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Accepted Manuscript , DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2019.01.000
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Abstract:
Objective To investigate current infection status of Clostridium difficile in hospitalized patients with diarrhea in Fuyang district of Hangzhou, Zhejiang province. Molecular characteristics of C. difficile isolates and risk factors of the patients were analyzed. Methods A total of 228 stool samples were collected the diarrhea patients in our hospital from May 2017 to February 2018. C. difficile strains isolation and identification were performed by using anaerobic culture. The isolates were typed by multilocus sequence typing. The antibiotic resistance test was performed by using agar dilution assay. The clinical data were statistically analyzed. Results Forty one strains of toxigenic C. difficile were isolated from 228 stool samples, in which 31 strains of C. difficile were from patients with hospital acquired diarrhea. The average age of the patients was 67.8 years, the patients were mainly from departments of gastroenterology (34.1%) and nephrology (19.5%). ST2, ST3 and ST54 were the major sequence types. All the isolates were sensitive to metronidazole, vancomycin, tetracycline, and piperacillin. The results of clinical data analysis showed that more diarrhea patients who were aged ＞60 years, had underlying diseases and used antibiotics within 8 weeks were infected with C. difficileχ2＝4.229, 9.022, 5.767, P＝0.023, 0.001, 0.009）. Conclusion C. difficile infection mainly occurred in hospitalized diarrhea patients in Fuyang. Old age, underlying disease and antibiotic use within 8 weeks were the risk factors for C. difficile infection. This study indicated that C. difficile surveillance needs to be further strengthened in the prevention and control of nosocomial infection.
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Objective To analyze the prevalence of hepatitis B in Xianyang of Shaanxi province from 2005 to 2017, and establish a suitable prediction model for hepatitis B in Xianyang in 2018. Methods The data of reported cases of hepatitis B in Xianyang from 2005 to 2017 were collected. Descriptive epidemiological method was used to analyze the prevalence of hepatitis B and the time series prediction system of SAS 9.2 software was used to establish the best prediction model of hepatitis B incidence in Xianyang. The model was verified by using the incidence data of hepatitis B in Xianyang in 2018. Results A total of 48 184 cases of hepatitis B were reported in Xianyang from 2005 to 2017, including 9 325 clinically diagnosed cases (19.35%) and 38 859 laboratory confirmed cases (80.65%), among these cases, 23 716 occurred in males and 24 468 occurred in females, with a sex ratio of approximately 1∶1. The cases were distributed in people aged 20–60 years. Most cases were farmers, and there was no obvious seasonality. The SAS 9.2 software time series forecasting system was used to establish the monthly incidence prediction system of hepatitis B in Xianyang. The best prediction model established for the monthly incidence of hepatitis B in Xianyang from 2005 to 2017 was Log Winters Method-Addictive model. Conclusion The result of the prediction indicated that he reported cases of hepatitis B would decline in Xianyang in 2018. However, it is still necessary to strengthen the hepatitis B vaccination in populations at high risk is still needed to reduce the incidence of hepatitis B.
Accepted Manuscript
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Objective To evaluate the diagnosis accordance rates of selected notifiable communicable diseases in Yunnan. Methods The survey was conducted in 36 medical institutions of 15 counties in 5 prefectures in Yunnan according to the latest national standards of diagnosis of communicable diseases. Results A total 871 patients affecting by 13 communicable diseases were surveyed. The disease specific diagnosis accordance rate was 91.60%, the disease classification accordance rate was 83.50% and the overall diagnosis accordance rate was 76.12%. The diagnosis accordance rates of hepatitis A, hepatitis B, bacillary dysentery and typhoid/paratyphoid fever were lower than other diseases, which were 46.15%, 57.93%, 59.68% and 60.61% respectively. As the descending of the level of medical institutions, the diagnosis accordance rate declined. The diagnosis accordance rates in medical institutions at provincial, prefectural, county and township level were 86.67%, 85.84%, 73.72% and 52.38% respectively. Conclusion Compared with other provinces, the diagnosis accordance rates of notifiable communicable diseases were low in Yunnan. It is necessary to strengthen the medical staff training on communicable disease diagnosis and reporting in grass root medical institutions in Yunnan.
Accepted Manuscript , DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2019.01.001
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$v.abstractInfoEn Accepted Manuscript , DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2019.01.002 [Abstract](76) [FullText HTML](26) [PDF 310KB](4) [Peer reviewing opinions] Related References Cited By (0) Share Abstract:$v.abstractInfoEn
Accepted Manuscript , DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2019.01.003
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Objective To assess the risks of public health emergencies, both the indigenous ones and imported ones, which might occur in the mainland of China in January 2019. Methods An internet based expert counsel was conducted to analyze the surveillance data of public health emergencies and priority communicable diseases in China reported through different channels, and the experts in all the provincial centers for disease control and prevention attended this video conference. Results The incidence of public health emergencies reported in January would lower than that in December 2018, which might mainly be the epidemics of chickenpox, seasonal influenza, mumps and other infectious diarrheal diseases. Sporadic cases of human infection with avian influenza virus might still occur. The activity level of seasonal influenza would continue to rise. The incidence of norovirus caused infectious diarrhea declined but still remained at high level, and the outbreaks could still be witnessed in schools. The epidemic of Ebola virus disease in the Democratic Republic of Congo is still serious, the possibility of imported cases to China still exists, but the risk of widespread in China caused by imported cases is very low. The incidence of non-occupational carbon monoxide poisoning would keep at high level in January. Conclusion Close attention should be paid to seasonal influenza, human infection with avian influenza virus and non-occupational carbon monoxide poisoning, and general attention should be paid to norovirus caused infectious diarrhea and Ebola virus disease in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
Accepted Manuscript
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Objective To investigate the cause of a serogroup B meningococcal meningitis case in Shenzhen. Methods The epidemiological investigation was conducted for the case and close contacts. The cerebrospinal fluid and blood samples from the case and the throat swabs from the contacts were collected for the pathogen isolation/culture and PCR detection. The isolates were sequenced with next generation sequencing method. Results Two strains of serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis were isolated from the blood sample of the case and throat swab of case’s mother respectively. The two isolates shared the same MLST type of ST-3200/CC4821, same 16S rRNA sequence, and same alleles of genes related to antibiotic susceptibility and coding peptides. Conclusion The meningococcal disease case was caused by the transmission of serogroup B N. meningitidis from case’ mother who was a healthy carrier.
Accepted Manuscript
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Objective To analyze the change in the epidemiological trends of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD)in Guangdong province. Methods The incidence data of HFMD in Guangdong during 2008–2017 were collected from National Notifiable Infectious Disease Reporting Information System, and population data in Guangdong during this period were collected from Guangdong Statistical Yearbook. The epidemiological trends of HFMD were analyzed by using Joinpoint regression model. Results The incidence trend of HFMD began to change in 2012. From 2008 to 2012, the incidence rate of HFMD increased sharply (β1＝72.552, P＝0.001), and from 2012 to 2017, the incidence increased with slight fluctuation, the difference had no significance (β2＝6.647, P＝0.588). The incidence change trend was not parallel between males and females, the change extent in males exceeded that in females. The incidence increase sharply from January to May and peaked in May, then it began to decline, the monthly annual percent change (APC) was 138.33%(P＝0.002). From May to December, the incidence of HFMD declined slightly, the monthly APC was –19.19% (P＝0.002). Two joinpoints were detected among the trend change of the monthly incidence rate of HFMD in 2008、2013 and 2017 years respectively and only one joinpoint was found in the other years. The age specific incidence was characterized by high level in age group from 0– to 2– years (Age group APC＝17.32%,P＝0.001), decrease rapidly from age group 2– years to 15–19 years (APC＝−44.81%,P＝0.000), and keeping at low level from age group 15–19 years to ≥85 years (APC＝−2.66%,P＝0.148). Conclusion The annual incidence of HFMD in Guangdong first showed a rapid increase and then slight increase with fluctuation during 2008–2017. The trend change of annual incidence rate was significantly different between male and female. Two models were found in the trend change of monthly incidence rate and there were significant seasonal variations. Very most of the HFMD case were among young children, so they were the key object for prevention and control. Prevention and control measures should be more targeted.
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Objective To analyze the epidemiological and etiological characteristics of viral diarrhea in children under five years old in Lulong county, a surveillance area of viral diarrhea, of Hebei province from 2013 to 2017 and provide evidence for the prevention and control of viral diarrhea. Methods A total of 1 451 stool samples were collected from diarrheal children aged ＜5 years in sentinel hospitals in Hebei province between 2013 and 2017. Rotavirus antigen was detected by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and RV identification and genotyping were conducted with nested RT-PCR. Human caliciviruses (HuCV) and human astrovirus (HAstV) were detected by RT-PCR. Adenovirus was detected by PCR. The data was analyzed by using software SPSS 20.0. Results Among 1 451 stool samples, 968 (66.71%) were positive for at least one virus and 148 (15.29%) were positive for more than one virus. The positive rates of RV, HuCV, AV and HAstV were 46.59%, 18.88%, 8.06% and 4.14% respectively. The highest detection rates of diarrhea viruses (76.60%) and RV (56.11%) were recorded in age group 12– 17 months, followed by those in age group 18–23 months. There were significant differences in the positive rates of diarrhea viruses and RV among different age groups ( \begin{document}$\chi _{{\rm{total}}}^2$\end{document} ＝52.142, P＜0.05; \begin{document}$\chi _{{\rm{RV}}}^2$\end{document} ＝46.218, P＜0.05). The detection peaks of both diarrhea viruses and RV occurred during November–March. Among the RV strains, G9 was the most common G serotype (79.29%), P［8］ was the most common P genotype (85.50%), and most strains belonged to G9P［8］ (75.30%). HuCV positive samples were mainly norovirus positive. Conclusion RV and HuCV were the main pathogens causing infant diarrhea in Hebei during 2013–2017. Autumn and winter were the high incidence seasons.
