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Life expectancy and mortality rates of major chronic disease in demonstration area of Tianjin, 2008–2018
Shuang Zhang, Hui Zhang, Chengfeng Shen, Chong Wang, Kun Sun, Zhuo Wang, Guide Song, Dezheng Wang, Guohong Jiang
Corrected proof , DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2020.06.009
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ObjectiveTo analyze the life expectancy and mortality rates of major chronic diseases in demonstration area of Tianjin from 2008 to 2018, and evaluate the effects of the establishment of demonstration area for chronic disease prevention and control.MethodsBased on the data of all-cause deaths of the whole population in Tianjin, we compared the life expectancy and mortality rates of all-cause deaths and major chronic diseases (cardio-cerebrovascular diseases, malignant tumors, diabetes and chronic lower respiratory tract diseases) in residents in demonstration area, non-demonstration area and whole city of Tianjin. The population data were from Tianjin Municipal Public Security Bureau. The crude mortality rates, standardized mortality rate, life expectancy and annual percentage change were analyzed.ResultsThe people’s life expectancy increased from 81.48 years in 2008 to 82.38 years in 2018 in demonstration area (APC=0.19, P<0.05), and the annual people’s life expectancy was all higher in demonstration area than in non-demonstration area. The crude mortality rates of all-cause deaths showed no change trend in demonstration area, but showed upward trends in both non-demonstration area and whole city. The standardized mortality rates of all-cause deaths showed no change trend in demonstration area, non-demonstration area and whole city after adjustment for standardized population constituent. The crude and standardized mortality rates of acute myocardial infarction, chronic lower respiratory diseases and liver cancer showed more decreases in demonstration area compared with non-demonstration area. The mortality rates of breast cancer in females and diabetes in males showed less increases in demonstration area than in non-demonstration area and whole city. The mortality rate of colorectal cancer showed more increase in demonstration area than in non-demonstration area and whole city.ConclusionThe establishment of chronic disease prevention and control demonstration area in Tianjin had shown effects. Each demonstration area explored their new models constantly for the prevention and control of chronic diseases, which would benefit the improvement of the prevention, control and management of chronic diseases in Tianjin.
Disease burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Jiangsu province, 1990–2017
Hao Yu, Ming Wu, Pengfei Luo, Renqiang Han, Jinyi Zhou
Corrected proof , DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2020.06.006
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ObjectiveTo analyze the disease burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) of Jiangsu province from 1990 to 2017, and quantify the attributable risk factors.MethodsThe estimation for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017 was used to analyze the change trend of the prevalence rate, mortality rate, disability adjusted life years (DALY) and the premature mortality rate of COPD in residents in Jiangsu, during 1990 -2017. Population attributable fractions (PAF) was used to estimate the proportion of different risk factors in causing burden of disease.ResultsFrom 1990 to 2017, the standardized prevalence rate, standardized mortality rate, standardized DALY rate and premature mortality rate of COPD in Jiangsu showed significant downward trend (P<0.001),but the standardized prevalence rate in female showed no decrease trend (P=0.157). After 40 years old, the DALY rate increased rapidly with age. The proportion of years lived with disability in DALY increased in recent years. Smoking had become the first cause of COPD disease burden, the PAF was 40.70%.ConclusionThe disease burden of COPD is decreasing in Jiangsu. However, the situation is still challenging. It is necessary to pay close attention to middle-aged and elderly people and women, take tobacco control as the key prevention and control measure and strengthen the prevention of disability caused by COPD.
Investigation on tetanus antibody in healthy people in Jinjiang, 2019
Tiancong Zhuang, Huajie Zhang, Zhe Li, Xinjun Lyu, Chuanlin Wang, Xiao Ma, Chuanyu Pan
Corrected proof , DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2020.06.014
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ObjectiveTo determine tetanus antibody (TAB) levels of healthy population in Jinjiang city during 2019.MethodsWe collected the sera sample of healthy population at different age in 2019 by stratified random sampling, and detected TAB levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.ResultsThe overall TAB positive rate among the 775 subjects was39.2% (304/775), and TAB positive rate of each age group was 71.9% (87/121, aged 8–20 years), 53.6% (82/153, aged 21–30 years), 39.3%(57/145, aged 31–40 years), 25.2% (38/151, aged 41–50 years), 16.2%(17/105, aged 51–60 years), and 23.0% (23/100, over 61 years old), respectively. TAB positive rate was 70.7% (164/232) in subjects who had been immunized with tetanus toxoid containing vaccines (TTCV) in the past years, while 25.8% (140/543) in subjects without or with uncertain TTCV immunization history. For TAB negative population, there was statistically significant difference in age groups distribution between tetanus high-risk industries and tetanus low-risk industries ( χ2=62.185, P<0.000). People aged 41–50 years in tetanus high-risk industries accounted for 46.79%.ConclusionThe overall TAB positive rate in healthy population decreased significantly with aging. More attentions should be paid in TTCV enhanced immunization works.
Screening and identification of epitopes of Nfa34810 protein of Nocardia farcinica
Han Song, Zhenjun Li, Xingzhao Ji, Lina Sun, Shuai Xu, Lichao Han, Ningwei Zheng, Yongliang Lou
Corrected proof , DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2020.06.018
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ObjectiveTo prepare monoclonal antibodies against Nfa34810 protein of Nocardia farcinica IFM10152 and screen and identify the B cell epitopes.MethodsFirst, Nfa34810 protein was truncated into P1 and P2 with 20 amino acids overlapping with each other. P1 and P2 were detected to initially map the epitope region by Western Blot using recombinant Nfa34810 protein rabbit polyclonal antibody serum and the mouse polyclonal antibody against N. farcinica IFM10152. Then the P2 where the epitope was located was purified, and BALB/c mice were immunized with the purified P2 and Nfa34810 protein respectively to prepare monoclonal antibodies. The antibodies were identified by Western Blot. Nfa34810 was gradually truncated and expressed and the series of proteins were screened and identified by Western Blot to determine the B cell epitopes of Nfa34810 protein using the prepared monoclonal antibodies by peptide scanning.ResultsThe monoclonal antibodies of Nfa34810 were prepared and they could react with truncated protein P2 and full-length Nfa34810 protein. One epitope and two epitope regions were successfully screened by peptide scanning.ConclusionIn this study, the monoclonal antibodies of Nfa34810 protein was successfully prepared and the B cell epitopes were mapped. This study laid a foundation for pathogen detection and epidemiological research of N. farcinica.
Comprehensive evaluation of quality of communicable disease information reporting in Tianjin based on improved TOPSIS method
Na Xu, Changna Liu, Weidong Xia, Hong Chen, Jun Liu
Corrected proof , DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2020.06.020
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ObjectiveTo comprehensively evaluate the quality of the communicable disease information reporting in Tianjin in 2018.MethodsInstitutional network operation, communicable disease reporting rate, card reporting timeliness, card review timeliness, card duplication reporting and completeness the patient's identity information in each district of Tianjin were analyzed by using an improved TOPSIS method.ResultsThe results of the comprehensive evaluation by using the improved TOPSIS method showed that the top three districts with high reporting quality were Hedong, Xiqing and Hongqiao, and the last three districts with low reporting quality were Hexi, Dongli and Jinghai. The comprehensive evaluation results indicated the quality of the reporting of each district, and the ranking of the reporting quality reflected actual situation.ConclusionComprehensively and scientifically evaluation of the quality of communicable disease information reporting in each district in Tianjin was conducted based on the indicators of the reporting quality in communicable disease reporting information system and in field investigation report of medical institution, and the related evaluation system and method provided a novel model for the comprehensive evaluation of the quality of communicable disease information reporting in China or in other provinces.
