2010–2018, trend test was used to analyze the positive rate of HCV antibody and multivariate logistic regression analysis was done to identify the risk factors for HCV infection.ResultsA total of 18 925 drug users were investigated in Anhui from 2010 to 2018. The aanual positive rate of HCV antibody in drug users were 35.2%, 34.9%, 39.1%, 30.4%, 22.5%, 20.1%, 20.5%, 18.6% and 19.1% respectively (trend χ2=458.635, P<0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that living in community (aOR=1.310, 95% CI: 1.074−1.597), methadone treatment (aOR=3.182, 95% CI: 1.434−7.062), 20− years old (aOR=2.246, 95% CI: 1.134−4.450), 30− years old (aOR=5.283, 95% CI: 2.669−10.458), 40− years old (aOR=7.158, 95% CI: 3.565−14.375) and 50− years old (aOR=3.125, 95% CI: 1.205-8.102), married (aOR=1.708, 95% CI: 1.296−2.252), divorced or widowed (aOR=1.818, 95% CI: 1.354−2.442), history of injecting drug use (aOR=5.370, 95% CI: 4.239−6.804), seldom condom use in commercial sex in the past year (aOR=1.254, 95% CI: 1.037−1.517) and never using condom (aOR=1.282, 95% CI: 1.021−1.610) were high risk factors for HCV infection in drug users.ConclusionThe infection rate of HCV in the drug users in Anhui was high, but showed a downward trend. Therefore, effective measures should be taken to reduce the risk of HCV infection in drug users.
Analysis on serological surveillance results of brucellosis in key populations with occupational exposure in Haidian district, Beijing, 2014–2018
Lifei Shi, Kexin Yin, Lijie Jiao, Yanhang Zhao
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Objective To analysis the serological surveillance result of brucellosis in key populations with occupational exposure in Haidian district of Beijing from 2014 to 2018, understand the infection status of Brucella in key populations with occupational exposure and provide scientific evidence for the prevention and control of brucellosis. Methods In selected area of Haidian district, the breeders of cow or sheep and veterinaries were considered as the populations with occupational exposure to Brucella, The blood samples were collected from them for standard tube agglutination test(SAT) to detect the antibody to Brucella according to Diagnostic Criteria for Brucellosis(WS 269-2007). Software SPSS 22.0 was used for statistical analysis and χ2 test was used as the analysis method. Results A total of 243 serum samples were detected, and 7 serological positive cases without symptoms were detected, the positive rate was 2.88%, there was no significant difference among different years(in Fisher’s exact test, P>0.05). The serum positive rate in breeders was 3.03%; the serum positive rate in people who had contact with cow and sheep was 4.84%, the positive rate was 3.66% in people who had contact only with cow and 1.01% in people who had contact only with sheep. Conclusion The key populations with occupational exposure to Brucella were veterinaries and breeders in Haidian from 2014 to 2018. The main risk animals were cow and sheep. It is necessary to strengthen the health education about prevention and control brucellosis, immunize animals, conduct early detection of infection cases and monitor the epidemic trend for the effective prevention and treatment of brucellosis.
Etiology of paratyphoid A and B outbreaks
Yuxia Liu, Hongye Li, Bingquan Wang, Panlong Gong, Fanka Li
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ObjectiveTo understand the molecular biological characteristics of the pathogens detected in the paratyphoid A and B outbreaks occurred in a school of Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps in 2018, and provide evidence for the identification of the outbreaks.MethodsSeventeen strains were collected from patients in the hospital. The serological subtyping of 17 isolated strains was conducted. The antibiotic susceptibility test of the strains was done by using micro-broth dilution method. The pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns of the strains were analyzed with software BioNumerics 7.6.ResultsAmong the 17 strains, 12 were paratyphoid A strains with antigen 1,2,12∶a∶-, and 5 were paratyphoid B strains with antigen 1,4,12∶b∶1,2. All the strains were sensitive to 14 antibiotics. Cluster analysis of PFGE patterns showed that there were two patterns and the similarity of the two patterns was 59.4%. The same serotype had the same pattern type.ConclusionPFGE plays an important role in the investigation of typhoid and paratyphoid outbreaks.
Epidemiological characteristics of food poisoning in China, July-September, 2018
Jinghuan Ren, Xiaoye Wang, Xiaomin Wu, Rui Wang
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ObjectiveTo understand the epidemiological characteristics of food poisoning in the third quarter (July-September) in 2018 in China (excluding Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan), and provide evidence for the early warning, prevention and control of food poisoning.MethodsDescriptive epidemiological analysis was conducted by using the incidence data of food poisoning in China during July-September in 2018 collected from National Report Management Information System of Public Health Emergency.ResultsA total of 119 food poisoning events were reported in 23 provinces during this period, involving 3 488 cases and 27 deaths. Among them, 64 food poisoning events were grade IV and above, involving 2 643 cases and 27 deaths. The most frequent type of the reported events was bacterial food poisoning (42.02%), the involved cases accounted for 69.29% of the total. Fungal food poisoning caused highest death number of food poisoning, accounting for 55.56% of the total. The numbers of food poisoning events and related deaths occurred in families accounted for 32.77% and 92.59% of the total, respectively. The numbers of food poisoning cases occurred after catering accounted for 51.46% of the total.ConclusionBoth the numbers of food poisoning events and deaths declined, but the food poisoning cases increased during July-September in 2018 compared with the same period in 2017. It is necessary to strengthen the health supervision in key places, such as food service units, especially in school opening season, improve the management and guidance of food procurement, storage, and processing, and health education should be conducted to improve the public awareness of poisonous flora and fauna or poisonous mushroom, as well as knowledge of proper cooking and self and mutual-treatment after poisoning.