Accepted Manuscript
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Objective To understand the distribution of key occupational hazards and the characteristics of occupational diseases in Taiyuan, Shanxi province, and provide scientific evidence for the prevention and control of occupational diseases. Methods The occupational hazards information, occupational health surveillance data and incidence data of 10 key occupational diseases in Taiyaun from January 1 to December 31, 2017 were collected for a descriptive epidemiological analysis. Results A total of 51 815 workers exposed to occupational hazards were discovered in 612 large state-owned enterprises of mining and manufacturing in Taiyuan. Coal dust and noise exposures were the most common occupational hazards, affecting 26 401 and 16 887 workers, respectively. A occupational health surveillance for 42 458 persons/times was conducted in 2017, and the surveillance rate was 72.07%. A total of 30 suspected occupational disease cases and 64 occupational contradiction cases were reported. In 2017, there were 100 new occupational disease cases reported, including 83 coal worker pneumoconiosis cases, 9 noise deafness cases, 7 silicosis cases and 1 welder pneumoconiosis case. Conclusion A comparably high proportion of workers were exposed to coal dust and noise, and coal worker pneumoconiosis was the most common occupational disease in Taiyuan. So, the control of occupational hazards and occupational health management for exposed population should be strengthened in related enterprises.
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Objective To understand the measles antibody level in healthy population in Dali Bai autonomous prefecture of Yunnan province during 2012−2018 and provide scientific evidence for the elimination of measles. Methods Blood samples were collected annually from healthy populations in 8 age groups selected through stratified random sampling, a total of 28 459 blood samples were collected. Serum measles IgG was detected by using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results The differences in annual positive rate of measles IgG in healthy population were significant. The positive rate was lowest in 2016 (89.6%) and highest in 2013 (97.3%). The positive rate was ＞90% in other years. The differences in the positive rate were significant among different age groups (P＜0.05). The positive rate was lower in age groups 8−17 months and 25−34 years. There were significant differences in the positive rate and antibody geometric mean concentration (GMC) among people receiving different doses of measles containing vaccine (P＜0.05). The GMC was highest in people receiving 3 doses of measles vaccination (1 921.1 mIU/ml). Conclusion The immunity barrier has been basically formed in Dali, the possibility of measles outbreak is low, but close attention should be paid to the potential risk of measles in adults. It is necessary to conduct supplementary immunization activity in order to increase population antibody level and reduce the incidence of measles.
Accepted Manuscript
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Objective To understand level, causes and distribution of injury-related deaths in Haidian district of Beijing. Methods This statistical analysis was based on death surveillance data in Haidian from 2010 to 2015. The death causes were classified according to ICD-10, and the data were analyzed with software Excel 2016 and SPSS 19.0. Results A total of 1 608 injury-related deaths were reported in Haidian during 2010–2015, the average annual mortality rate was 11.67/100 000, ranking 6th in all death causes. The injury related mortality rate in males was 13.14/100 000, significant higher than that in females (10.18/100 000) (χ2＝25.305, P＜0.05). The first three leading injury related death causes were accidental fall (43.16%), traffic accident of motor vehicle (20.90%) and suicide (3.98%). Accidental fall occurred mainly in the elderly aged ≥65 years, accounting for 86.46%. The mortality rate of accident fall increased with age in both males and females, the differences were significant indicated by trend χ2 test (χ2＝1466.648, P＜0.05, χ2＝1 506.781, P＜0.05). Conclusion Injury is one of the major death causes in residents in Haidian. The injury mortality rate is higher in males than in females, it is necessary to strengthen the intervention and prevention in males. Fall mainly occurs in the elderly, the prevention and control of fall in older adults need to be strengthened.
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Objectives To understand the Clostridium carriage levels of infant and young child food, biological samples and environment in Liaocheng, identify the collected samples with different methods and provide evidence for food hygiene supervision departments to take effective measures to reduce Clostridium contamination. Methods A total of 257 samples were used for anaerobic and micro aerobic cultures. Then the characteristics of growth, gram staining and morphological features of the isolates under ordinary microscope were analyzed. At last the isolates were identified by 16S rRNA gene cloning method. Results A total of 97 strains of Clostridium were detected in 257 samples, the detection rate was 37.74%, including 38 strains of Clostridium bifermentans, 14 strains of Clostridium tertium, 12 strains of Clostridium sporogenes, 11 strains of Clostridium butyricum, 9 strains of Clostridium sordellii. The sources of 97 Clostridium strains were as follows: stool samples (50 strains), soil samples (28 strains), milk powder samples (6 strains), swabs of surface of table (6 strains), nipple (3 strains), water used for milk powder (2 strains), swabs of hands of milkmen (2 strains). Conclusion The carriage rate of Clostridium in infant and young child food, biological samples and environment was very high in Laiocheng. The detection rate of C. bifermentans was highest, followed by C. tertium, C. sporogenes and C. butyricum.
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Objective To evaluate the disability level and weight of the sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) cases in China. Methods Two ways were used to obtain disability weight of the sCJD cases in China. One was Delphi method, another one was the expert assessment of visual analogue scale (VAS). Results The mean disability weight of the 180 sCJD patients was 0.920, which was calculated based on the standard disability level obtained by Delphi method. The median disability weight of the sCJD cases from expert assessment of VAS was 0.850. Conclusion The results indicated that the sCJD patients were in poor health with high disability weight. It is necessary to paid special attention to them and strengthen the research in the field of prion diseases to facilitate the prevention and treatment of the disease.
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Objective To understand of plague epidemic trend in Yulong natural plague foci in Lijiang prefecture of Yunnan province during 2005 — 2017 and provide evidence for the prevention and control of plague in Yulong plague foci. Methods By using descriptive epidemiological methods, we analyzed the time, population and area distributions and epidemic trend of animal and human plague in Yulong county and Gucheng district during this period. Results During 2005 — 2017, plague epidemic was very active in Yulong plague foci distributed in the Luzi village of Nanxi village committee of Huangshan township in Yulong county, and Mushu village of Houshan village committee of Qihe township in Gucheng district. The epidemic and incidence peak mainly occurred during April-May. In the past 13 years, 13 epidemic foci in 8 plague epidemics were found, and in a human plague epidemic occurred in 2015, five pneumonic plague cases were diagnosed, including 2 deaths. Conclusion Since the confirmation of Yulong plague foci, the plague epidemic in animals has been active and continuous. It is necessary to strengthen the surveillance for plague and make timely response to the animal epidemic to prevent the plague spread from animals to human.
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Objective To understand the epidemiological characteristics and changing trend of acute hepatitis B in Gansu province from 2005 to 2016, and provide evidence for the development of prevention and control measures in the future. Methods The incidence data of acute hepatitis B cases from 2005 to 2016 in Gansu Province were obtained from the national disease prevention and control information system of China. Results From 2005 to 2016, the reported incidence rate of acute hepatitis B in Gansu Province showed a downward trend, which dropped from 17.7/100 000 in 2005 to 5.2/100 000 in 2016, a decline of 70.6%. In recent years, the reported incidence rates of acute hepatitis B in Gannan and Linxia prefectures (15/100, 000 and 14/100 000 respectively) were significantly higher than those in other areas. Since 2005, the reported incidence rates of acute hepatitis B in all age groups had decreased. The incidence rate decreased by 88.8% in age group 5–14 years, by 80.4% in age group 15–29 years and by 66.0% in age group 30–59 years. The incidence peak occurred in older age groups. A total of 29 709 cases of acute hepatitis B were reported in Gansu from 2005 to 2016, in which 73.4% (21 825) were adults aged 15 — 49 years, only 7.3% (2156) were children under 15 years old. The cases in framers and students accounted for 53.1% and 15.8% respectively. The proportion of the cases in farmer increased year by year, reaching 76.8% in 2016. The reported incidence rate of acute hepatitis B in men was higher than that in women during this period. Conclusion The reported incidence rate of acute hepatitis B in Gansu has decreased significantly, and the decline was more obvious in age group 5 — 29 years. Adults in rural areas are the key population in immunization program. It is suggested to conduct the evaluation of acute hepatitis B reporting accuracy in Gannan and Linxia prefectures.
Accepted Manuscript
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Objective To analyze the spatial-temporal distribution characteristics of hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in Jingzhou, Hubei province, from 2008 to 2017, and provide evidence for the prevention and control of HFMD. Methods The global and local autocorrelation analyses on the spatiotemporal clustering of the incidence data of HFMD at street/township scale in Jinzhou during this period were performed by using software ArcGIS 10, and the spatiotemporal clustering analysis on the incidence data of HFMD was performed by using software SaTScan 9.4. Results A total of 53 159 cases were reported in Jingzhou from 2008 to 2017, with an average annual incidence rate of 91.59/100 000. Spatial autocorrelation analysis showed that the incidence rate of HFMD had positive spatial correlation. The incidence rate of HFMD had obvious spatiotemporal clustering characteristics, the main clustering area was found in the central urban area of Jingzhou and adjacent counties and townships. Conclusion Understanding the spatial and temporal distribution and spatial clustering characteristics of the incidence data of HFMD at street/township scale in Jingzhou has important public health significance for the allocation of public health resources, effective prevention and control of HFMD.