Surveillance for death causes in residents in Sichuan, 2014–2018
Jing Zeng, Ying Deng, Kui Ji, Xinyin Xu, Xin Zhang
Corrected proof , DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2020.06.010
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ObjectiveTo understand the death level and death cause rank in residents in Sichuan province from 2014 to 2018 and provide evidence for the further prevention and control of diseases.MethodsThe death data in 31 national cause-of-death surveillance areas in Sichuan from 2014 to 2018 were obtained from “China Disease Prevention and Control Information System- Death Reporting Information System”. International Classification of Diseases 10th Edition (ICD-10) was used for death data coding. Age specific and standardized mortality rates were calculated with software SAS9.4.ResultsFrom 2014 to 2018, the mortality rates in residents in Sichuan were 677.93/100 000, 694.56/100 000, 702.67/100 000, 705.29/100 000 and 703.41/100 000, respectively, and the standardized mortality rates were 555.26/100 000, 562.55/100 000, 529.57/100 000, 531.39/100 000, and 502.10 / 100 000, showing a downward trend. The top 3 death causes were cardiovascular diseases, malignant tumors and respiratory diseases. The top 3 death causes of cardiovascular diseases were cerebrovascular disease, ischemic heart disease, hypertension heart disease and/or kidney disease. The standardized mortality rate of cerebrovascular disease showed a downward trend, and the mortality rate of ischemic heart disease showed an upward trend. The top 3 death causes of malignant tumors were lung cancer, liver cancer and esophageal cancer, their mortality rates showed downward trends, but the mortality rate of pancreatic cancer showed an upward trend. The main death causes of respiratory diseases were chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lower respiratory tract infections, but the standardized mortality rate of COPD showed a downward trend.ConclusionIn Sichuan, the mortality rate of ischemic heart disease increased significantly, although the mortality rate of COPD declined, it was higher than the national average and ranked ahead, and the mortality rate of malignant tumors decreased, but it was higher than the national average. The mortality rate of pancreatic cancer showed an upward trend, to which close attention should be paid.
Distribution characteristics of capsule locus of Neisseria meningitidis clonal complex 4821 in China
Pan Zhao, Bingqing Zhu, Aiyu Zhang, Li Xu, Yuan Gao, Jianxing Yu, Zhujun Shao
Corrected proof , DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2020.06.011
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ObjectiveTo understand the distribution of capsule locus of Neisseria meningitidis clonal complex 4821 in China and provide evidence for the research of spread of meningococcal disease.MethodsSoftware Artemis, MEGA 6, SimPlot and RDP were used to analyze the whole genome sequence of 41 N. meningitidis strains, the sequence divergence of the capsule locus, sequence recombination and genomic rearrangement were studied.ResultsThe ACE regions are highly divergent and likely involved in recombination events. The analysis of the nucleotide sequence of region D and D′ showed significant divergence. Finally, this study identified a genomic rearrangement in cps.ConclusionAltogether, this analysis showed that the capsular locus was evolutionary unstable which might be due to recombination events that could lead to capsule switching and have consequences in terms of pathogenesis.
Mortality and years of life lost caused by major kidney diseases in Jiangsu province, 2010–2018
Pengfei Luo, Hao Yu, Renqiang Han, Jinyi Zhou, Ming Wu
Corrected proof , DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2020.06.008
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ObjectiveTo determine mortality and years of life lost (YLL) of major kidney diseases as well as its trends between 2010 and 2018 in Jiangsu province, and to provide scientific basis for its prevention and control in the future.MethodsDeath cases among the residents who registered in Jiangsu province between 2010 and 2018 were all collected from the National Death Monitoring System, and related annual population numbers were obtained from local Public Security Department. Mortality, YLL rate, average YLL, age-standardized rate and its annual percentage change (APC) were all calculated to evaluate the level of disease burden.ResultsBetween 2010 and 2018, case numbers of death caused by major kidney diseases in the whole population, males and females of Jiangsu province were 41 819, 23 969 and 17 850, respectively, mortalities in 2010 and 2018 were 6.17/100 000 and 6.96/100 000, respectively, the age-standardized mortality rate was significantly decreased as its APC (95%CI) was −2.75% (−3.72% – −1.78%). YLLs caused by major kidney diseases in the whole population, males and females were 966 493.40, 575 115.70 and 391 377.70 years, respectively, relative average YLLs were 23.11, 23.99 and 21.97 years/person, respectively; YLL rates in 2010 and 2018 were 1.53 and 1.55 years per 1 000 persons, respectively, the age-standardized YLL rate was significantly decreased as its APC (95%CI) was −2.59% (−3.53% – −1.64%). Besides, the age-specific mortalities and age-specific YLL rates of major kidney diseases were all at low levels before the age of 30 and increased slowly after the age of 30, and increased rapidly after the age of 60. The age-standardized mortality and age-standardized YLL rate of kidney cancer were significantly increased, however, that of both glomerular disease and tubulointerstitial disease showed no trends, and that of renal failure decreased significantly.ConclusionBoth the death burden and early death burden of total four kinds of major kidney disease in Jiangsu Province had decreased significantly between 2010 and 2018. Both the death burden and early death burden of males were higher than that of females. Both the death burden and early death burden of kidney cancer had increased that suggesting more relative control strategies should be made in the future.
Tendency prediction of COVID-19 worldwide
Fengying Wei, Jinjie Wang, Xianming Xu, Jianzhao Gao, Boling Wang, Chiyu Ma, Zhihang Peng, Zhen Jin, Senzhong Huang
Corrected proof , DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2020.06.004
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ObjectiveWe give projections of the COVID-19 epidemic course worldwide.MethodsBased on a generic SEIR (susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered/removed) model which incorporates the main epidemiological parameters and control efficacy into it, we construct thereby the webapp EpiSIX and use it to forecast the possible tendency of the epidemic course of COVID-19.ResultsIdeally, the epidemic course worldwide would be stopped by the end of September 2020, with outcomes of 7.0 million diagnosed cases worldwide and 2.5 million diagnosed cases in the USA (currently 5.4 million worldwide and 1.67 million in USA).ConclusionWe make a Warning: Predicted only for the first wave. Be careful with the emerging of second wave.