Effect of cold treatment on biofilm formation ability of Listeria monocytogenes
Antuo Hu, Ping Wang, Caixia Zhang, Qiuhui Hu, Ying Chen
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ObjectiveTo study the effects of cold treatment on the biofilm formation ability of Listeria monocytogenes from different food sources and different serotypes, and provide evidence for the control of L. monocytogenes in food.MethodsThe biofilm formation ability of L. monocytogenes isolates under 37 ℃, 4 ℃ cold stress and 4 ℃ cold adaptation was determined by crystal violet staining, the analyses on gene sequence and the differences in expression levels of the biofilm formation related genes hpt, luxS and sigB of representative strains were carried out.ResultsAt 37 ℃, the biofilm formation ability of 1/2c serotype L. monocytogenes was stronger, and no strains with weak biofilm formation ability were observed. At 37 ℃, in the strong biofilm formation ability group (3 strains) and middle biofilm formation ability group (10 strains), 9 strains showed non-synonymous mutations in hpt gene. Under cold treatment conditions, among the 5 middle group strains, 1 strain showed high expression level of sigB gene, and 4 strains showed high expression level of hpt gene.ConclusionThe biofilm formation ability of L. monocytogenes is related to serotype. The 1/2c serotype strain has stronger biofilm formation ability at 37 ℃. hpt gene mutant strain has stronger biofilm formation ability at 37 ℃, cold treatment reduces the biofilm formation ability of pathogens but the overexpression of hpt and sigB genes enhances the biofilm formation ability of L. monocytogenes at 4 ℃.
Etiology of meningococcal meningitis cases in infants in Shanxi, 2017
Jiting Han, Hongxia Yang, Yang Wang, Tingting Yang, Qiuxiang Zhang, Suxia Yao, Ruie Hao, Bingqing Zhu
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ObjectiveTo analyze the etiologic characteristics of three meningococcal meningitis cases in infants in Shanxi province in 2017.MethodsEpidemiological data and clinical samples of suspected meningococcal meningitis cases were collected. Cerebrospinal fluid and blood specimens were used for the culture, isolation, identification of Neisseria meningitidis. Serogroup identification of N. meningitidis isolates were confirmed by slide agglutination test with serogroup B antiserum. Multi locus sequence typing (MLST) was used for molecular typing and E-test method was used for antimicrobial resistance test.ResultsThree meningococcal meningitis cases were aged 12 d, 5 months and 8 months, respectively, showing symptoms of purulent meningitis. Three N. meningitidis B strains were isolated, in which two belonged to ST-5664 (Clonal Complex 4821, CC4821) and one belonged to ST-5662 indicated by MLST. All the serogroup B isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and sulfonamides.ConclusionThree meningococcal meningitis cases caused by N. meningitidis B occurred in Shanxi in 2017, the cases were all infants. It was the first time to isolate N. meningitidis B from case specimens in Shanxi, the major sequence type of the strains belonged to CC4821.
Subtypes and transmission characteristics of HIV-1 in men who have sex with men in Lishui, Zhejiang
Ling Ye, Xiaoguang Wang, Jiafeng Zhang, Xiuying Chen, Qin Fan, Bifeng Ye, Ying Cong, Xiaomeng Huang
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ObjectiveTo understand the subtypes and transmission characteristics of HIV-1 in men who have sex with men (MSM) in Lishui of Zhejiang province.MethodsBlood samples were collected from the newly-diagnosed HIV-1 infected MSM who received no antiviral therapy in Lishui during 2015–2018, pol gene was amplified and sequenced, the gene subtypes and transmission characteristics were analyzed by phylogenetic tree construction, at last mutations on drug resistance was analyzed with online software CPR 6.0.ResultsA total of 89 sequences were obtained successfully from 105 samples. The predominant subtypes were CRF01_AE (49.4%, 44/89) and CRF07_BC (37.1%, 33/89), others were B and CRF55_01B detected in 3 cases respectively and CRF08_BC, CRF59_01B and URF(01_AE/BC) detected in 2 cases respectively. Eight transmission clusters were found, with the total clustered rate of 21.3% (19/89). Seven clusters of transmission were associated with the cases who lived in Liandu district (87.5%, 7/8). Three surveillance drug resistance mutations (M46I, V106A, K103N) were found respectively in three samples. The overall rate of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) was 3.4% (3/89).ConclusionThere were 7 HIV-1 subtypes in Lishui, HIV-1 genetic diversity showed complexity trend, and the cases in Liandu district might play a central role in the spread of HIV. It is necessary to strengthen the surveillance and targeted intervention for the cases associated with major transmission clusters. However, the prevalence of TDR was at a low level.