Accepted Manuscript , DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.12.000
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Objective To analyze the surveillance data of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Hubei province from 2010 to 2017, describe the population, spatial and temporal distribution of HFRS, and make prediction of its incidence in 2018. Methods Traditional epidemiology, space epidemiology, time series analysis and other methods were used in combination with software Satscan, Arcgis and SPSS to explore the spatiotemporal distribution of HFRS in Hubei from 2010 to 2017 and predict its incidence trend. Results The overall incidence of HFRS was highly sporadic from 2010 to 2017. The overall incidence was higher in 2017 than in other years. The disease occurred all the year round with two incidence peaks in May and December. The change trend of reported case number was basically consistent with rat density. From 2010 to 2015, the average rat density generally showed an upward trend. It increased year by year to 5.31% in 2015. There was some spatiotemporal clustering of HFRS in 2017, which was in central Hubei. The ARIMA (1,0,0) (0,1,1) model had the best fitting effect and the residual was white, The noise test can provide suggestions for the early monitoring and early warning of HFRS in Hubei. It is estimated that the case number of HFRS in Hubei from January to June of 2018 would be about 192, indicating a high incidence year. Conclusion The incidence of HFRS in Hubei was in increase in recent two years, and the incidence of HFRS had a positive correlation with rat density. The prediction of HFRS epidemic should be made in combination with the use of ARIMA (1,0,0) (0,1,1) model in central Hubei, and it is suggested to continue the comprehensive HFRS prevention and control, such as surveillance, health education, deratization and immunization, according to the rat density and virus carriage rate surveillance results.
Accepted Manuscript
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Objective To discuss the change trend and development of the disease surveillance reporting model in China. Methods Trough analysis on the development of the current disease surveillance system in China, along with the construction of big data for health management and its application in the field of disease surveillance reporting in Yichang, some inspirations of future changes in disease surveillance reporting model were obtained. Results Disease surveillance information system in China has achieved a rapid development. However, there are still problems such as insufficient data sharing, underreporting and misreporting. Some progress has been achieved in the management of disease surveillance information based on hospital information system, but data sharing and comprehensive application are still difficult. Based on the big data analysis center for health management, an intelligence disease surveillance system construction and application has been conducted in Yiuchang, and improvement have been made. Conclusion Under the background of health big data, a series of changes and developments in the disease surveillance reporting model and management would emerge, such as the establishment of information system at grassroots level, active intelligence surveillance, risk factor surveillance and early warning.
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Objective To understand the epidemiology characteristics and risk factors of nipah virus infection in the world. Methods According to the WHO case definition of nipah virus infection in 2004, we describe the spatial, temporal and population distributions of nipah virus infection in the world and analyze the risk factors by using the data from website of WHO and PubMed. Results From September 1998 to June 2018, a total of 662 nipah virus infection cases, including 369 deaths, were reported in 5 countries, the case fatality rate was 55.7%. Before 2000, only Malaysia (283 cases) and Singapore (11 cases) reported nipah virus infection cases. During 2001–2010, 155 and 71 cases were reported by Bangladesh and India respectively. Since 2011, nipah virus infection cases have been reported by Bangladesh (106 cases), India (19 cases) and Philippines (17 cases). The case fatality rate increased from 38.5% in Malaysia and 9.1% in Singapore before 2000 to 62.6% in Bangladesh and 70.4% in India during 2001–2010 and to 81.1% in Bangladesh, 89.5% in India and 52.9% in Philippines after 2011. Among the reported cases, 623 (97.4%) occurred during January–May. The risk factors for nipah virus infection included close contact with sick pig in Malaysia and Singapore and human to human transmission and drinking of date palm sap contaminated by fruit bat in Bangladesh and India. Conclusion Nipah virus infection had spread from Western Pacific Region to Southeast Asia and a rising trend was noted for the case fatality rate. Also, the cases were mainly reported in the harvested season of date palm sap in Western Pacific Region and Southeast Asia.
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Objective To analyze the specificity of target genes used in specific PCR detection of Kingella kingae and select suitable assay for the K. kingae carriage investigation in healthy population in China. Methods By comparing the relationship of 16S rDNA, groEL and rtxA genes with other closely related gene sequences published in National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database, the conservation of three target genes in K. kingae was analyzed. The specificity, sensitivity and stability of the selected real-time PCR were verified. By using the established assay, 513 pharyngeal swabs were detected. Results Phylogenetic tree based on rtxA gene showed high homology among different strains of K. kingae, and the similarity of rtxA gene with Moraxella bovis was 72%. rtxA gene was more conservative and specific than 16S rDNA and groEL genes, which is more suitable for the detection of K. kingae. The real-time quantitative PCR assay for K. kingae was proved to be rapid, specific, sensitive and reproducible, the detection sensitivity was 1copies/μl．For 513 pharynx swabs, 107 were detected positive (20.86%). Conclusion rtxA gene is highly conserved in K. kingae and can be used as a target gene for nucleic acid detection. Real-time PCR based on rtxA showed that K. kingae had a high carriage rate in healthy population with certain age distribution characteritics in China.
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Objective To analyze the spatial distribution and spatial clustering of anthrax in Gannan Tibetan autonomous prefecture of Gansu province from 2011 to 2017. Methods The incidence rate of anthrax in Gannan from 2011 to 2017 was used to calculate the global Moran’s I and local G statistics and analyze its spatiotemporal distribution characteristics at township level. Results The spatial correlation in the incidence rate of anthrax was found in Gannan from 2011 to 2017, and the hot spot areas were mainly in some townships of Maqu, Luqu, Xiahe and Zhuoni counties. Spatiotemporal analysis showed that high incidence of anthrax clustered most likely in 25 townships of Maqu, Luqu and Xiahe ciunties during 2015−2017 (log likelihood ratio,LLR＝260.09, RR＝12.91, P＜0.001). Conclusion Results from this study indicated that the spatiotemporal clustering of anthrax incidence was obvious during 2011−2017 and Maqu, Luqu and Xiahe are the key areas in anthrax prevention and control in Gannan of Gansu.
Accepted Manuscript
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Objective To investigate the spatial distribution of the cases of human infection with influenza A (H7N9) virus in Zhejiang province during 2013−2016, establish mathematic models to identify the environmental and social factors associated with disease distribution and provide methodological support for the prevention and control of the disease. Methods Based on the incidence data of human infection with H7N9 virus, virus surveillance data of environmental samples as well as population and socioeconomic data in Zhejiang during this period, a spatial database was established. Global Moran’s I and Getis-Ord Gi* were applied to explore the spatial distribution of H7N9 virus infection epidemic. Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) model was constructed to analyze the spatial correlation between the epidemic and population density, poultry density and virus distribution in environment. The results were compared with those of Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) model. Results From 2013 to 2016, a total of 252 human cases of H7N9 virus infection were reported and the viruses were detected in 846 surveillance sites distributed in 77 counties and districts of 11 prefecture-level cities, . At provincial level, the epidemic spread from central-northern part of Zhejiang to surrounding areas; at city level, the epidemic spread from downtown area with high population density to surrounding counties or districts. Spatial regression analysis suggested that the number of human infection cases was correlated with population density and number of H7N9 virus positive surveillance sites (t＝4.127 and 2.697 respectively, P＝0.000 and 0.009 respectively). GWR model (R2＝0.504) showed better fitness compared with OLS model (R2＝0.257). Conclusion The H7N9 virus infection epidemic in Zhejiang originated in Huzhou and gradually spread to the surrounding areas of Hangjiahu plain. The virus is distributed wildly in the province now. Live poultry marketing might be the main route for the spread of the infection. The spatiotemporal clustering of human infection with H7N9 virus was very obvious, the epidemic was more likely to occur in area with high population and poultry densities and more virus positive surveillance sites. GWR model is suitable for practical application due to its good predicting effect for the distribution of human infections with H7N9 virus.
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Objective To investigate the virulence and the environmental contamination of Bacillus anthracis used in a teaching experiment in the event of a anthrax vaccine suspected virulence recovery, and provide scientific basis for disposing the event. Methods Weinvestigated the event and collected the experimental culture, frozen strain and the environmental samples concerning the teaching experiments; The culture was identified by phage lysis and penicillin sensitivity test; The rpoB gene on chromosome, pagA gene on plasmids pXO1 and capC gene on plasmids pXO2 of the culture, frozen strain and the related environmental samples were detected by TaqMan real-time PCR assay. Results The results showed that there were obvious phage plaque and clear zone around penicillin slip on the culture. The detection of rpoB and pagA genes was positive, but the capC gene was negative in the culture and the frozen strain. The detection of rpoB, pagA and capC genes of Bacillus anthracis was all negative in the environment samples from the teaching sites. Conclusion The culture and the frozen strain were Bacillus anthracis without capC gene, and the virulence recovery of anthrax vaccine was not found in the event. There was no contamination of Bacillus anthracis in the teaching sites.