Secretion characteristics of cytokines in mice after infected with Nocardia cyriaciorgica GUH-2
Lichao Han, Xingzhao Ji, Shuai Xu, Lina Sun, , Han Song, Ningwei Zheng, Zhenjun Li
Accepted Manuscript
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ObjectiveTo understand the characteristics of cytokine secretion in mice after infected with Nocardia cyriacigeorgica, clarify its pathogenesis, and provide theoretical basis for the treatment of nocardiosis.MethodsBALB/c mice were infected by nasal drip, and then the bacterial loads in the lung of the mice at different time intervals were counted by plate counting. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect the concentration of cytokines in lung tissues and serum of the mice at different time intervals. Software SPSS 23.0 was used for statistical analysis.ResultsMost of N. cyriacigeorgica (98.35%) in the lung tissues of the mice were eliminated at 48 h after infection, and no N. cyriacigeorgica was detected in serum of the mice. In the early stage of infection, the concentrations of IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, TNF-α and IFN-γ in the lung tissues of the mice were significantly higher than those in the control group (P<0.01). The concentrations of these cytokines showed a trend of decline over time. In serum of the mice, the concentrations of IL-6 (6-24 h), IFN-γ (12-24 h) and IL-10 (48 h) were higher than those in the control group. The difference was significant (P<0.01). And the concentrations of IL-12 (12-48 h) and IL-4 (12 h) were significantly inhibited compared with the control group. The difference was significant (P<0.01). In addition, there were positive correlations between the concentrations of cytokines and bacterial loads in the lung tissues of the mice.ConclusionIn the process of infection with N. cyriacigeorgica in mice, cytokines such as IL-6, TNF-α, IL-12, IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-4 were secreted, especially the high concentrations of IL-6, IL-12, IFN-γ and IL-10. The interactions of various cytokines were involved in the immune response mechanism of eliminating N. cyriacigeorgica infection.
Laboratory analysis on one food poisoning event caused by Clostridium perfringens
Guoqiang Ji, Ying Li, Shuang Zhang, Jinchang Lyu, He Zhang, Hongmei Ma, Bo Pang, Maojun Zhang
Corrected proof , DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2020.06.019
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ObjectiveTo identify the pathogen of one food poisoning event with three detection methods.MethodReal-time PCR, digital PCR and plate count culture were applied in the detection of suspected contaminated food samples (salt water pig liver); Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was performed for the typing of the isolates. Biochemical bacteria identification and real-time PCR were performed for the Clostridium perfringens isolates from the suspected contaminated food samples; digital PCR was performed for the absolute quantification of virulence genes.ResultsPlate count culture value of C. perfringens was 4 400 000 CFU/g for the suspected contaminated food samples, and 22 C. perfringens isolates were obtained, which were positive for both plc gene and cpe gene of C. perfringens indicated by real-time PCR; and 3 isolates were plc+/cpe+, 19 isolates were plc+/cpe–. Absolute quantification value of plc gene was 1064 Copies/μl. Twenty two C. perfringens isolates had 2 different PFGE patterns.ConclusionLaboratory analysis through three detection methods indicated that this food poisoning might be caused by C. perfringens.
Application of whole genome sequencing in etiology investigation of an outbreak of polyclonal Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection
Weiwei Zhang, Ying Li, Qun Wang, Lin Zhao, Baoli Feng, Huiting Jiang, Shuai Hao, Qing Li, Ying Zhang, Hongmei Ma, Bo Pang
Corrected proof , DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2020.06.013
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ObjectiveApplying real-time PCR and whole genome sequencing in the etiology investigation of an outbreak caused by Vibrio parahaemolyticus.MethodsDiarrhea patient stool samples and epidemiological data were collected. Suspected pathogens were screened with real-time PCR. V. parahaemolyticus strains were isolated, identified and their serotypes were confirmed by agglutination with commercial diagnostic serum. The existences of tdh and trh genes were identified with real-time PCR. The drug resistance of the strains was determined by broth micro-dilution method, and whole genome sequencing data was used for genetic analysis.ResultsA total of 13 V. parahaemolyticus strains were isolated from 9 anal swabs of patients, including 7 strains of O4∶KUT (trh–/tdh+) and 6 trains of O1∶KUT (5 trh+/tdh+ strains, 1 trh–/tdh–strain). All the V. parahaemolyticus strains were only resistant to ampicillin and sensitive to other 29 kinds of antibiotics. The 13 V. parahaemolyticus strains formed four independent and distant related lineages, Lineage 1 (O4∶KUT, trh–/tdh+, 2 strains), Lineage 2 (trh–/tdh–, 1 strain), Lineage 3 (O1∶KUT trh+/tdh+, 5 strains) and Lineage 4 (O4∶KUT, trh–/tdh+, 5 strains). Three patients had mixed infections of V. parahaemolyticus from three different genetic branches.ConclusionThis outbreak was caused by polyclonal V. parahaemolyticus. Whole genome sequencing has a good application prospect in pathogen analysis of diarrhea outbreak.
Laboratory identification of an infant botulism B case
Aijia Zhang, Qijie Sun, Ying Huang, Pengya Gao, Zhinan Liu, Xiaojing Peng, Yang Liu, Xuefang Xu, Xiuwei Zhuo, Weihua Zhang, Changde Wu, Xuancheng Lu
Accepted Manuscript , DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2020.06.021
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ObjectiveA laboratory test of the stool sample collected from a suspected infant botulism case in Beijing Children’s Hospital in February 2019 was conducted for the final confirmation.MethodsThe sample was diluted according to GB 4789.12—2016 for the botulinum toxin identification in animal experiments. The sample was inoculated in enrichment medium to observe its change and inoculated in yolk medium for strain isolation purification. PCR amplification technology was used to amplify 16S rRNA, and the sequences of the target fragments were aligned.ResultsMice were injected intraperitoneally with dilution of stool sample, and the mice developed shortness of breath, abdominal breathing and died within 4–6 hours, showing typical symptoms of botulism. The typical Clostridium botulinum was isolated on the yolk medium plate, and the spore morphology was observed by gram staining. The gene sequence alignment showed that the sequence of the 16S rRNA shared 99% similarity with that of C. botulinum. Fluorescent quantitative PCR showed that toxin gene B of C. botulinum was positive, and the infant was diagnosed with botulism B.ConclusionThe test results and diagnosis protocol of this study provide reference for the diagnosis and prevention as well as of clinical identification of botulism B in infants in China.
Measles vaccination rate and influencing factors in migrant workers in Changping district, Beijing
Jilin Sui, Junying Yang, Haihong Wang, Ying Xu, Liwen Zhang, Xiaoxiao Fan
Accepted Manuscript , DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2020.06.017
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ObjectiveTo understand the vaccination rate of measles attenuated live vaccine (MV) and the influencing factors in migrant workers in Changping district of Beijing.MethodsA questionnaire survey of MV vaccination was conducted in migrant workers aged 16–40 years selected through multi-stage cluster random sampling in 20 townships (streets) of Changping district of Beijing in April 2015. The survey contents included basic information, health knowledge awareness and MV vaccination status of the migrant workers. The factors influencing the vaccination rate were analyzed by χ2 test and logistic regression model was used for univariate and multivariate analyses.ResultsThe overall vaccination rate of MV was 17.63% (241/1 367). Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that the MV vaccination rate was higher in age group 16–20 years than in other age groups (OR=1.852, 95% CI: 1.111–3.088), higher in married people than in other people (OR=1.369, 95% CI: 1.005–1.866), higher in those with qualified health literacy (OR=1.693, 95%CI: 1.246–2.301), but lower in those without awareness of vaccination policy (OR=0.451, 95% CI: 0.337–0.602).ConclusionThe MV vaccination rate was low in migrant workers age 16–40 years in Changping. Age, marriage, health literacy and awareness of MV vaccination policy were the influencing factors of MV vaccination coverage in migrant workers in Changping. It is necessary to strengthen the health education about measles prevention and control knowledge of measles prevention as well as MV vaccination policy in migrant workers to improve the MV vaccination coverage in this population.