Establishment of real-time PCR assays for rapid detection of Clostridium botulinum type A and B
Ying Huang, Yun Shi, Changyun Ye, Xuefang Xu
Accepted Manuscript
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ObjectiveTo establish real-time PCR assays for the toxin gene detections of Clostridium botulinum type A and B, construct standard curves and evaluate the specificities, sensitivities and detection thresholds of the assays, and provide evidence for the rapid and accurate detection of C. botulinum.MethodsSpecific primers and probes were designed based on the sequences of toxin genes of C. botulinum type A and B. Real-time PCR assays were established with optimized reaction conditions. 25 other intestinal bacteria and common bacteria were used to test the specificities of the assays. Standard curve construction, fecal sample simulation and sensitivity measurement were achieved with recombinant plasmids containing toxin genes of C. botulinum type A and B.ResultsThe specificities of the real-time PCR assays were high. Specific amplification curves were observed in recombinant plasmids containing toxin genes of C. botulinum type A and B. No specific amplifications were found for the 25 other bacteria. The detection thresholds of toxin genes of C. botulinum type A and type B were 5.04×102 copy/μl and 6.91×102 copy/μl respectively according to the amplification curves. The detection thresholds of recombinant plasmids containing toxin genes of C. botulinum type A and B in artificial fecal samples were 1.71×103 copy/μl and 2.14×103 copy/μl respectively.ConclusionIn this study, real -time PCR assays for the toxin gens detections of C. botulinum type A and type B were established, which can be applied in the rapid detection of C. botulinum.
cover
2019, 34(7).
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contents
2019, 34(7): 1-3.
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2019年6月中国甲乙丙类传染病疫情动态简介National Data of Class A, B and C Communicable Disease in June 2019
2019, 34(7): 583-583. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2019.07.001
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Summary of National Data of Class A, B and C Communicable Diseases in China, June 2019
2019, 34(7): 584-584. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2019.07.002
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Summary of global surveillance data of infectious diseases in June 2019
Hui Han, Bo Wu, Yajing Song, Runqi Huang
2019, 34(7): 585-587. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2019.07.003
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In June 2019, a total of 59 infectious diseases were reported globally, affecting 90 countries and regions. Except for influenza, the top five infectious diseases affecting greatest number of countries and regions were dengue fever(42), measles(24), cholera(14), Chikungunya fever(8) and malaria(8). The top three infectious diseases with highest Case Fatality Rates were Ebola hemorrhagic fever(67.2%), Middle East respiratory syndrome(34.5%) and Lassa fever(22.3%). The top five infectious diseases with greatest number of deaths were Ebola hemorrhagic fever, measles, cholera, dengue fever and Lassa fever. The prevalent infectious diseases in Africa were Ebola hemorrhagic fever, cholera, yellow fever and Lassa fever, the prevalent infectious diseases in Asia were cholera, Middle East respiratory syndrome and dengue fever, the prevalent infectious diseases in America and Europe were dengue fever and measles.
Risk assessment of public health emergencies concerned in the mainland of China, July 2019
Ling Meng, Ning Wen, Xiaoxia Huang, Fengfeng Liu, Luzhao Feng, Xiaoye Wang, Zhe Wang, Dan Li, Wenxiao Tu, Nijuan Xiang, Zundong Yin
2019, 34(7): 588-592. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2019.07.004
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ObjectiveTo assess the risk of public health emergencies, both the indigenous ones and the imported ones, which might occur in the mainland of China in July, 2019.MethodsAn internet based expert counsel was conducted to analyze the surveillance data of public health emergencies and priority communicable diseases in China reported through different channels, and the experts in all provincial centers for disease control and prevention attended this conference through video terminal.ResultsGenerally speaking, it is predicted that the incidence of public health emergencies would be lower in July than in June, 2019. A vaccine derived polio virus type Ⅱ (VDPV2) case was identified in Sichuan province, and further spread is possible. It is the high-incidence season of dengue fever in the area where Aedes exists, and indigenous cases would continue to increase, indicating the increased risk of small outbreaks and the possibility of large scale outbreaks in these areas. It is the high incidence season of cholera, and sporadic cases or clusters might occur. The risk of outbreaks of respiratory infection caused by human adenovirus in places with crowds, such as institutions, schools or hospitals and others, still exists. The incidences of food poisoning and heat stroke would continue to be high. The risk of water-borne and food-borne infectious diseases in the areas affected by flood would increase. Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in the Democratic Republic of Congo would continue; however, the risk of spread to China is low.ConclusionClose attention should be paid to the VDPV2 case identified in Sichuan and dengue fever, and general attention should be paid to cholera, human adenovirus caused respiratory infection, food poisoning, heat stroke, natural disaster, such as earthquake and flood, and EVD in the Democratic Republic of Congo and Uganda.
Reverse microbial etiology
Jianguo Xu
2019, 34(7): 593-598. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2019.07.005
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The major challenge of emerging infectious diseases in the future is to timely identify new pathogens. The emerging infectious diseases in future are caused by new microorganisms. However, over 99% bacteria or virus on earth have not been discovered yet. Therefore, we propose a reverse microbial etiology. The main contents include:discovering, isolating and naming new microorganisms; evaluating the potential pathogenicity or public health significance of newly discovered microorganisms; proposing the catalogue or list of the new microorganisms that may cause outbreaks in the future; studying the mechanism, methods, techniques and strategy for detection, diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control; and preventing SARS-like outbreak in future.