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Objective To analyze epidemiological characteristics of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in Jinhua, Zhejiang province, during 2011–2017 and provide evidence for the prevention and control of HFMD in Jinhua. Methods The descriptive epidemiological analysis was conducted on the incidence data and the etiological detection results of HFMD. Results A total of 88 157 HFMD cases, including 34 severe cases and 14 deaths, were reported in Jinhua during 2011 –2017, with an annual average incidence of 232.09/100 000. The epidemic of HFMD was characterized by high incidence every other year and annual double incidence peaks during April-July and during October-December. The difference in area distribution of HFMD cases was obvious, the incidence rate in urban area was 1.66–2.12 times higher than that in rural area. Most cases were children aged ≤5 years (96.10%), the high incidence age was observed in age group 1–3 years. Up to 97.06% of the severe cases and all the deaths occurred in children aged ≤3 years. More cases occurred in males than in females with a ratio of 1.47∶1. Most cases were children outside (69.60%) or in child care settings (28.14%). Etiological test of 3 789 mild cases samples showed that 2 126 were enterovirus positive (56.11%), of which the cases caused by enterovirus 71(EV71), coxsackie virus A16 (Cox A16) and other enteroviruses accounted for 24.60%, 18.77% and 56.63%, respectively. EV71 caused the majority of severe cases and deaths. Conclusion HFMD had a wide distribution in Jinhua with obvious seasonality and population distribution difference. The prevention and control of HFMD in populations at high risk, high incidence seasons and key areas should be strengthened, and the vaccination in children aged ≤3 years should be further promoted. Furthermore, it is necessary to improve the surveillance schemes to increase the number of samples, sampling frequency and pathogenic detection items.
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Objective To understand the coverage of national immunization program (NIP) in children in Taizhou, Zhejiang province. Methods The coverage of NIP was investigated in 18 townships selected through stratified cluster sampling in 9 counties of Taizhou through Zhejiang Immunization Information System. Results A total of 34 265 children, including 23 316 local children and 10 949 migrant children, were investgated. The routine vaccination rates in children aged 2 years remained at high levels and the coverage rates in all counties were above 95%. The vaccination rates of 2nd dose Japanese encephalitis vaccine (JEV), 4th dose polio myelitis attenuated live vaccine（PV）and 1st dose meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine-type A and C (MPV-AC) were all above 98% in children aged 7 years. The vaccination rates of diphtheria-tetanus vaccine (DT) in all counties were above 95%, except Xianju. Compared with other vaccines, the coverage rate of 2nd MPV-AC was lowest, and it was above 90% only in a few counties, i.e. Huangyan, Linhai, Yuhuan, Tiantai and Sanmen. The coverage rates in local children were higher than those in migrant children. The differences in coverage rates of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), 4th dose PV, 1st dose diphtheria tetanus and pertussis vaccine (DTP), 4th dose DTP, 2 doses meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine-type A (MPV-A), 2 doses MPV-AC, 2nd dose JEV, hepatitis A vaccine (HepA) and DT were significant between local children and migrant children. Conclusion The Immunization coverage of NIP remained at a high level in both local children and migrant children. However, the coverage rates in migrant children were lower than those in local children. Also, migrant children got vaccination later than local children did. Therefore, we should strengthen the management of migrant children.
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Objective To calculate and analyze hepatitis B vaccine (HBV) immunization cost and its change pattern in community health service institution, and provide data support for policy-making and input-output evaluation of HBV immunization. Methods First, field investigation, and questionnaire survey were conducted to collect related information, and a database was established in ACCESS, the data was entered twice. Next, the data was analyzed in Excel 2016 software. Results From 1992 to 2013, the overall cost of HBV immunization increased from171.42 ten thousand yuan to 556.21 ten thousand yuan with an annual growth rate of 5.76%; and the unit cost increased from 12.47 yuan to 21.29 yuan with an annual growth rate of 2.58%. In community health centers, the cost of HBV immunization mainly originated from labor cost. Therefore, to some extent, the growth of total cost in community health centers can attributed to that of labor cost. Conclusion For HBV immunization in communities in Beijing, both the overall cost and unit cost showed obvious increasing trends. The growth rate of unit cost was lower than that of total cost, and the growth of the overall cost in HBV immunization in communities was mainly resulted from the increase of labor cost.
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Objective To investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of dengue fever in Zhejiang province from 2004 to 2016 and provide scientific evidence for dengue fever prevention and control. Methods The information of dengue fever cases of Zhejiang province from 2004 to 2016 was collected from Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Software SaTScan was used to analyze the spatial and temporal clustering of dengue fever cases, and software ArcGIS was used for the result visualization. Results Spatial and temporal scan statistics detected 2 clusters (P＜0.05) of dengue cases in Zhejiang during 2004–2016. The class Ⅰ cluster was in Yiwu (1 August 2009-30 September 2009) and the class Ⅱ cluster was in Cixi (1 September 2004–31 October 2004). Sporadic outbreaks had one class I cluster in Yiwu and Pujiang (1 August 2012–31 December 2016), and two class Ⅱ clusters in the urban areas of Ningbo (1 July 2013–31 October 2016) and Hangzhou (1 July 2013–30 November 2016). Conclusion The distribution pattern of dengue fever in Zhejiang from 2004 to 2016 showed clustering trend. Yiwu and the urban areas of Ningbo and Hangzhou were at high risk for dengue fever importation. It is necessary to develop effective dengue fever prevention and control strategy in Zhejiang
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Objective To compare the identification effects of clinical isolates ofAeromonas by using multi locus phylogenetic analysis (MLPA), mass spectrometer (VITEK MS system) and biochemical analyzer (VITEK Ⅱ system) and provide evidence for the research of species identification and classification of Aeromonas. Methods The Aeromonas strains isolated from clinical specimens of hospitalized patients and outpatients suffered from diarrhea in our hospital between December 2014 and October 2017 were collected for the identification with VITEK MS system, VITEK Ⅱ system and MLPA, respectively. Results The isolated Aeromonas strains were divided into 10 species by MLPA, i.e. A. veronii, A. caviae, A. hydrophila, A. dhakensis, A. enteropelogenes, A. media, A. sanarellii, A. taiwanensis, A. bivalvium, and A. allosaccharophila. The identification rate of Aeromonas was 100.0% at genus level and 16.2% at species level by VITEK MS system, in addition, the identification rate was 83.3% (5/6) for A. enteropelogenes and 50.0% (1/2) for A. media. The identification rate of Aeromonaswas 89.2% at genus level and 0.0% (unspecified and false) at species level by VITEK Ⅱ system. Conclusion MLPA was an accurate tool for the delineation of Aeromonas species. VITEK MS system was more accurate than VITEK Ⅱ system to identify Aeromonasat both the genus and species level. VITEK MS system had a certain ability to identify rare species of A. enteropelogenesand A. media.
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Objective To study the serotype distribution and drug resistance characteristics of ESBLs-producing Salmonella in Wenzhou, Zhejiang province, from 2013 to 2017 and provide evidence for the disease prevention, diagnosis and treatment in clinical practice. Methods From January 2013 to December 2017, a total of 294 Salmonella strains were collected from our hospital and all the district centers for disease control and prevention in Wenzhou, and the serotypes of ESBLs-producing Salmonella strains were confirmed by E-test quantitative analysis. The drug sensitivity and epidemiological characteristics of the strains were analyzed. Results The screening of 294 strains of Salmonellafound 68 (23.13%) ESBLs-producing strains, involving three serotypes and including 41(60.29%, 41/68) Salmonella typhimurium strains , 19(27.94%, 19/68) Salmonellaenteritis strains and 8(11.76%, 8/68) Salmonella derby strains . The cases were mainly children aged 3–5 years (61.76%, 42/68) and infants aged 0–2 years (17.65%, 12/68). The clinical samples were mainly intestinal samples, accounting for 69.12% (47/68), followed by blood samples, accounting for 30.88% (21/68). The resistant rate of ESBLs producingSalmonella was 41.18% to cefepime, 52.94% to compound sulfamethoxazole and 47.06% to tetracycline. No strains which were resistant to imipenem, ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin were found. Conclusion The transmission of ESBLs-producing Salmonella was serious in Wenzhou, the major serotype was Salmonella typhimurium, which were mainly detected in infants. ESBLs-producing Salmonella has different resistance to antibiotics, especially the poor sensitivities to cefepime, compound sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, etc. Multidrug resistance monitoring should be strengthened in clinical practice.
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Objective To understand the mortality and death cause distribution in residents of Tibet and provide evidence for disease prevention and control. Methods Based on data from the global burden of disease study (GBD2015) of China and the Nation Mortality Surveillance System, the analyses on mortality, constituent ratio, disability adjusted of life years (DALY) were conducted. Results The crude mortality was 672.53/100 000 and the age-standardized mortality was 1 146.81/100 000. The mortality rate was higher in males than in females. Three major diseases were chronic disease (76.27%), infectious disease and maternal nutritional deficiency disease (14.64%) and injury (9.13%). The top five causes of death were cerebrovascular disease, respiratory disease, heart disease, digestive system disease and malignant tumor. The highest mortality was in age group ≥70 years（8 676.14/100 000）and the lowest mortality was in age group 5–14 years (83.94/100 000). The highest level diagnostic unit where most death cases sought medical care was class Ⅲ hospitals and deaths mainly occurred at home. Conclusion Chronic disease was the major cause of death in Tibet, the gender and age specific mortality level and death cause rank varied, so it is necessary to conduct targeted disease prevention and control in residents in Tibet.