Influenza related knowledge awareness and influenza vaccination coverage in nurses in Heilongjiang, 2017–2018
Yanqiu Sheng, Xiaoge Su, Lei Wang, Ying Cui, Xin Nie, Bin He
Accepted Manuscript , DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2020.06.016
[Abstract](563) [FullText HTML](226) [PDF 3559KB](14) [Peer reviewing opinions] Related References Cited By (0) Share
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ObjectiveTo investigate the influenza related knowledge awareness and influenza vaccination coverage in nurses in Heilongjiang province during 2017–2018 and identify the influencing factors.MethodsBy means of convenient sampling and targeted delivery of questionnaires, the online questionnaire survey was conducted in nurses registered in the nursing network with their current address in Heilongjiang.ResultsA total of 773 nurses returned valid questionnaires, and among the 773 nurses, the awareness rate of influenza related knowledge was higher than 86.80%, but the coverage rate of influenza vaccination was only 4.01% (31/773), and only 24.84% of the nurses had recommended influenza vaccine to their patients. The major reason for not receiving influenza vaccination was too busy (20.75%). The gender, age, working year, institution type, institution level and department in medical institution had no influences on influenza vaccination rate in the nurses (P>0.05).ConclusionThe coverage rate of influenza vaccination in the nurses in Heilongjiang was low. It is suggested to improve the availability of influenza vaccination in medical personnel in Heilongjiang by exploring the feasibility of free vaccination and specific forms of vaccination, and conducting targeted health education to increase the coverage of influenza vaccination in nurses.
Epidemiological characteristics of brucellosis in Lyuliangshan area, 2006–2018
Yaling Jin, Yunxia Geng, Yuewei Chen, Hao Li, Dapeng Yin
Accepted Manuscript , DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2020.06.015
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ObjectiveTo analyze the epidemiological characteristics of human brucellosis and its weakness of prevention and control in Lyuliangshan area from 2006 to 2018, and to provide suggestions on its prevention and control.MethodsDescriptive epidemiological method is used to analyze the population profile and seasonal and area distribution of brucellosis, based on surveillance data.ResultsBrucellosis of Lyuliangshan area has obvious seasonal, regional and population distribution characteristics. From 2006 to 2018, there were 10 556 cases of human brucellosis, mainly in counties of Shenchi, Suide and Zizhou. There were two spikes in 2008 and 2014. It has a distinct seasonal characteristics from 2006 to 2015, the incidence in spring and summer accounted for 72.89% of total cases. After 2015, the seasonal characteristics decreased, and the incidence accounted for 65.93%. There was an overall upward trend in the population aged 50–80, accounting for 58.79% of total reported cases, mainly among males and farmers.ConclusionThe incidence trend of brucellosis in lyuliangshan presents a bimodal change with regional clustering, and the seasonal characteristics are not obvious in recent years, so the change of epidemiological characteristics should be noted.
Research on detection method of Vibrio parahaemolyticus based on CRISPR/Cas protein
Qun Wang, Zhe Li, Lin Zhao, Zijian Wang, Hongqun Zhao, Biao Kan, Bo Pang
Accepted Manuscript , DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2020.06.012
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ObjectiveTo establish a method for rapid detection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus by use the principle of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and the characteristics of Cas12a enzyme to achieve accurate and rapid detection and identification of pathogens.MethodsIn this study, we prepared and purified Cas12a protein, screened and constructed V. parahaemolyticus guide RNA, established the CRISPR fluorescence detection system of V. parahaemolyticus, and determined the effectiveness of the CRISPR-VP detection method based on the final fluorescence amplification curve.ResultsIn the CRISPR-VP detection method, a significant fluorescent signal will be produced only in the presence of the sequence of V. parahaemolyticus.ConclusionThis experiment initially established the detection method of V. parahaemolyticus based on CRISPR/Cas protein, providing the preliminary conditions for the subsequent development of simple detection reagents.
Acute effect of ozone on daily stroke mortality in 88 districts/counties of China
Min He, Jinlei Qi, Peng Yin, Maigeng Zhou, Jiangmei Liu, Yunning Liu, Jinling You, Lin Lin, Lijun Wang
Corrected proof , DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2020.06.007
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ObjectiveTo explore the acute effect of ozone on daily stroke mortality in 88 districts/counties of China.MethodsDaily stroke mortality and environment data from 2015 to 2018 in 88 districts/counties of China were collected to perform a time-series analysis. First, we linked Quasi-Poisson distribution with generalized additive model to evaluate the effect of ozone on daily stroke mortality in each districts/counties after adjusting the long-term and seasonal trend as well as meteorological factors and the effect of “days of week”. Then, we used random-effects meta-analyses to pool districts/counties-specific estimates and obtain overall average summary estimates of acute effect of ozone on stroke mortality. We also conducted stratification analyses by regional, seasonal and demographic factors (sex and age).ResultsAt the overall average level, a 10 μg/m3 increase in ozone concentration (lag1) was associated with 0.30% of risk increase of daily mortality form stroke (95% CI : 0.13%-0.47%). At the area specific average level, the acute effect was strongest in the districts/counties in southern China, and the estimate was 0.74% (95% CI : 0.08%-1.40%). Sex specific analysis indicated that each 10 μg/m3 increase in ozone concentration was associated with an increase of 0.38% (95% CI: 0.13%-0.63%) and 0.23% (95% CI: 0.002%-0.460%) of daily stroke mortality in females and males, respectively. The association were stronger in warm season and in older people. However, there were no statistically significant differences in associations between ozone and daily stroke mortality according to region, season, sex and age.ConclusionThe increase in air ozone concentration can increase the risk of stroke mortality. It is necessary to strengthen the prevention and control of ozone pollution.
Life expectancy and major mortality trends of residents in Beijing, 2010–2019
Zaihua Wei, Jianting Su, Qingping Liu, Ping Wang, Yiming Zhang
Accepted Manuscript , DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2020.06.005
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ObjectiveTo analyze and evaluate the health status and major mortality trends of residents in Beijing from 2010 to 2019, and provide evidence for reaching the goals of the mid and long-term plan of healthy Beijing 2030 and the formulation of health prevention and control strategies.MethodsThe health status of residents in Beijing were described and evaluated by using 2010–2019 death surveillance data in residents of Beijing, such as life expectancy, infant mortality rate, maternal mortality rate, and premature mortality rate from chronic diseases.ResultsFrom 2010 to 2019, the infant mortality rate and maternal mortality rate in local residents showed a downward trend and remained at low levels. The life expectancy increased from 2010 to 2019, with an average annual increase of 0.16 years, and it reached 82.31 years in 2019 (79.81 years in males and 84.16 years in females . The premature mortality rate of chronic diseases decreased year by year, and it was 10.56% in 2019 (14.36% in males and 6.37% in females).ConclusionThe infant mortality rate, maternal mortality rate, life expectancy, and premature mortality rate from chronic diseases in Beijing residents can meet the requirements of the “Healthy Beijing 2030” Outline. The health status of Beijing residents has reached the level of high-income countries and regions, and the health status of women is better than that of men.