Host animal surveillance in plague focus of Marmota sibirica in Hulunbeir plateau, 2009–2018
Dongyan Liu, Yong Wang, Wenyang Zhang, Hongyan Luo, Jianbo Wang
2019, 34(7): 599-603. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2019.07.006
[Abstract](582) [FullText HTML](229) [PDF 1984KB](8) Peer reviewing opinions Related References Cited By (0) Share
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ObjectiveTo analyze host animal surveillance results in plague focus of Marmota sibirica from 2009 to 2018 in inner Mongolia, and provide evidence for the prevention and control of plague.MethodsThe surveillance was conducted according to" National Plague Surveillance Protocol”and enforcement regulation. The plague surveillance results reported by Hulunbeir City Center for Disease Prevention and Control and the data reported through the Information Management System of Plague Prevention and Control in surveillance area from 2009 to 2018 were collected for descriptive epidemiological analysis and rank-sum test.ResultsFrom 2009 to 2018, a total of 6 535 rodents of 11 species, 10 genera, 5 families and 2 orders were captured, i.e. Spermophilus dauricus, Marmota sibirica, Phodopus sungarus, Allactaga sibirica, Meriones unguiculatus, Cricetulus barabensis, Lasiopodomys brandtii, Mus musculus, Ochotona dauurica, Microtus gregalis and Rattus norvegicus. The average density of the main host Marmota sibirica was 0.07/km2, ranging from 0.16/km2 to 0.02/km2. The number of Marmota sibiricas observed or captured in Chenbaerhu banner accounted for 95.80% of the total; The average density of Spermophilus dauricus was 0.50/km2 and the difference in its density among different areas was significant (χ2=10.380, P=0.006). The flea infection rate was 29.61% and the body flea index was 1.06. Eleven plague positive serum samples of Spermophilus dauricus were detected in Xinbaerhuyou banner of Manzhouli with highest titer of 1∶1 280.ConclusionThe overall density of Marmota sibiricas in Hulunbuir is kept at a low level. Spermophilus dauricus has become the predominant rodent specie which carries high titer plague antibody, suggesting that there is an epidemic of animal plague and it is necessary to strengthen the surveillance and control of animal and human plague.
Epidemiological survey of Helicobacter pylori infection in Tibetan population in Gangcha of Qinghai, 2017–2018
Weishan Wang, Yimei Feng, Xia Zhang, Mao Cuo, Caideng Jin, Bo Gao, Na Zhang, Chengping Zhao, Aihong Kang
2019, 34(7): 604-608. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2019.07.007
[Abstract](677) [FullText HTML](256) [PDF 1988KB](17) Peer reviewing opinions Related References Cited By (0) Share
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ObjectiveTo analyze the current status of Helicobacter pylori infection and related factors in Tibetan population in Gangcha county, a high altitude area on the north bank of Qinghai Lake, in Qinghai and provide evidence for the prevention and treatment of H. pylori infection in Tibetan population in plateau areas of China.MethodsFrom August 2017 to November 2018, a total of 2 103 Tibetans were randomly sampled in Gangcha for an epidemiological survey according to the protocol developed by the National Helicobacter pylori Research Cooperative Group. The H. pylori infection was detected by using 14C urea breath test.ResultsAmong 2 103 Tibetans, the HP infection rate was 74.13%, and the infection rates of H. pylori in men and women were 75.76% and 72.59%, respectively, The difference was not significant (χ2=2.744, P=0.054). The infection rate of H. pylori was highest in age group 20–39 years (78.32%). The infection rate was low in the townships which were close to the county town and have good sanitation and transportation conditions. In the remote areas far from the county town, the infection rate of H. pylori was high in herdsmen and those with low family income and low education level. The higher the education level was, the lower the infection rate of H. pylori was (χ2=364.351, P<0.05). Herdsmen had the highest infection rate of H. pylori (76.25% (1 191/1 562). The lower the family income was, the higher the infection rate of H. pylori was (χ2=6.659, P<0.05). The H. pylori also had a high infection rate in families.ConclusionThe infection rate of H. pylori in Tibetans in Gangcha was higher than the national natural infection rate during 2017–2018. Herdsmen were at high risk for H. pylori infection. Good dietary habits and socio-economic conditions might reduce the infection rate of H. pylori.
Spatial-temporal distribution of hepatitis B in Gannan Tibetan autonomous prefecture of Gansu, 2012–2017
Weimin Lyu, Kongfu Wei, Pinggui Wang, Yu'an Ma
2019, 34(7): 609-613. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2019.07.008
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ObjectiveTo analyze the spatial-temporal distribution of hepatitis B in Gannan Tibetan autonomous prefecture of Gansu province and provide evidence for the prevention and control of hepatitis B.MethodsThe incidence data of hepatitis B in Gannan from 2012 to 2017 was used to calculate the global Moran’s I and local G statistics and analyze its spatial-temporal distribution characteristics.ResultsThe incidence of hepatitis B showed spatial autocorrelation(P<0.05)from 2012 to 2017, and local autocorrelation analysis indicated that the hot spots areas identified were mainly in some townships of Xiahe, Luqu, Maqu, Zhuoni and Hezuo, while the cold spots areas were mainly in some townships of Zhouqu, Diebu, Zhuoni, Lintan and Hezuo. Spatial-temporal analysis showed that the most likely clustering areas of incidence of hepatitis B were in some townships of Xiahe during 2012–2014 (RR=3.50, LLR=219.24, P<0.001) and some townships in Luqu in 2016 (RR=6.91, LLR=198.61, P<0.001), followed by some townships of Lintan and Zhuoni during 2012–2013 (RR=1.79, LLR=70.41, P<0.001).ConclusionThe incidence of hepatitis B showed spatial and spatial-temporal clustering in Gannan from 2012 to 2017. Targeted prevention and control measures should be taken according to the spatial distribution of the disease.