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Objective To understand the epidemiologic characteristics of norovirus infection in sporadic diarrhea cases in Tianjin during 2015–2016. Methods The epidemiological information of sporadic diarrhea cases were collected from five sentinel hospitals in Tianjin from January 2015 to December 2016. The stool samples were collected for norovirus nucleic acids detection by using real-time reverse transcription-PCR (real-time RT-PCR), and genotyping was performed for the detected strains. Results A total of 1 249 stool samples were collected from the diarrhea cases, the positive rate of norovirus was 14.41% (180/1 249); The highest detection rate was found in young children aged ＜1 year, with a detection rate of 26.07% (85/326); The differences in detection rate among different age groups had significance, (P＜0.01). The detection rate of noroviruses was significantly higher in the first and fourth quarters than in the second and third quarters. The detection rates in Binhai new district, urban area and rural area were 30%, 16.62% and 11.89%, respectively. GⅡ was the predominant genotype of norovirus detected in the diarrhea cases. The infections with norovirus GⅡ accounted for 86.05%, the infection with norovirus GⅠ accounted for 11.05%, and co-infection with noroviruses GⅠ and GⅡ accounted for 2.91%. The infection rate of norovirus GⅠwas highest in age group 6–45 years (33.33%). The infections with norovirus CⅠ mainly occurred during April-September. Conclusion The infection rate of norovirus in diarrhea cases in Tianjin sentinel hospital was high. The incidence in winter and spring was high. Binhai new district was an area with high incidence, infants and young children were group with high incidence. GⅡ was the predominant genotype. The incidence of infection with norovirus GⅠ was relatively high in young and middle-aged groups. It is necessary to conduct the prevention and control of norovirus infection according to the epidemic characteristics, and active surveillance should be conducted in populations at high risk.
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Objective To investigate the microbiological characteristics, capsule type, virulence gene and drug resistance of Klebsiella pneumoniae detected in patients with hepatic abscess. The differences of K. pneumoniae with different virulence characteristics detected in patients with hepatic abscess were compared. Methods The clinical data of 165 hepatic abscess patients with K. pneumoniae infection in our hospital from 2015 to 2017 were retrospectively analyzed, and 102 strains of K. pneumoniae with high virulence were confirmed by using wire drawing test. The strains were divided into high virulence group and common group. The classification and virulence gene rmpA of serum capsule were detected by using PCR amplification. VITEK 2 Compact automatic microbiological assay instrument was used for drug susceptibility test and the results were statistically analyzed. Results Among patients with hepatic abscess, the community acquired infection rate of K. pneumoniae was higher. Up to 83.33% of the infected patients had no underlying disease and 81.60% of hepatic abscess cases were caused by highly virulent K. pneumoniae strain with high mucous phenotype, and the capsule type were mainly serum K-1 and K-2, which carried rmpA gene. Common K. pneumoniae was mainly mucous free, and the capsule type was non-serum K-1 or K-2 type, a few of them carried rmpA gene. The resistance of K. pneumoniae with high virulence to 10 common used antibiotics was low, and 3 strains of K. pneumoniae with high virulence producing Extended Spectyum β Lactamases (ESBLs) were detected. No K. pneumoniae strain resistant to carbapenem was detected. Conclusion The main pathogen of hepatic abscess was K. pneumoniae with high virulence and high level mucous, and mainly with serum type K-1 and K-2, Severe community-acquired infection of highly virulent K. pneumoniae causing liver abscess occurred in patients with normal immunity. The resistance of to common used antibiotics was low. Three strains of K. pneumoniae with high virulence producing ESBLs were detected, and they showed upward trend in drug resistance, to which more attention should be paid in clinical practice.
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Objective To analyze the injury death level and injury causes in local residents in Dali prefecture of Yunnan province from 2015 to 2017. Methods We collected the surveillance data about causes of injury death from 2015 to 2017 in Dali and code death causes of injury cases according to the international classification of diseases (ICD-10). The data about the cause of injury death were statistically analyzed by using Excel 2007 and SPSS 17.0, and the data standardization was based on national population census data in 2010. The indicators used in the analysis included crude mortality rate, standardized mortality rate and constituent ratio. Results The average crude mortality rate was 598.99/100 000 and the standardized mortality rate was 601.29/100 000 in Dali prefecture from 2015 to 2017. The injury mortality rate was 59.93/100 000, and the standardized injury mortality rate was 60.45/100 000. Injury death was the fifth leading cause of death, ranking after respiratory disease, cerebrovascular disease, heart disease and cancer. The first five leading injury death causes were traffic accident, accidental fall, suicide, accidental poisoning and drowning, and the related deaths accounted for 86.94% of the total injury deaths. Accidental asphyxia was the main cause of injury death in infants aged ＜1 year, accounting for 48.72%. Among children aged 1−14 years, the most common injury death cause was drowning, accounting for 41.38%, and among people aged 15−59 years, the major injury death cause was traffic accident; and accidental fall was the major cause of death in people aged ≥60 years. Conclusion Injury was one of the main causes of death in Dali prefecture. It is necessary to conduct targeted injury prevention and to explore measures by which intervention of injury prevention can be improved to reduce the incidence of injury.
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Objective To investigate the incidence trend and characteristics of cerebral infarction in residents in between 2010 and 2016, analyze the incidence differences in population with different characteristics, and provide evidence for the prevention and control of cerebral infarction. Methods The data of new cerebral infarction cases between 2010 and 2016 were collected from Tianjin Cerebral Infarction Surveillance System. The incidence of cerebral infarction and its distribution in different age groups, gender groups and urban or rural areas was analyzed. The population data based on the Sixth National Population Census in 2010 were used for standardized rate estimation. Difference among different groups was compared with χ2 test. The χtrend2 test was used to analyze the incidence trend with years and in different age groups. The change the incidence during this period and prediction of the incidence during 2017–2020 were analyzed by using Joinpoint software. Results The average age of initial cerebral infarction was 65.50 years, the smoking rate was 32.18%, and the recurrent rate was 34.01%. The incidence rate of cerebral infarction in Tianjin increased gradually from 2010 to 2016 with the crude incidence rate ranging from 379.70/100 000 to 583.64/100 000, and with the standardized incidence rate ranged from 212.40/100 000 to 291.52/100 000 (P＜0.000 1). The increase in rural area was more obvious. The incidence rate was consistently higher in male residents (the crude incidence: 450.17/100 000–698.82/100 000, the standardized incidence rate: 249.20/100 000–350.34/100 000) than in female residents (the crude incidence rate: 308.44/100 000–467.87/100 000, the standardized incidence rate: 174.48/100 000–232.85/100 000, allP＜0.001). And in all age groups, the incidences in men were higher than in women (P＜0.001). According to the prediction, the incidence of cerebral infarction in Tianjin will reach 808.58/100 000, and the standardized incidence of the disease will be 371.03/100 000 by 2020. Conclusions The incidence of cerebral infarction increased during the past 7 years. There was no turning point for decrease, and the increasing trend was more obvious in rural areas and in men. Attention should be paid to the disease and targeted interventions should be taken to reduce the incidence of cerebral infarction.
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Objective To identify the genotype and the genetic characteristics of rubella virus isolated from throat swabs of suspected rubella cases in Chaoyang district of Beijing during 2012–2016. Methods Vero /SLAM cells were used to isolate rubella viruses from throat swabs collected from rubella cases in rubella outbreak and sporadic cases in Chaoyang during this period. The fragments of E1 genes of the isolates were amplified by RT-PCR and then the PCR products were directly sequenced and analyzed. The phylogenetic tree based on the 739 nucleotide sequences of E1 genes were conducted using the rubella virus strains isolated in Chaoyang and 32 WHO reference strain sequences representing 13 genotypes, another phylogenetic tree was also conducted with the 33 rubella virus strains isolated in Chaoyang and 16 rubella virus strains isolated in other provinces in China for the multiple sequence comparison. Results A total of 33 strains of rubella virus strains were isolated, which belonged to two different genotypes, i.e. 1E (8 strains) and 2B (25 strains). The genotype 1E strains were detected during 2012–2013, and the genotype 2B strains were detected during 2012–2016. The intra and inter genetic distance of genotype 2B strains were less than those of genotype 1E strains. Conclusion Two genotypes of rubella virus (1E and 2B) were detected in Chaoyang during 2012–2016. The nucleotide sequence of genotype 2B strain was more stable and genotype 2B strain has gradually become predominant.
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Objective To estimate the cost of hepatitis B vaccine (HBV) immunization and its change pattern in the obstetrics departments of hospitals in Beijing, and provide data support for policy-making and evaluation of HBV immunization efficiency. Methods Data collection was conducted through field investigation and questionnaire survey. Database was established with ACCESS, and data were entered twice. Data analysis was performed with software SAS 9.4 and Excel 2016. Results From 1992 to 2013, the overall cost HBV immunization in obstetrics departments of hospitals in Beijing increased from 410 011.52 yuan to 4 344 244.00 yuan, with an annual growth rate of 11.90%; and the unit cost increased by 7 times, from 5.38 yuan to 37.25 yuan, with an annual growth rate of 9.65%. The cost of HBV immunization mainly originates from labor cost. Therefore, to some extent, the growth of overall cost of HBV immunization in hospitals is due to the increase of labor cost. Conclusion In the obstetrics departments of hospitals in Beijing, both the overall cost and the unit cost of HBV immunization showed an obvious increasing trend. The growth rate of unit cost was lower than that of total cost, and the growth of total cost mainly attributed to the increase of labor cost.
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2018, 33(12).
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2018, 33(12).