Summary of global surveillance data of infectious diseases in May 2020
Hui Han, Bo Wu, Yajing Song, Jiaojiao Jia
Accepted Manuscript , DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2020.06.003
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In May 2020, a total of 61 infectious diseases were reported globally, affecting 218 countries and regions. Except for influenza, the top five infectious diseases affecting greatest number of countries and regions were COVID-19 (217), dengue fever (22), measles (16), Zika virus disease (14) and Chikungunya fever (13). The top three infectious diseases with highest case fatality rates were Ebola virus disease (65.8%), Lassa fever (19.4%) and COVID-19 (6.2%). The top five infectious diseases with greatest number of deaths were COVID-19, dengue fever, measles, cholera and Lassa fever. The prevalent infectious diseases in Asia were COVID-19 and dengue fever, the prevalent infectious diseases in Africa were COVID-19,Ebola virus disease, cholera, yellow fever, Lassa fever and measles, the prevalent infectious diseases in America were COVID-19, dengue fever, Zika virus disease and Chikungunya fever,the prevalent infectious diseases in Europe were COVID-19 and measles.
Identification of Brucella mutants by MLVA assay
Guozhong Tian, Hai Jiang, Hongyan Zhao, Xiaowen Yang, Dongri Piao
Accepted Manuscript
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ObjectiveTo classify Brucella variants which cannot be classified by conventional biological detection methods by using multiple locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) assay.MethodsThirty nine clinical Brucella isolates were identified as Brucella variants by biological methods. They were classified again by MLVA assay.ResultsThirty nine strains Brucella isolates agglutinated with rough type serum R and could be cleaved by BK2 phage. But WB and TB phages were not cleaved. The biological types were uncertain. Nine strains could agglutinate weakly with serum A and M, and 2 strains could agglutinate weakly with serum M. The other 28 strains did not agglutinate with serum A and M. Thirty three strains could be cleaved by rough Iz phage. The 39 strains were identified as Brucella variants by biological detection methods. The MLVA assay including 16 tandem repeats loci were used to analyze the 39 Brucella isolates and 17 Brucella reference strains (6 species and types). Cluster analysis showed that in the 39 strains of Brucella variants, 2 strains were similar to Brucella abortus biovar 2 or 4, and 37 strains were similar to Brucella melitensis biovar 3.ConclusionThe conventional biological identification methods combined with MLVA assay seems to be suitable for further classification of Brucella strains, especially for Brucella variant.
导 读
Peng Yin
Accepted Manuscript
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2020年5月中国甲乙丙类传染病疫情动态概要
Accepted Manuscript , DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2020.06.002
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Results of seroepidemiological survey of hepatitis B in healthy population in Zhejiang, 2018
Wen Shi, Yang Zhou, Chen Yuan, Rui Yan, Hanqing He, Xuewen Tang, Xuan Deng
Accepted Manuscript
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ObjectiveTo investigate the serum markers of hepatitis B virus in healthy population in Zhejiang province in 2018.MethodsA questionnaire survey was conducted among 0-59 years old people with local residence >6 months who were selected through multistage stratified cluster random sampling, in 11 prefectures (municipality) and Yiwu of Zhejiang, and 2 ml of venous blood was collected from each study subjects for the detections of hepatitis B virus related antigen and antibody.ResultsA total of 4194 people were investigated, the positive rate of HBsAg was 4.58% (19 /4194), and the anti-HBs rate was 63.92% (2681/4194). The positive rate of HBsAg in populations aged 0-14, 15-29 and 30-59 years increased with age (χ2= 85.228, P<0.001). The positive rate of anti HBs decreased first and then increased (χ2=110.413, P<0.001). The immunization rate of hepatitis B vaccine was 63.02% (2643/4194). The vaccination rates decreased with age (χ2=2229.121, P<0.001).The results of multivariate logistic analysis showed that gender and immunization history of hepatitis B vaccine were the main factors influencing the positive rate of HBsAg in adults. The positive rate of HBsAg was higher in men than in women (OR=1.404, 95% CI: 1.014~1.944). The positive rate of HBsAg was lower in patients with hepatitis B immunization history than in those without hepatitis B immunization history (OR=0.548, 95% CI: 0.371~0.810).ConclusionRemarkable achievements have been made in the prevention and control of hepatitis B in children in Zhejiang. It is beneficial for the prevention and control of hepatitis B in adults by increasing the immunization rate of hepatitis B vaccine and strengthening the detections of hepatitis B virus antigen and antibody in this population.
Diversity and drug resistance of Salmonella in river environment of Yuyao, Zhejiang, 2018–2019
Shaojun Huang, Xuehui Luo, Jiahui Zhu
Accepted Manuscript
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ObjectiveTo understand the distribution and pollution of Salmonella in rivers in Yuyao, Zhejaing province.MethodsThe water samples were collected from 12 surveillance sites in Yuyao from January 2018 to December 2019, and then enrichment, isolation, biochemical identification, serotyping, drug sensitivity test and detection of drug resistance genes were carried out.ResultsA total of 116 water samples containing Salmonella were detected in 192 river water samples, with a detection rate of 60.42%. The positive rate at Yaojiang bridge was highest (87.50%). A total of 177 Salmonella strains were detected in 116 positive water samples, which belonged to 25 serotypes, of which S.Typhimurium (16.38%), S. Derby (12.43%) and S.4,[5],12:i:- (11.30%) ranked top three. The number of serotypes detected at Sanguantang of Yaojiang river was highest. In seasonal distribution of the detection, more serotypes were detected in spring. Thirty nine strains showed extensive sensitivity to 16 antibiotics tested, while other strains showed resistance to at least one antibiotic. The resistance rates to penicillin and tetracycline were higher, the resistance rates to ampicillin, piperacillin and tetracycline were 72.31%, 51.41% and 66.10%, respectively. Thirty four strains were multi-drug resistant to three or more antibiotics. The detection rates of β-lactam antibiotic resistance gene tem, oxa and ctx-M were 67.23%, 6.78% and 12.43% respectively. The detection rates of tetracycline resistance gene tetA, tetB and tetG were 55.37%, 15.25% and 7.9%, respectively.ConclusionThe detection rate of Salmonella in river environment of Yuyao was high, and the detected Salmonella strains had multi serotypes, serious drug resistance and complicated drug resistance mechanism. Therefore, it is suggested to pay close attention to the hazard of Salmonella from environmental sources in foodborne disease control.