Genomic context of a Proteus mirabilis strain carrying both SGI1 and SXT/R391 resistance genomic islands
Tao Xiao, Binghuai Lu, Hang Dai, Hongyan Cai, Zhenzhou Huang, Duochun Wang
2019, 34(7): 614-620. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2019.07.009
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ObjectiveTo characterize the gene structure and resistance genes of two resistance-related genomic islands (SGI1 and SXT/R391) of a Proteus mirabilis strain (CA151922) isolated from a patient.MethodsPolymerase chain reaction (PCR) was conducted to detect the specific integrase gene of SGI1 and SXT/R391, respectively. Next-generation sequencing was performed for the strain CA151922. The contigs of SGI1 and SXT/R391 were extracted and assembled from the whole sequenced genomes against each reference. Online predicting and annotating open reading frames (ORFs) were conducted. Each sequence was used in a BLASTn tool to obtain high homology variants in public database. Non-redundant homologous gene set was identified by cd-hit, a cluster of homologous tree was built by using R 3.4.4. Resistance phenotype was detected with micro-broth dilution method.ResultsProteus mirabilis strain CA151922 carried two resistance-related genomic islands, i.e. SGI1 (SGI1-B) and SXT/R391 (ICEPmiJpn1). Compared with known variants of SGI1-B and ICEPmiJpn1, the sequence identity ranged from 97% to 99% and from 96% to 99%, respectively. Compared with each classic sequence, different resistance gene(s) were found, however, SGI1-B and ICEPmiJpn1 harbored different β-lactamase genes. Strain CA151922 was multi-drug resistant to eighteen antibiotics, only ampicillin and sulfonamides were related to the resistance genes on genomic islands, which suggested that resistance phenotype were not all encoded by genes at genomic island.ConclusionBoth SGI1 and SXT/R391 resistance-related genomic islands were identified for the first time in a strain of P. mirabilis, which increased the complexity and severity of drug resistance. Surveillance for resistance-related genomic islands in multi-drug resistant strains should be strengthened.
Epidemiological survey of the first case of pregnant women infection with avian influenza A (H9N2) virus in Shenzhen
Feng Liu, Gang Li, Fengren Liu, Guolong Yu
2019, 34(7): 621-625. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2019.07.010
[Abstract](946) [FullText HTML](360) [PDF 1901KB](24) Peer reviewing opinions Related References Cited By (0) Share
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ObjectiveTo identify the possible infection source of the first case of pregnant woman infection with avian influenza A (H9N2) virus reported in Longgang district of Shenzhen and provide evidence for the prevention and control of human infection with H9N2 virus in the future.MethodsEpidemiological data of the case were collected systematically using field epidemiology method and the samples of case, close contacts and exposure environments were collected from 2017 to 2018. Influenza A virus was detected by using antigen test. The detection and subtyping of avian influenza virus were conducted with fluorescence quantitative PCR. The data was analyzed by using software Excel 2019.ResultsThe throat swabs of the case was detected to be H9N2 virus nucleic acid positive and the case was diagnosed as the first pregnant women infection with H9N2 virus in Shenzhen. Eight close contacts showed no influenza -like symptoms during the medical observation period, and the influenza antigen and avian influenza nucleic acid tests were all negative. In 2017, the daily environment surveillance results showed that the positive rate of H9 virus subtype was 14.49%, The H9 virus subtype positive samples accounted for 62.69% in total universal influenza A virus positive samples. A total of 103 environmental samples were collected in the epidemic, in which 15 were universal influenza A virus positive and 9 were influenza A virus subtype H9 positive.ConclusionThe infection source might be a pigeon farm, but the exposure to poultry products in daily life could not be excluded. Avian influenza virus contamination still exists in the environment of poultry markets in Shenzhen, suggesting that the population at high risk still might be exposed in epidemic season. It is necessary to pay attention to this problem.
Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of hospitalized influenza patients, Beijing, 2016–2018
Yi Zhang, Yang Pan, Jiachen Zhao, Daitao Zhang, Chunna Ma, Peng Yang, Quanyi Wang
2019, 34(7): 626-629. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2019.07.011
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ObjectiveTo understand the epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of laboratory-confirmed influenza A and B cases in hospitalized patients with severe acute respiratory infection (SARI), and explore the association between illness severity and influenza type.MethodsDescriptive epidemiologic analysis was conducted on the data of laboratory-confirmed influenza cases detected through SARI sentinel surveillance in Beijing from August 2016 to July 2018. Influenza patients were regarded as severe cases if they needed invasive mechanical ventilation, or received ICU treatment, or died during hospitalization; or else they were regarded as mild cases. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to explore the association between type/subtype of influenza and illness severity.ResultsAmong 746 hospitalized influenza patients, 42.4%(316/746) were cases ≥60 years old and 33.8%(252/746) were <5 years old. 598 were infected with influenza A virus (80.2%) and 148 were infected with influenza B virus (19.8%). Six patients needed invasive mechanical ventilation (0.8%, 6/746), 17 patients needed intensive care (2.9%, 17/746) and 4 patients died during hospitalization (0.5%, 4/746). Influenza A patients had 1.3 times hider risk to have severe clinical course compared with influenza B patients (OR=1.3, 95% CI: 0.4–4.7, P=0.655). Compared with patients with influenza B/Yamagata virus infection, patients infected with influenza A(H1N1) pdm09 virus had 2.1 times higher risk to have severe clinical course (OR=2.1, 95% CI: 0.5–8.5, P=0.295).ConclusionThe hospitalized influenza patients were mostly the elderly and young children. Further studies are needed to confirm whether the clinical severity of influenza A is worse than that of influenza B.