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2018, 33(12): 973-973. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.12.001
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2018, 33(12): 974-974. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.12.002
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2018, 33(12): 975-978. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.12.003
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Objective To assess the risks of public health emergencies, both the indigenous ones and the imported ones, which might occur in the mainland of China in December 2018. Methods An internet based expert counsel was conducted to analyze the surveillance data of public health emergencies and priority communicable diseases in China reported through different channels, and the experts in all provincial centers for disease control and prevention attended this video conference. Results Generally speaking, it is predicted that the incidence of public health emergencies would be higher in December than in November 2018, which might be mainly attributed to the epidemics of varicella, seasonal influenza, mumps, other infectious diarrheal diseases and hand foot and mouth disease. Sporadic cases of human infection with avian influenza virus might continue to occur. The activity of seasonal influenza would be in increase. More viral diarrhea outbreaks caused by norovirus might occur, especially in schools. The epidemic of the Ebola virus disease (EVD) in the Democratic Republic of Congo is still serious. The risk of further spread of EVD to China still exists, but the possibility of large scale spread caused by the imported cases is very low. The incidence of non-occupational carbon monoxide poisoning would be high. Conclusion Close attention should be paid to human infection with avian influenza virus, seasonal influenza and non-occupational carbon monoxide poisoning, and general attention should be paid to norovirus infection, and EVD in Democratic Republic of Congo.
2018, 33(12): 979-984. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.12.004
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Objective To optimize the intestinal colonization model of vancomycin resistant Enterococcus (VRE) in mouse model, and evaluate the effect of antibiotic pretreatment and different infection dosages on the intestinal VRE colonization. Methods C57/6J mice were randomly divided into 3 pretreatment groups, which were mixed antibiotic pretreatment group, ampicillin and clindamycin pretreatment group and vancomycin pretreatment group. In mixed pretreatment antibiotic group, the mice were given mix antibiotic solution (kanamycin, gentamicin, colistin, metronidazole, vancomycin) on day 7 before infection; on day 2 before infection, vancomycin solution was given instead of the mixed antibiotic solution, and intraperitoneal injection of clindamycin was given on day 1 before infection. In ampicillin and clindamycin pretreatment group, the mice were given ampicillin solution on day 7 before infection, and intraperitoneal injection of clindamycin was given 1 day before infection. In vancomycin pretreatment group, vancomycin solution was given on day 7 before infection. On day 0, three groups of mice were infected with VRE. On day 3 after infection, vancomycin solution and ampicillin solution were changed to normal drinking water. The collected fecal live bacteria were counted within 2 weeks after infection, and changes of VRE colonization were observed. Results Three antibiotic-pretreated mouse models infected with VRE were successfully established, and VRE were successfully colonized on day 1 after infection. Within 1–9 days after infection, the VRE contents in feces of the three models was 105–108cfu/mg. Nine days after infection, the colonization of VRE in the three mouse groups showed downward trends, and the content of VRE in the mouse feces decreased to 103–105cfu/mg on the 15th day. And, we observed that two mice died in the ampicillin group on day 10 after infection. There was no significant difference in VRE colonization between high dosage group and low dosage group during the acute infection period in vancomycin pretreated mice. Conclusion The stability and simplicity of vancomycin-pretreated mouse model was superior to those of the other two antibiotic-pretreated mouse models. By the end of the experiment, VRE could successfully colonize in the intestinal tract of the mice for more than 15 days in vancomycin pretreatment group, and the VRE intestinal colonization model could be established steadily at the infection dosages ranging from 105 cfu to 107 cfu per mouse.
2018, 33(12): 985-989. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.12.005
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Objective To analyze the epidemic and death cases of human infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A (H7N9) virus in the mainland of China from 2016 to 2018, and provide evidences for reducing the severity and disease burden of human infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus. Methods Based on the existing surveillance data of human infection with HPAI A (H7N9) virus in China, descriptive epidemiological analysis was conducted on the time, area and population distributions of cases infected with HPAI A (H7N9) virus in China, and the epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of survival cases and death cases were compared. Results Since December 2016, a total of 32 cases of human infection with HPAI A (H7N9) virus, including 13 deaths, had been reported from 8 provinces in China. The case fatality rate was 40.63%, the difference was not significant compared with the cases infected with low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) A (H7N9) virus (37.98%) (χ2＝0.090, P＝0.763). The median age of the cases was 59 years, and the male to female ratio of the cases was 1.67∶1. Up to 81.25% of the cases were farmers. There were no significant differences in population, time and area distributions as well as key time interval in the course of disease, exposure history and underlying medical condition between the survival cases and the death cases. The results showed that acute respiratory distress syndrome, renal failure, cardiac failure and septic shock might be the risk factors resulting the deaths of the cases of HPAI A (H7N9) virus infection. Conclusion The case fatality rate of human infection with HAPI A (H7N9) virus in the mainland of China was relatively high during 2016–2018. The occurrence of specific clinical manifestations and complications might predict the severe outcomes. It is necessary to strengthen the research and training on clinical diagnosis and treatment of human infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in order to alleviate the severity of the disease.
2018, 33(12): 990-994. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.12.006
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Objective To study the relationship between serotype-specific wzy genes and serotype of Streptococcus suis and evaluate the feasibility of Whole-Genome Sequencing (WGS) -based serotyping strategy for the serotype-specific wzy genes. Methods Amino acid database of 54 wzy genes (1–31, 33, 1/2, NCL1-20 and Chz) for serotyping was established. All 767S. suis isolates available with WGS data and conventional serotype information were subjected to WGS-based serotyping by using the database. Results Among the 767 genomes, 1 of 54 wzy genes was detected in 765 genome sequences. The remaining 2 genomes carried a novel wzy gene, named as NCL21 in this study. WGS-based serotyping predicted serotype of 94.13% (722/767) genomes, consistent with conventional serotyping. Discrepancy of two methods was observed in 45 genomes. The cps sequences of these genomes were obviously different from those of the serotype reference strains indicated by conventional serotyping method. Conclusion WGS-based serotyping strategy for the serotype-specific wzy genes of S. suis is superior to conventional serotyping method.
2018, 33(12): 995-999. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.12.007
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Objective To understand the genotype and genovariation of hantavirus isolated from the patients with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Liaoning province in 2017. Methods Blood samples of HFRS patients in acute phase were collected, the IgM positive serum samples were screened with ELISA and hantavirus RNA was extracted by using the whole blood samples of positive cases. The G2 segment were amplified by RT-PCR and genotyped. The representative hantavirus strains were sequenced and gene analysis was carried out with DNAStar package. Results Ten hantavirus strains isolated were amplified by using RT-PCR, the results indicated that 4 strains belonged to HTN type and the other 6 strains belonged to SEO type. The sequencing results of the products were compared with domestic strains and some international standard strains. The nucleotide homology of 4 HTN type strains was 95.6%–98.9%, and they shared highest nucleotide homology with HTN76–118 strain (89.3%–90.1%). The nucleotide homology of 6 SEO type strains was 98.3%–99.8%, and they shared highest nucleotide homology with 80–39 strain (96.3%–96.6%). Their amino homology might be 99.3%–99.6%. Conclusions Both SEO virus and HTN virus circulated in Liaoning province, but HTN was predominant. The G2 segment of hantavirus is highly homologous and has less variation. The genetic materials were relatively stable.
2018, 33(12): 1000-1003. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.12.008
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Objective To understand the epidemiological characteristics of the leprosy cases newly detected in Zhejiang province from 2011 to 2017 and provide evidence for the development of control strategy. Methods The incidence data of leprosy in Zhejiang from 2011 to 2017 were collected from National Leprosy Prevention Management Information System for a descriptive and comparative analyses. Results A total of 145 leprosy cases were reported in Zhejiang during this period, including 94 cases in males and 51 cases in females. The average age the cases was 38.64±15.14, and 93.79% of the cases were detected through the examination at dermatology clinics. There were 20 cases with grade 2 disability, and the rate of early detection increased from 45.16% in 2011 to 86.67% in 2017. Except Zhoushan, leprosy cases were reported in all the prefectures of Zhejiang. The cases in local population accounted for 24.14% (35 cases), and the cases in floating population accounted for 75.86% (110 cases). Conclusion The newly detected leprosy case 4 number declined steadily in Zhejiang from 2011 to 2017. Most cases were detected in an early time. It is necessary to strengthen the early detection and standard management of the leprosy cases in floating population in Zhejiang.
2018, 33(12): 1004-1008. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.12.009
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Objective To study the molecular epidemiology of Neisseria meningitidis isolated in Jinan of Shandong province from 2005 to 2018. Methods Multi locus sequence typing (MLST) was used to characterize the N. meningitidis, and the data were analyzed with BioNumerics software. Results A total of 130 N. meningitidis isolates were isolated in Jinan from 2005 to 2018, including serogroupA, B, C, W135, Y and non-groupable (NG) strains. The N.meningitidis strains were classified into to 37 sequence types (STs), in which 2 serogroup A strains were classified into 2 STs, belonging to clonal complex 5 and unknown clonal complex; 24 serogroup B strains were classified into 17 STs, belonging to clonal complex 4821, clonal complex 162 and unknown clonal complex; 39 serogroup C strains were classified into 8 STs, belonging to clonal complex 4821, clonal complex 32 and unknown clonal complex; 54 serogroup W135 strains were classified into 3 STs, belonging to clonal complex 11 and clonal complex 4821; 1 serogroup Y strain was ST-92, belonging to clonal complex 92; 10 of NG strains were classified into 8 STs, belonging to clonal complex 4821, clonal complex 198 and unknown clonal complex. Among the 108 strains with known clonal complex, 48.15% (52/108) belonged toclonal complex 11 and 45.37% (49/108) belonged to clonal complex 4821. Twenty-two strains of unknown clonal complex belonged to 18 STs, in which 15 strains were in serogroup B, belonging to 10 STs. Conclusion The STs of N. meningitidis in Jinan from 2005 to 2018 showed polymorphism and it was obvious in NG and serogroup B strains. Clonal complex 4821 and clonal complex 11 were two predominant clones. N. meningitidis serogroup B showed polyclonal trend in Jinan.