Progress in research of resistance and adaptation mechanisms of Campylobacter to antibiotics and biocides
Jinli Guo, Zhongxin Zhou, Guyue Cheng, Yulian Wang, Lingli Huang, Kexiang Xiong, Xiao Huang, Chunbei Liu, Haihong Hao
Accepted Manuscript
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Campylobacter, especially C. jejuni, is one of the three foodborne pathogens in the world. The production and spread of its antibiotic and biocide resistances is the focus of food safety. Compared with sensitive strains, after acquiring drug resistance, a series of physiological changes of bacteria, such as growth ability, in vitro and in vivo colonization and pathogenicity, will occur to develop adaptability for better survival under certain conditions. The strength of adaptability determines the risk of drug-resistant bacteria spreading in host and environment. This paper summarizes the resistance and adaptation mechanisms of Campylobacter to major antibiotics and biocides to provide theoretical support for the prevention and control of the prevalence and spread of antibiotic resistance of Campylobacter.
Study on HIV-1 subtypes and molecular cluster characteristics of middle-aged and elderly HIV/AIDS patients in Jiangshan, Zhejiang, 2014–2018
Xufu Chen, Jialing You, Jiafeng Zhang, Qin Fan, Jiaming Yao, Lei Lyu, Wei Wang, Ping Wang, Qi Wu
Accepted Manuscript
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ObjectiveTo understand the distribution of HIV subtypes and the characteristics of molecular transmission clusters of middle-aged and elderly HIV/AIDS patients in Jiangshan of Zhejiang province, and provide technical support for the analysis of HIV epidemic trends and the prevention and control of the epidemic.MethodsNewly HIV-1 diagnosed middle aged and elderly HIV/AIDS patients in Jiangshan from 2014 to 2018 were enrolled in this molecular epidemiological study. Total viral RNA was extracted from plasma of 94 patients, including 3 female sex workers (FSWs). The pol genes were amplified with RT-PCR and nested PCR, and then the nucleic acid was sequenced. Software MEGA 6.0 was applied to construct Neighbor-Joining phylogenetic tree for subtype analysis. Software Cytoscape 3.6.0 was applied to construct HIV molecular clusters for sequences with a genetic distance≤0.01.ResultsThe success rate of sequence acquisition was 86.2% (81/94). The predominant subtype was CRF01_AE (93.8%, 76/81), followed by CRF07_BC in 3 cases (3.7%) and subtype B in 2 cases (2.5%). Three molecular transmission clusters consisting of subtype CRF01_AE were found. The total clustered rate was 84.0% (68/81). The large cluster contained 64 cases (including 1 positive FSW), and two small clusters were all composed of 2 cases.ConclusionThe HIV subtype of middle- aged and elderly people in Jiangshan was mainly CRF01_AE. Transmission clusters that closely related to positive FSWs were found. Therefore, the case epidemiological investigation in the clusters should be strengthened in order to implement targeted public health intervention.
Serotype changes and drug sensitivity of Salmonella in Yuyao, Zhejiang, 2007–2018
Jianqun Zhang, Shijie Yuan, Chao Miao
Accepted Manuscript
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ObjectiveTo investigate the infection status, serotype changes and drug sensitivity of Salmonella in patients with diarrhea in Yuyao of Zhejiang province and provide reference for the prevention and clinical treatment.MethodsA total of 295 strains of Salmonella isolated from diarrhea patients from 2007 to 2018 were resuscitated, serotyped, and their drug susceptibilities were tested. The detection rates in different years were compared with χ2 test.ResultsThe detection rate of Salmonella was 8.60% in sentinel hospitals in Yuyao from 2007 to 2018, and the ratio of male to female was 1.07. Salmonella could be detected in all age groups, mainly in children under 5 years old, the highest detection rate was in summer (10.20%) and the lowest in winter (1.64%). Thirty nine serotypes were detected, belonging to 10 serogroups, and the first four predominant serotypes were S. 4,5,12:i:- (24.41%), S. typhimurium (15.25%), S. enteritidis (9.83%), and S. stanley (8.14%). The resistance rates of the 295 strains to penicillins, tetracyclines and sulfamethoxazole were high, but they were sensitive to other antibiotics, and the resistance rate to cephalosporins increased significantly during 2014—2018 compared with that during 2007—2013. A total of 107 strains (36.27%) were multi-drug resistant, belonging to predominant serotypes and accounting for 36.27%. In the past 12 years, the detection rate, serotypes and drug resistance of Salmonella changed. The detection rate was low during 2007-2013 (3.08%, 34/1103), and 14 serotypes were detected, mainly S. typhimurium (38.24%, 13/34) and S. enteritis (20.59%, 7/34). The detection rate was high during 2014-2018 (11.22%, 261/2307), and 34 serotypes were detected. S. 4,5,12:i:- has replaced S. typhimurium as the first serotype, S. typhimurium ranked second, S. stanley and S. enteritidis ranked third.ConclusionThe predominant serotypes of Salmonella in Yuyao were mainly S. 4,5,12:i:- and S. typhimurium. The surveillance of multi-drug resistance of Salmonella should be further strengthened.
High-throughput sequencing based analysis on diversity of pathogens carried by ticks in Yuyao, Zhejiang
Shaojun Huang, Yi Zhang, Xuehui Luo, Lifeng Chen
Accepted Manuscript
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ObjectiveTo investigate the composition and diversity of tick-borne pathogens in Yuyao, Zhejiang.MethodsThe collected ticks were classified morphologically, and then the highly variable V3-V4 regions of bacterial 16S rDNA gene carried by ticks were sequenced by high throughput sequencing, and their biological information were analyzed.ResultsA total of 481 ticks were detected, which were Haemaphysalis longicornis, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Ixodes sinensis, respectively. The predominant population was H. longicornis, accounting for 94.18%. The average effective sequence reads of 21 groups of ticks was 55 753.The average length of the sequence was 457.82 bp, and the average content of G+C was 52.07%. A total of 2 104 OTU were generated. The dilution curve tended to be smooth, and the coverage of the sample library was more than 99%. The results of colony composition showed that a total of 9 phylum in 77 genus were detected, and the top three were Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Cyanobacteria. Among them, the abundance of Firmicutes was highest, and it has become the predominant flora of ticks. Five kinds of zoonotic bacteria were also found in the microorganisms carried by ticks, which were Staphylococcus, Acinetobacter, Rickettsia, Pseudomonas and Streptococcus. Among them, Staphylococcus was the main species with the highest abundance (98.76%).ConclusionThe microbial community information carried by ticks can be analyzed comprehensively and accurately by high-throughput sequencing, providing evidences for the prevention and control of tick-borne infectious diseases, new animal diseases and the establishment of comprehensive surveillance platform.