Measles antibody level in healthy population in Dali Bai autonomous prefecture, Yunnan, 2012–2018
Yanjun Liu, Zuo He, Ran Xu, Fang Guan
2019, 34(7): 630-633. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2019.07.012
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ObjectiveTo understand the measles antibody level in healthy population in Dali Bai autonomous prefecture of Yunnan province during 2012−2018 and provide scientific evidence for the elimination of measles.MethodsBlood samples were collected annually from healthy populations in 8 age groups selected through stratified random sampling, a total of 28 459 blood samples were collected. Serum measles IgG was detected by using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).ResultsThe differences in annual positive rate of measles IgG in healthy population were significant. The positive rate was lowest in 2016 (89.6%) and highest in 2013 (97.3%). The positive rate was >90% in other years. The differences in the positive rate were significant among different age groups (P<0.05). The positive rate was lower in age groups 8−17 months and 25−34 years. There were significant differences in the positive rate and antibody geometric mean concentration (GMC) among people receiving different doses of measles containing vaccine (P<0.05). The GMC was highest in people receiving 3 doses of measles vaccination (1 921.1 mIU/ml).ConclusionThe immunity barrier has been basically formed in Dali, the possibility of measles outbreak is low, but close attention should be paid to the potential risk of measles in adults. It is necessary to conduct supplementary immunization activity in order to increase population antibody level and reduce the incidence of measles.
Spatial-temporal distribution characteristics of hand, foot and mouth disease in Jingzhou, Hubei, 2008–2017
Menglei Yao, Tian Liu, Li Wang, Shuqiong Huang, Jing Cai, Wenwen Yang, Ran Wu
2019, 34(7): 634-639. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2019.07.013
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ObjectiveTo analyze the spatial-temporal distribution characteristics of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in Jingzhou, Hubei province, from 2008 to 2017, and provide evidence for the prevention and control of HFMD.MethodsThe global and local autocorrelation analyses on the spatiotemporal clustering of the incidence data of HFMD at street/township scale in Jinzhou during this period were performed by using software ArcGIS 10, and the spatiotemporal clustering analysis on the incidence data of HFMD was performed by using software SaTScan 9.4.ResultsA total of 53 159 cases were reported in Jingzhou from 2008 to 2017, with an average annual incidence rate of 91.59/100 000. Spatial autocorrelation analysis showed that the incidence rate of HFMD had positive spatial correlation. The incidence rate of HFMD had obvious spatiotemporal clustering characteristics, the main clustering area was found in the central urban area of Jingzhou and adjacent counties and townships.ConclusionUnderstanding the spatial and temporal distribution and spatial clustering characteristics of the incidence data of HFMD at street/township scale in Jingzhou has important public health significance for the allocation of public health resources, effective prevention and control of HFMD.
Epidemiological characteristics of food poisoning event in China, 2018
Xiaomin Wu, Jinghuan Ren, Xiaoye Wang, Zhe Wang, Rui Wang
2019, 34(7): 640-644. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2019.07.014
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ObjectiveTo analysis epidemiological characteristics of food poisoning events in China during the second quarter (April-June) in 2018 (excluding Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan) and provide evidence for the early warning, prevention and control of food poisoning.MethodsDescriptive epidemiological analysis was conducted by using the incidence data food poisoning in China during this period collected from National Report Management Information System of Public Health Emergency.ResultsA total of 80 food poisoning events were reported in 18 provinces during this period, involving 2 058 cases and 33 deaths. Among them, 44 food poisoning events were grade Ⅳ or above, involving 1 661 cases and 33 deaths. The first 5 provinces reporting high incidences of food poisoning events were Shandong, Yunnan, Sichuan, Guangdong and Guangxi. The most frequent type of event reported was bacterial food poisoning (65.91%), and the involved cases accounted for 68.08% of the total. Plant/Herbal toxins caused highest death number of food poisoning, accounting for 45.45% of the total. The food poisoning events and related deaths occurred in families accounted for 40.00% and 72.73% of the total, respectively. The food poisoning cases occurred after eating in canteen accounted for 53.98% of the total.ConclusionIt is suggested to strengthen the supervision in canteens and food service to ensure food hygiene in cooking, processing and storage in order to reduce the incidence of bacterial food poisoning events. It is necessary to conduct health education in public about prevention and self-treatment of plant, fungal and bacterial food poisoning which often occur in families and identification of poisonous plants or mushrooms through different channels, including internet, media and community promotion.