2018, 33(12): 1009-1013. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.12.010
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Objective To understand the epidemiological characteristics of typhoid and paratyphoid fever in China and its spatial temporal clustering in five provinces of China in 2014. Methods Descriptive statistical analysis was conducted by using the incidence data of typhoid and paratyphoid collected from Disease Surveillance Information Reporting System in 2014. ArcGis 10.5 was used to show the geographic distribution of typhoid and paratyphoid cases. SaTScan statistics was used to identify spatial and temporal clustering areas of typhoid and paratyphoid in Yunnan, Guizhou, Hunan, Guangxi and Guangdong provinces. Results A total of 13 768 typhoid and paratyphoid cases were reported without death in 2014, the overall incidence rate was 1.02/100 000, a decline of 1.92% compared with 2013. There were 10 460 typhoid cases (75.97%) and 3 308 paratyphoid cases (24.03%), a decline of 2.44% and 3.10% respectively compared with 2013. The peak of incidence was in summer (June-September), accounting for 46.23% of the annual cases. Most cases were farmers, followed by students and children outside child care settings. Spatial clustering analysis of typhoid and paratyphoid fever in five provinces indicated the first and second class clustering areas were mainly distributed in bordering areas of these provinces. Conclusion The incidence of typhoid and paratyphoid decreased with year in China, but the prevention and control of typhoid and paratyphoid should not be neglected in provinces with high incidence. Close attention should be paid to the increased incidence of typhoid and paratyphoid and related factors in non-surveillance areas. It is necessary to take targeted prevention and control measures according to the risk factors identified. The case clustering was obvious in some neighboring provinces, suggesting the possible transmission across the province border.
2018, 33(12): 1014-1017. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.12.011
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Objective To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of rabies in Yunnan province from 2005 to 2017 and provide the scientific evidence for the prevention and control of rabies. Methods The incidence data of rabies in Yunnan during this period were collected and analyzed with Excel 2013 and SPSS 17.0 to generate relevant statistical charts. Results A total of 930 rabies cases were reported in Yunnan from 2005 to 2017, 47 cases were loss to follow up, 883 cases died. Averagely, 68 cases of rabies death were reported in a year. The average annual incidence rate of rabies in Yunnan was higher than average national level (χ2＝21.390, P＜ 0.001). The incidence of rabies showed a rapid upward trend from 2005 to 2008, two incidence peaks occurred in 2008 and 2010 respectively. Since 2011, the incidence of rabies had shown a downward trend year by year. The top five counties (district) with high incidence were Guangnan, Luoping, Mile, Yanshan and Jinghong, the cases reported in these areas accounted for 20.64% of provincial total. The youngest age of rabies case was 1 year old, the oldest age was 91 years old. The cases number was highest in age group 41 – 50 years and lowest in age group 81 – 91 years. The male to female ratio of the cases was 1∶0.39, the case number in males was 2.55 times higher than that in females, and the average age of male cases was younger than that of female cases. ( z＝−9.411,P＜ 0.001); The cases in farmers, students and children outside child care settings accounted for 93.33% of the total. The annual incidence peak was usually during June – August. Conclusion From 2005 to 2017, rabies cases were reported every year in Yunnan. The average annual incidence rate was high. Therefore, the prevention and treatment of rabies is still the focus of public health in Yunnan. It is necessary to strengthen the epidemiological surveillance for rabies.
2018, 33(12): 1018-1021. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.12.012
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Objective To confirm the clinical diagnosis of breakthrough mumps cases and evaluate the validity of the clinical diagnosis and the sensitivities of laboratory methods. Methods For the clinical diagnosed mumps cases reported in Yinzhou district of Ningbo during 2015–2017, the serum IgM against mumps virus was detected with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and viral RNA extracted from strains isolated from throat swabs or oral fluids were detected by using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), the positive rate of samples collected in different time, the positive rates of breakthrough cases and cases without immunization history, and the positive rates of different type samples were compared. Results The positive rates of IgM were 36.37% (36/99) at 1–7 days after onset and 95.00% (19/20) at 8–32 days after onset, the difference was significant (Fisher’s exact test, P＜0.001). For the viral RNA detection, 6.47% (9/139) of breakthrough cases were positive, 16.67% (6/36) of unvaccinated cases were positive, the difference was not significant (χ2＝3.79, P＞0.05). The positive samples (throat swabs and oral fluids) were mainly collected within 2–3 days after onset. Only 1.39% (1/72) of throat swabs of breakthrough cases were positive, but 11.94% (8/67) of oral fluids of breakthrough cases were positive, the difference was significant（Fisher's exact test, P＝0.015) . Conclusion According to the results of IgM detection, we confirmed most clinically diagnosed breakthrough mumps cases, but the sensitivities of ELISA in detection of IgM and RT-PCR in detection of viral RNA were not high in acute phase (1–7 days). It is suggested to detect IgM 7 days later after onset for confirmation.
2018, 33(12): 1022-1025. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.12.013
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A field epidemiological survey and laboratory tests were conducted for an outbreak of hepatitis C virus infection in hemodialysis patients in a hospital and provide reference for the prevention and control of hepatitis C infection in hospital. This hepatitis C virus infection outbreak involved 78 hemodialysis patients, and 39 patients were diagnosed with hepatitis C. Field survey found that there was no special arrangement for the hemodialysis for hepatitis B and hepatitis C patients, some patients shared heparin syringe, some disinfection procedures of dialyzer were not standardized in the hospital, these were the main causes of this outbreak.
2018, 33(12): 1026-1031. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.12.014
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Objective In order to analysis the relationship between meteorological factors and the incidence of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), we used weekly meteorological data and the weekly incidence data of HFMD to establish and evaluate the back-propagation neural network (BPNN) model. Methods The incidence data of HFMD and meteorological data in Changning district of Shanghai from 2014 to 2017 were collected. Software SPSS 13.0 was used to analyze the relationship between the incidence HFMD and meteorological factors. The prediction model of BPNN was established with software Matlab 7.0. Mean error rate (MER) and determination coefficient (R2) were used to evaluate the fitting effect and the incidence data of HFMD in 2017 was used to verify the model. Results The weekly incidence of HFMD was positively correlated with the average temperature, the highest air temperature, the lowest air temperature, cumulative precipitation, relative humidity, minimum relative humidity, average wind speed (all P＜0.05), but negatively correlated with the mean air pressure of the same week (r＝ –0.527, P＜0.001). The weekly incidence of HFMD was positively correlated with the average air temperature, the highest air temperature, the lowest air temperature, cumulative precipitation, relative humidity, minimum relative humidity, average wind speed (all P＜0.05), but negatively correlated to the mean air pressure of the past week (r＝ –0.522, P＜0.001). The fitting effect using the meteorological data of the past week (MER＝19.0%, R2＝0.895) was slightly better than that using the data of same week (MER＝20.2%, R2＝0.894). Verified by meteorological data of 2017, the absolute error between the predicted value and actual value was between 0 and 9 and the average was 2.52. Conclusion The BPNN model established is suitable for the prediction of the incidence of HFMD in Changning.
2018, 33(12): 1032-1036. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.12.015
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Objective To understand the contamination of Legionella in soil and the molecular type, sensitivity to antibiotics and intracellular growth ability of isolated strains. Methods A total of 123 soil samples from public places in Beijing were collected. Legionella in soil was detected by GVPC (Legionella selective medium) culture and quantitative real-time PCR detection. The intracellular growth ability of the Legionella isolates were tested by cell culture methods with mouse macrophage J774. The genotypes of the isolates were determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Antibiotic sensitivity detection of the isolates was conducted with E-test. Results Quantitative PCR assay detected Legionella in flower & bird market samples and reservoir samples in summer. The positive rates were 50.00% and 24.24% respectively. The plate culture method only detected Legionella in reservoir samples in summer. The positive rate was 6.06%. All the two Legionella strains isolated, TR1 and TR2, were L. pneumophila, and the serotypes were type 5 and type 8 respectively. All the two strains of L. pneumophila had high intracellular growth ability. PFGE typing showed two different band types. The drug sensitivity test showed that the two strains were sensitive to erythromycin, azithromycin, rifampicin, levofloxacin and moxifloxacin. TR1 showed resistance to cefuroxime, and TR2 was sensitive to cefuroxime. Conclusions Legionella pneumophila was detected in the soil of public places, and the isolates have higher intracellular growth ability, indicating the pathogenicity of the strains and suggesting the potential of causing legionellosis epidemic. Therefore, we should strengthen the monitoring of Legionella in public places.