Epidemiological investigation of a cutaneous anthrax outbreak in TongLiao, Inner Mongolia, 2018
Li Nie, Humujiletu Liu, Yan Hai, Shiyuan Li, Duo Xu, Hongyang Sui, batu Buren, Hua Yue, Weidong Guo
Accepted Manuscript
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ObjectiveTo understand the epidemiological and transmission characteristics of a cutaneous anthrax outbreak in Tongliao of Inner Mongolia in 2018, discuss the diagnosis process of the anthrax cases and provide evidence for the prevention and control of cutaneous anthrax in the future.MethodsThe field epidemiological investigation was conducted to analyze the time, area and population distributions, exposure history, contact mode, clinical features of the anthrax cases. Laboratory detections included pathogen isolation and identification, PCR and ELISA.ResultsA total of 23 cutaneous anthrax cases were reported in the outbreak, which were all distributed in a natural village. The age of the cases ranged from 20 to 64 years. Most cases were aged 30—55 years, accounting for 91.30%, and most cases were farmers, accounting for 95.65%. The outbreak lasted for 23 d. Of the 10 confirmed cases, 7 showed positive PCR results. A strain of Bacillus anthracis was isolated and its virulent plasmid was detected by PCR.ConclusionThe epidemiological characteristics of this outbreak was obvious. Dissection, stripping, slaughter of sick animals, and exposure to sick animals and its products were the risk factors for the onset of anthrax. The source of the outbreak was sick cow or sick sheep. The transmission route was direct contact. Farmers were at high-risk. Taking joint prevention and control measures was the key for the timely control of the anthrax outbreak.
Analysis on the first infection case of Neisseria meningitidis Y clonal complex 23 in China
Liping Zhang, Xueyi Ye, Huizhang Xiong, Yong Huang, Xuefen Ye, Qiaoli Zhang
Accepted Manuscript
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ObjectiveTo analyze the etiological and molecular characteristics of the first infection case of Neisseria meningitidis Y in Dongguan of Guangdong province.MethodsN. meningitidis strains were isolated from the patient’s cerebrospinal fluid and throat swabs of 171 close contacts by biochemistry test, serological grouping and fluorescence polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Genotypes of the isolates were analyzed using multi locus sequence typing (MLST).ResultsThe results of biochemistry test, serological test and real-time PCR showed that this strain from the patient was N. meningitidis Y. MLST results indicated that it belonged to ST-23 clonal complex (cc23). One strain of N. meningitidis Y and four strains of N. meningitidis B were isolated from 171 throat swabs of close contacts. The results of MLST indicated that the N. meningitidis Y belonged to cc23, one of the N. meningitidis B strain belonged to unassigned complex sequence types. Two N. meningitidis B strains might belong to ST-4821 clonal complex, while another one was identified as ST-5664 belonging to ST-4821 clonal complex.ConclusionThis was the first infection case of N. meningitidis Y in Guangdong as well as the first infection case of N. meningitidis Y cc23 in China, suggesting the need of further etiology surveillance for meningococcal meningitis caused by N. meningitidis Y
Investigation of concentrations of 6 elements in whole blood of children in Cixi, Zhejiang province, 2018–2019
Yidong Yu, Wei Feng, Songdao Ye
Accepted Manuscript
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ObjectiveTo understand the nutrition status of whole blood Six elements [lead (Pb), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn)] in children in Cixi, Zhejiang province, and provide theoretical basis to guide trace and constant elements supplement in children.MethodsA total of 7 508 children from January 2018 to October 2019 who visited preventive medicine clinic of Cixi Maternity and Child Health Care Center were surveyed, they were divided into four groups according to age, blood concentrations of Pb, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu and Zn respectively, and the medical records of children diagnosed with trace element deficiency or excess were analyzed.ResultsThe mean blood concentrations of Pb, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu and Zn in children in all age groups were within the reference range, the differences in mean blood concentrations s of Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu and Zn showed significances among all age groups (P<0.05), but the differences in Pb concentration showed no significance (P>0.05). A total of 872 cases of Ca deficiency (11.61%), 448 cases of Zn deficiency (5.97%), 351 cases of Fe deficiency (4.68%), 94 cases of Pb excess (1.25%), 7 cases of Mg deficiency (0.09%) and 1 case of Cu deficiency (0.01%) were detected. The differences in Ca, Zn and Fe deficiency rates and Pb exceeding rate showed significances among all age groups (P<0.05), but the differences in Mg and Cu deficiency rates had no significances (P>0.05); The differences in Fe, Ca and Zn concentrations between children suffering from short stature, anorexia and acute upper respiratory infection and healthy children were significant (P<0.05), but the differences in Pb concentration had no significance (P>0.05).ConclusionThe Zn, Ca and Fe deficiency rates and Pb exceeding rate were high in children in Cixi. The Fe, Ca and Zn concentrations were low in children suffering from short stature, anorexia and acute upper respiratory infection, so it is recommended to have appropriate supplement.
2019年乌干达阻断输入性肺鼠疫传播的干预措施
Zhenyu Gong, Xunliang Gong
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influencing factors for desert type Kala-azar in epidemic area in Xinjiang
Mamatimin Yalkun·, Weiping Wu, Yanyan Hou, Qiguo Wang, Eli Mamatjian·, Tursun Mamutjiang·
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ObjectiveTo investigate possible factors of desert-type Kala-azar in epidemic area in in Xinjiang, and provide scientific basis to formulate and control strategies for desert-type Kala-azar in Xinjiang.MethodsIn Gholtoghraq township of Jiashi county, we selected 2–3 villages in the east, west, south, north, and central parts, respectively. where Kala-azar cases had been to the epidemic information system in recent years, the reported cases were used as case groups, the gender and age matched control group composed of healthy young children in the same village (same or adjacent group) who had no history of Kala-azar and clinical symptoms or signs of Kala-azar for a 1∶3 case control study. The parents of the children were interviewed in household surveys using questionnaires collecting the information about wild animals or domestic animals, living behavior and environment. The results were analyzed by univataite and multivariate conditional logistic regression analyses.ResultsA total of 140 children were investigated, of which 35 were in case group and 105 were in control group. Univariate analysis results showed that the differences in increased number of sheep (goats) in the livestock pen within 30 meters of surveyed household, and increased distance between door and livestock pen, using no mosquito repellent or insecticide, using no curtain, desert environment within 50 meters, sleeping in the open near door and using no mosquito nets between case group and control group had significance. The results of multivariate analysis showed that the differences in increased number of sheep (goats) in livestock pen within 30 meters of the survey households [1.10(95% Cl: 1.00–1.20)], increased distance between door and livestock pen [0.94 (95% Cl: 0.89–0.99)] and sleeping near door [11.00 (95% CI: 2.50–55.00)] between case group and control group had significance.ConclusionThe number of sheep (goats) in livestock penwithin 30 meters of household, sleeping in the open near door in summer and distance between livestock pen and door were the associated factors of desert-type Kala-azar in children in epidemic area in Xinjiang
Analysis on duplicated reporting of genital tract infection of Chlamydia trachomatis in Zhejiang, 2018–2019
Lijuan Fei, Limei Wu, Wenming Kong, Yanmin Wang, Fanrong Zeng, Na Du
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ObjectiveTo understand the duplicated reporting of the genital tract infection of Chlamydia trachomatis in Zhejiang Province from 2018 to 2019 and provide evidence for the development of corresponding management measures to accurately collect the incidence data.MethodsThe data about the reported cases of genital tract infection of C. trachomatis in Zhejiang from 2018 to 2019 was collected through the National Disease Surveillance Information Reporting Management System. And the duplicated reporting of cases were identified to calculate the duplicated reporting rate.ResultsA total of 59 826 cases of genital tract infection of C. trachomatis were reported in Zhejiang from January 1, 2018 to December 31, 2019, with a duplicated reporting rate of 1.29%. The area specific duplicated reporting rate ranged from 0.28% to 5.68%, and the difference was significant (χ2=300.970, P<0.001). The age specific duplicated reporting rate ranged from 0.67% to 1.65% (χ2=50.060, P<0.001). The duplicated reporting rate was higher in obstetrics and gynecology hospitals and maternity and child health centers (1.54%) than in other medical institutions (χ2=10.790, P<0.05).ConclusionThere was duplicated reporting of genital tract infection of C. trachomatis in Zhejiang, indicating that it is necessary to strengthen the check-up in medical institutions and centers for disease control and prevention.