Epidemiological characteristics of notifiable communicable diseases in Changping district of Beijing, 2005–2017
Luxi Wang, Liangjie Wang, Xiuyun Wang, Huanxin Wang, Lin Ma
2019, 34(7): 645-650. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2019.07.015
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ObjectiveTo analyze the incidence trends and epidemiological characteristics of notifiable infectious diseases in Changping district of Beijing from 2005 to 2017 and provide evidence for the development of prevention and control strategies.MethodsThe incidence data of notifiable communicable diseases in Changping from 2005 to 2017 were collected through China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention for epidemiological and statistical analyses.ResultsA total of 131 041 cases of notifiable communicable diseases were reported in Changping during 2005–2017. The annual incidence rates ranged from 506.32/100 000 to 1 678.80/100 000, showing a gradual decline (trend χ2=6.739, P<0.05). Intestinal infectious diseases accounted for 72.67% of the total reported cases, followed by respiratory diseases (18.14%), blood-borne and sexually transmitted diseases (10.04%) and animal-borne and vector-borne diseases (0.12%). The incidence of intestinal infectious diseases and blood-borne and sexually transmitted diseases showed decrease trends. (trend χ2= 5.657, P <0.05; trend χ2= 9.282, P <0.05). The reported incidence rate in males was higher than that in females. The incidence rate in preschool children (<7 years) was higher than those in other age groups, with cases accounting for 51.80% of the total. The incidence rate in children outside child care setting was high, with cases accounting for 35.23% of the total. Diseases with the higher incidence rates were other infectious diarrhea, hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD), dysentery, tuberculosis and hepatitis. Summer and winter were seasons with annual high incidences of notifiable communicable diseases, and the townships with high incidence rates (Beiqijia, Dongxiaokou, Huilongguan and Shahe) are in the southern area of Changping, near the urban area of Beijing.ConclusionHFMD, other infectious diarrhea and influenza are major communicable diseases with high incidences in Changping. Preschool children are the key population and the urban-rural fringe adjacent to Chaoyang and Haidian districts is the key area for the prevention and control of communicable diseases in Changping.
Awareness of cancer prevention and treatment knowledge and related factors in residents in Tianjin, a survey based on WeChat official account
Chong Wang, Dezheng Wang, Shuang Zhang, Wenda Shen, Chengfeng Shen, Guide Song, Ying Zhang, Hui Zhang, Shuo Pang, Guohong Jiang
2019, 34(7): 651-656. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2019.07.016
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ObjectiveTo understand the awareness of cancer prevention knowledge and related factors in residents who are active in WeChat use in Tianjin.MethodsAccording to the theory of cross-sectional survey, a WeChat-based electronic questionnaires were conducted in the residents who frequently use this social software in Tianjin in November, 2017. Convenient sampling was conducted and the data were analyzed with univariate and multivariate non conditional logistic regression models.ResultsThe awareness rate of cancer prevention knowledge was 59.4% for residents who active in WeChat use in Tianjin. The awareness rate differed with gender, age, registered permanent residence, degree of education, occupation, the differences were significant (all P<0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that being female, young age, urban registration, degree of higher education, being office workers might be the positive factors for the awareness of cancer prevention and treatment knowledge after adjustment for other factors.ConclusionThe WeChat official account based survey indicated that the awareness of cancer prevention and treatment knowledge in residents in Tianjin was influenced by gender, age, registered permanent residence, degree of education and occupation. Effective public health education through new media is necessary to improve the people’s awareness rate of cancer prevention and treatment knowledge.
Analysis on change trend of newborn birth weight in Yiwu, 2007–2018
Hongxing Jin, Xiamusiye Muyiduli, Xiaomei Liu, Xingfang Ying, Yu Shen, Shuojia Wang, Minjia Mo, Bule Shao, Yunxian Yu
2019, 34(7): 657-661. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2019.07.017
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ObjectiveTo analyze the change trend of newborn birth weight in Yiwu, Zhejiang province, establish and revise the percentile curve of gestational age specific birth weight of newborns and compare it with different birth weight standards.MethodsThe data from the Yiwu Maternal and Child Health Information Platform were used to analyze the gestational age specific birth weight, rate of low birth weight and macrosomia in newborns. The LMS method was used to calculate the reference values for percentiles of gestational age specific birth weight. The GAMLSS model was used to draw the birth weight curve. The reference percentile value of the birth weight of this study was compared with domestic and foreign studies.ResultsA total of 68 358 newborns were included in this study. The average birth weights in male newborns and female newborns were 3 373 g and 3 257 g, respectively. The rates of preterm birth in male newborns and female newborns were 6.01% and 5.04%, respectively. The rate of preterm birth in baby boys was significantly higher than that in baby girls. The rates of low birth weight and macrosomia were 3.84% and 7.43%, respectively. The birth weight of baby boys at gestational age 33–41 weeks was significantly higher than that of female newborns at same gestational age. The birth weight increased with gestational age. The birth weight of baby boys was higher than 2015 national standard at gestational age 37–41 weeks and higher than the reference percentile value of INTERGROWTH-21st study at gestational age 33–41 weeks. The birth weight of female newborns was higher than the 2015 national standard at gestational age 38-41 weeks and higher than the reference percentile value of INTERGROWTH-21st study at gestational age 33, 35–41 weeks.ConclusionDuring 2007–2018, the birth weight of baby boys in Yiwu showed a decrease with year, and the birth weight of female newborns showed no obvious change. The gender specific birth weight curves of newborns were drawn.
Trend of cesarean section and influence factors in Zhoushan of Zhejiang, 2002–2018
Manxian Huang, Shuojia Wang, Muyiduli Xiamusiye, Minjia Mo, Bule Shao, Yu Shen, Shuting Si, Xing Xin, Yunxian Yu
2019, 34(7): 662-666. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2019.07.018
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ObjectiveTo understand the trend of cesarean section (CS) in pregnant women in Zhoushan of Zhejiang province from 2002 to 2018, and analyze the potential influence factors.MethodsThe prenatal examination data and delivery information of pregnant women in Zhoushan during this period were collected by using local electronic medical record system. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify the influence factors for CS.ResultsThe study included 43 034 pregnant women from 2002 to 2018. The overall CS rate was 50.61%, and the rate began to decrease from 2013 and decreased to 40% in 2016. Older age at pregnancy (OR=1.115, 95% CI: 1.106–1.123), higher pre-pregnancy BMI (OR=1.080, 95% CI: 1.070–1.090), more than 2 times (OR=1.199, 95% CI: 1.145–1.256), high-risk pregnancy (OR=1.407, 95% CI: 1.317–1.504) and high fetal birth weight (OR=1.730, 95% CI: 1.641–1.824), non-head delivery (OR=7.620, 95% CI: 7.037–8.251) were the influence factors for CS. When stratified by year, higher educational level was the influence factor for CS before 2014.ConclusionThe average CS rate was relatively high in Zhoushan. Maternal age, pre-pregnancy BMI, gravidity, risk degree of pregnancy, fetal birth weight and position of the fetus were influence factors for CS.