2018, 33(12): 1037-1041. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.12.016
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Objective To understand the distribution characteristics of injury caused by fall in the elderly aged ≥60 years in Guangzhou, Guangdong province, during 2016−2017 and provide evidence for effective injury prevention and control in the elderly. Methods The data of injury cases seeking medical care for the first time were collected in 5 injury surveillance hospitals in Guangzhou from 2016 to 2017 for the analysis on the distribution characteristics of fall caused injury in the elderly aged ≥60 years. Results During 2016−2017, a total of 4 361 injury cases caused by fall in the elderly aged ≥60 years were reported by the 5 injury surveillance hospitals, accounting for 49.5% of the total injury cases in this group. Fall was the first leading cause of injury in this group. The men to women ratio of the injury cases was 0.60∶1. Injuries mainly occurred at home during leisure time. Most cases had mild and moderate injuries and left hospitals after treatment. The proportion of the injury caused by fall was slightly higher in March, July and November. With the increase of age, the proportion of fall caused injury cases increased gradually in older age group, the difference was significant (χ2＝1 220.807, P＜0.001). According to the gender and age group stratification, with the increase of age, the proportions of fracture cases, cases needing observation/hospitalization/referral and moderate injury cases increased. The people with lower degree of education had higher proportion of fall caused injuries (χ2＝85.667, P＜0.001). The injuries were mainly contusion/scratch or fracture (χ2＝3 095.215, P＜0.001) and the injury sites were mainly head or lower limb (χ2＝1 273.623, P＜0.001). Conclusion Fall is the major injury cause in the elderly in Guangzhou. It is necessary to take targeted prevention and intervention measures to reduce falls in the elderly.
2018, 33(12): 1042-1047. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.12.017
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Objective To understand the drug susceptibility and molecular epidemiological characteristics of Candida glabrata and Candida tropicalis strains isolated from leaves, barks and humus, compare the phylogenetic relationship between environmental isolates and clinical isolates and provide evidence for epidemiological investigation and effective control of invasive Candida infection. Methods A total of 200 environmental samples were collected in Yunnan province. The samples were inoculated on Sabouraud dextrose agar plate for Candida culture and isolation. The genomic DNA of the isolates was extracted, and the isolate species were identified through Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region amplification and sequencing; Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed for each C. glabrata or C. tropicalis isolate by using broth micro dilution reference method; Multi locus sequence typing (MLST) was performed for the genotyping of the isolates. The phylogenetic relationship was analyzed by using eBURST V3 package. Results A total of 3 C. glabrata strains (1.5%) and 10 C. tropicalis strains (5.0%) were isolated from 200 environmental samples. All the isolates were sensitive to fluconazole. MLST indicated that ST3 was the only sequence type of C. glabrata. Among 10 C. tropicalis strains, 7 DSTs were identified by MLST, including 4 new DSTs (DST813–DST816). CC3 was the major clonal complex of environmentalC. glabrata strains. CC730 was the major clonal complex of environmental C. tropicalis strains. Conclusion The environmental isolates might share the same origin strain with clinical isolates. C. glabrata and C. tropicalis isolated from leaves, barks and humus might be the potential source of human infection, posing a serious health threaten to human health.
2018, 33(12): 1048-1053. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.12.018
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Objectives To understand the incidence of diarrhea caused by Campylobacter in Shunyi district of Beijing and explore the detection methods for Campylobacter and analyze the drug resistance characteristics of Campylobacter. Methods A total of 372 stool samples were collected from patients with diarrhea in two hospitals in Shunyi in 2017 for Campylobacter, Salmonella, Shigella, Diarrheagenic E. coli and Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolation. The filter membrane method was used in the isolation of Campylobacter. The isolated Campylobacter strains were tested for drug sensitivity. Results Among 372 stool samples, a total of 39 strains of Campylobacter were isolated (10.48%), including 36 strains of C. jejuni (92.31%) and 3 strains of C. coli (7.69%). The positive rates of Salmonella, Shigella, E. coli and V. parahaemolyticus were 6.99%, 0.27%, 9.14%, and 12.63%, respectively. The clinical symptoms of 39 cases of Campylobacter infection were mainly diarrhea (watery stools), abdominal pain, nausea and dehydration. The detection rate of Campylobacter was higher in spring and autumn than in summer and winter, and the peak appeared in October. Campylobacter infection cases were mainly young and middle-aged adults aged 16 to 45 years; there was no significant difference in the detection rate between men and women (P＝0.698, χ2＝0.150). The infection cases were mainly distributed in students, people engaged in other occupations and in business services. Contaminated foods included vegetables, cereals and aquatic products. Three strains of C. coliwere only sensitive to chloramphenicol. The resistant rates of 36 C. jejuni isolates to quinolones, tetracyclines and chloramphenicol were high, including nalidixic acid (97.22%), ciprofloxacin (97.22%), tetracycline (86.11%), florfenicol (58.33%). Nineteen strains of C. jejuni (52.78%) were multi-drug resistant, and the multi-drug resistance spectrum was mainly quinolones-chloramphenicol-tetracyclines (47.37%, 9/19). Conclusions The proportion of diarrhea caused by Campylobacter was high in Shunyi. The isolated Campylobacter strains showed serious drug resistance, including multiple drug resistance, to which close attention should be paid.
2018, 33(12): 1054-1057. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.12.019
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Objective To analyze the antibiotic use in recent years in our hospital, analyze its influence on the prevalence of drug resistance of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae and provide guidance for the reasonable clinical use of antibiotics and the control and decrease of bacterial drug-resistance. Methods The use frequency and use dose of antibiotics, and the drug resistance level of E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolated in our hospital from 2013 to 2017 were investigated. Results The antibiotic use dose (AUD) increased year by year from 2013 to 2015 and decreased in 2016 in our hospital. According to the analysis of defined daily dose (DDD), the drug resistant rate of E. coli was positively correlated with the use frequencies of ceftazidime and cefuroxime, but negatively correlated with the use frequencies of other antibiotics. While the drug resistance rate of K. pneumoniae was obviously positively correlated with the use frequencies of meropenem and levofloxacin (r＝0.980, P＝0.003 and r＝0.902, P＝0.036), and positively correlated with use frequencies of ceftazidime, cefepime, gentamicin and cefoperazone/sulbactam, but negatively correlated with use frequencies of cefuroxime, imipenem and piperacillin/tazobactam. Conclusion The use frequencies of commonly used antibiotics had certain relationship with the drug resistance of E. coli and K. pneumoniae, especially the relationship between the high frequency uses of meropenem and levofloxacin and the drug resistance of K. pneumoniae, to which close attention should be paid.
2018, 33(12): 1058-1062. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.12.020
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Objective To investigate the distribution and drug susceptibility of pathogens causing bloodstream infection isolated from blood samples of cancer patients in Sichuan Cancer Hospital from January 2012 to December 2016 and provide evidence for the rational use of antibiotics. Methods The drug susceptibility of the pathogen strains isolated from the cancer patients were analyzed with software WHONET 5.6 according to the breakpoints of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute in 2016. Results A total of 603 pathogen strains were isolated from blood samples of the cancer patients, including 165 gram positive cocci strains, 434 gram negative bacilli strains and 4 fungi strains, respectively. In the all cancer patients, the pathogen isolation rate was highest in cervical carcinoma patients, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase negative Staphylococcus and Enterobacter cloacae were the most common pathogens isolated, accounting for 34.33%, 13.27%, 9.29%, 6.80% and 4.98%, respectively. Methicillin resistant strains accounted for 12.50% and 73.17%, respectively, in S. aureus and coagulase negative Staphylococcus isolates. The strains of Enterobacteriaceae were still highly sensitive to carbapenems, less than 5.00% of these strains were resistant to carbapenems. In contrast, Acinetobacter baumannii was highly resistant to carbapenems, and about 80.00% of A. baumannii strains were resistant to imipenem and meropenem, respectively. Conclusion Enterobacteriaceae was the main pathogens isolated from the blood samples of the cancer patients. Their drug susceptibilities varied. The resistance of A. baumannii to carbapenem was serious. Therefore, it is necessary to use antibiotics rationally according to the type of cancer and related drug susceptibility test results.
2018, 33(12): 1063-1066. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.12.021
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Objective To understand the underreporting of brucellosis in Shanxi province, find out the problemsin reporting of brucellosis in medical institutions, estimate the epidemic situationand provide the evidence for prevention and control of brucellosis. Methods According to the ‘National Survey Protocol forthe Underreporting of Notifiable Communicable Diseases’, we investigated the underreporting of brucellosis in residents and medical institutions in Shanxi. Results A total of 60 180 residents were investigated, and 103 cases of brucellosis were identified and the average annual incidence was 171.15/100 000. Among these cases, 45 were not reported, the underreporting rate was 43.69%, and 44 were failed to be diagnosed, the missed diagnosis rate was 42.72%. Seventy eight medical institutionswere investigated, and 542 cases of brucellosis were identified, in which 140 were not reported, and the rate of underreporting was 25.83%. One in the 402 reported cases of brucellosis was not reported in time. The timely reported rate was 99.75%. Conclusion The underreporting of brucellosis was severe in Shanxi; which might be due to the diagnosis and treatmentof brucellosis cases in different medical institutions and the ambiguity of the type ofbrucellosis which should be reported. So it is suggested to clarify the reporting type of brucellosis. The ability of diagnosis of medical institutions above county level should be improved in order to reduce the underreporting of brucellosis.
2018, 33(12): 1067-1069. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.12.022
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CN 11-2928/R

ISSN 1003-9961

Established in:1986 , Monthly

Responsible Institution:National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China

Sponsor: Editorial Board of Disease Surveillance，National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention，Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention

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