Epidemical characteristics of rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis in Hubei, 2007–2017
Yu Zhang, Shuangyi Hou, Liping Zhou, Mengxian Zhang, Xingxing Lu, Qi Pi, Chengfeng Yang
2019, 34(7): 667-671. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2019.07.019
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ObjectiveTo understand the epidemiological characteristics of rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis (RR-TB) in Hubei province from 2007 to 2017, and provide scientific evidence for drug-resistant TB prevention and control.MethodsA retrospective analysis on the prevalence of RR-TB in Hubei was conducted using descriptive epidemiological method and GIS visualization technique.ResultsFrom 2007 to 2017, a total of 3 012 RR-TB cases were registered in Hubei, including 2 669 cases of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB), accounting for 88.61%. The annual registration rates of RR-TB and MDR-TB were 0.47/100 000 and 0.42/100 000 respectively, and the registration rates showed an upward trend (trends χ2 =763.033, 506.672, P<0.001). Among RR-TB cases, males accounted for 75.60%, females accounted for 24.40%. The cases were mainly young and middle-aged adults, those aged >45 years accounted for 23.97%. From 2007 to 2017, the RR-TB registration rates in different areas ranged from 0.03/100 000 to 1.26/100 000. The detection rate of RR-TB in the retreated cases was 28.84%, higher than that in the newly diagnosed cases (7.05%).ConclusionThe registration rate of RR-TB increased with year in Hubei from 2007 to 2017, the cases were mainly young and middle-aged adults. Male cases and retreated cases accounted for higher proportions. It is suggested to strengthen the prevention and treatment of TB, as well as the screening, treatment and management of RR-TB to reduce the spread of drug-resistant TB.
Report of an imported measles outbreak caused by measles virus D8 in Shanghai, 2018
Chongshan Li, Zhi Li, Jing Wang, Jiayu Hu, Wei Tang, Yuying Yang, Yunyi Li, Yanji Yang, Xiaoxian Cui, Yulong Ye, Xi Zhang, Zhengan Yuan
2019, 34(7): 672-675. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2019.07.020
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ObjectiveTo trace the source of an imported measles outbreak occurred in Shanghai in 2018, and analyze the molecular characteristics of the measles virus isolated.MethodsViral RNA was directly extracted from the throats swabs of the cases. The 676 nucleotides at COOH-terminal of nucleoprotein gene in measles virus were amplified by using one-step RT-PCR. The amplicons were sequenced by Sanger's to obtain the viral nucleotide sequences. Homology analysis was conducted to identify the viral genotype.ResultsThe cases in this outbreak came from a family, and 2 adult cases had a common outbound travel history within 21 d before the onset. The outbreak was caused by Measles virus D8.ConclusionBased on the results of epidemiologic investigation and laboratory tests, it was deduced that it was an imported measles outbreak caused by measles virus D8.
Epidemiology of an acute gastroenteritis outbreak caused by sapovirus in a primary school in Shenzhen, Guangdong, 2018
Yanfei Huang, Meng Yuan, Yanzi Xu, Chuanwen Dai
2019, 34(7): 676-679. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2019.07.021
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Objective To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of acute gastroenteritis outbreaks caused by sapovirus in children and summarize the experience of prevention and control. Methods The field epidemiological investigation was conducted for an acute gastroenteritis outbreak in a primary school in Shenzhen, Guangdong province in 2018. The descriptive epidemiology was used to analyze the characteristics of the outbreak. ResultsA total of 26 cases were detected in one class, involving 24 students and 2 teachers. The attack rate was 47.06% in students (24/51), the difference in attack rate between boys and girls was not significant. The incidence curve indicated a common point-source exposure mode in this outbreak. The possibility of food or water contamination was excluded, the first case in the class was recognized as the source of this outbreak. The outbreak lasted for 2 days. The main clinical symptom was vomiting (80.77%). The course of disease was 2–5 days and the prognosis was good. Among 15 cases seeking medical care, 10 (66.70%) were diagnosed with upper respiratory infection. The pathogen causing the outbreak was sapovirus indicated by the detection of student’s anal swabs. The etiologic analysis showed that the infection rate of sapovirus was 64.71% (33/51), and the latent infection rate was 17.65% (9/51). Conclusion This acute gastroenteritis outbreak in a primary school in Shenzhen in 2018 was caused by sapovirus, the disease was mainly transmitted through personal contact. It is suggested that the prevention and control of acute gastroenteritis in primary schools should be strengthened.
Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in infants and children under 5 years of age: WHO position paper–
February 2019
2019, 34(7): 680-685. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2019.07.022
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Abstract:
《疾病监测》杂志稿约
2019, 34(7): 686-686.
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CN 11-2928/R

ISSN 1003-9961

Established in:1986 , Monthly

Responsible Institution:National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China

Sponsor: Editorial Board of Disease Surveillance,National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention,Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention

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