A survey of infection status of Bartonella henselae and other two pathogens in Citellus Undulatus in Guertu, Xinjiang
Bo Li, Shan Lu, Tao Luo, Abudurexiti Abulikemu·, Qin Hao, Xinhui Wang, Lin Zhang, Baokaixi Guliayi·, Wei Li
Accepted Manuscript
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ObjectiveTo investigate the infection status of Bartonella henselae, Borrelia burgdoferi sense lato and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Citellus Undulatus in Guertu of Xinjiang, analyze its transmission risk and provide evidence for control measures.MethodsA total of 86 Citellus Undulatus were captured with 24 hours-bow-shaped clip method in Chagangguole, Bulanlulake and Baishitou of Guertu during May-September, 2017, the kidneys of mouse were removed under aseptic condition, genome DNA was extracted and ssrA of Bartonella henselae, recA of Borrelia burgdoferi sense lato and Msp2 of Anaplasma phagocytophilum were detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR.ResultsAmong the 86 samples of Citellus Undulatus detected, the infection rates of Bartonella henselae, Borrelia burgdoferi sense lato and Anaplasma phagocytophilum were 48.84% (42/86), 6.98% (6/82) and 3.49% (3/86), respectively. The infection rate of Bartonella henselae in Bulanlulake was higher than that in Chagangguole and in Baishitou, the infection rates of Borrelia burgdoferi sense lato and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Baishitou were higher than those in other two areas.ConclusionNatural infections of Bartonell henselae, Borrelia burgdoferi sense lato and Anaplasma phagocytophilum were detected in Citellus Undulatus in Guertu.
cover
2020, 35(5).
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2020-05-ml 目录
2020, 35(5): 1-3.
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2020年4月中国甲乙丙类传染病疫情动态简介National Data of Class A, B and C Communicable Diseases in April 2020
2020, 35(5): 369-369. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2020.05.001
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2020年4月中国甲乙丙类传染病疫情动态概要
2020, 35(5): 370-371. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2020.05.002
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Summary of global surveillance data of infectious diseases in April 2020
Hui Han, Bo Wu, Jiaojiao Jia, Yajing Song
2020, 35(5): 372-374. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2020.05.003
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In April 2020, a total of 61 infectious diseases were reported globally, affecting 214 countries and regions. Except for influenza, the top five infectious diseases affecting greatest number of countries and regions were Novel coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19)(214), measles (30), dengue fever (19), poliomyelitis (12) and rubella (9). The top four infectious diseases with highest case fatality rates were Ebola virus disease (65.8%), Middle East respiratory syndrome (34.2%), Lassa fever (19.0%) and COVID-19 (7.0%). The top five infectious diseases with greatest number of deaths were COVID-19, measles, dengue fever, cholera and Ebola virus disease. The prevalent infectious diseases in Asia were COVID-19, Middle East respiratory syndrome and dengue fever, the prevalent infectious diseases in Africa were COVID-19,Ebola virus disease, cholera, yellow fever, Lassa fever and measles, the prevalent infectious diseases in America were COVID-19 and dengue fever, the prevalent infectious diseases in Europe were COVID-19 and measles.and measles.
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2020, 35(5): 375-375.
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Cardiovascular health status of population in Beijing
Aijuan Ma, Yingying Jiang, Maigeng Zhou, Fan Mao, Zhong Dong
2020, 35(5): 376-380. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2020.05.004
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ObjectiveCardiovascular Health Index (CHI) (2017) was used to analyze the current cardiovascular health status in Beijing, to provide guidance for cardiovascular disease prevention and control, and provide basis for formulating policies.MethodsBased on the provincial research results of CHI (2017), score of CHI and each dimension of Beijing were analyzed. The full score was 100, and the higher the value, the better.ResultsThe score of CHI (2017) in Beijing was 75.4 which ranked first in China. The CHI score of cardiovascular disease prevalence (A dimension) was 68.0, lower than that in Shanghai (76.6), and ranked 9th in China. The prevalence of cardiovascular disease scored 22.3. The CHI score of exposure of risk factors (B dimension) was 37.0, lower than that in Shanghai (49.6), and ranked 27th in China. The metabolic index scored 8.5. The prevalence of overweight, obesity, central obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia was 33.1%, 25.9%, 47.8%, 35.5%, 19.4% and 36.7%, respectively, higher than that of Shanghai and the whole country. The CHI score of prevention and control of risk factors (C dimension) was 96.0 which ranked the first in China. The awareness, treatment and control rate of hypertension was 49.2%, 42.0% and 14.9%, respectively. The CHI score of treatment of cardiovascular disease (D dimension) was 62.0 which ranked first in China. The treatment capacity ranked first in China. The number of emergency vehicles, chest pain centers and stroke centers was 85.6 per million, 0.2 per million and 0.5 per million, respectively. The score of treatment process and outcome was 41.1 and 64.1, respectively. The score of public policy and service capacity (E dimension) was 77.1, lower than that in Shanghai (79.5), and ranked second in China. Among total 52 indicators of CHI (2017), 26 indicators in Beijing were worse than that in ShanghaiConclusionBeijing ranked first in the prevention and control of cardiovascular disease risk factors, also ranked first in the treatment capacity of cardiovascular disease in China. However, the prevalence of cardiovascular disease and related risk factors, especially metabolic indicators, was high. The control rate of hypertension needs to be improved. The number of chest pain centers and stroke centers was not adequate. The treatment process and outcome of cardiovascular need to be improved. The development of chronic disease insurance policy was lagging behind.
Health index in Sichuan based on Cardiovascular Health Index in China
Xinyin Xu, Ying Deng, Jing Zeng, Ting Dong, Kui Ji, Fan Mao, Yingying Jiang, Maigeng Zhou
2020, 35(5): 381-386. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2020.05.005
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ObjectiveTo evaluate the prevalence, mortality, related risk factors exposure and prevention/control and treatment level of cardiovascular disease in Sichuan province, compare its public health service capacity with all the other provinces in China and provide scientific evidence for decision-making on cardiovascular disease prevention and control, policy support and health investment.MethodsUsing Delphi analysis, 52 original values (rate or absolute value) of cardiovascular disease related indexes were selected. The index scores and dimension scores were obtained by several main steps such as same trend, standardization, hundred differentiation and weighted sum. The corresponding scores of the three dimensions of the established cardiovascular health index (9 secondary indicators and 29 third-level indicators) were compared with the national and eastern, central and western levels, respectively for a national range analysis.ResultsThe scores of cardiovascular disease prevalence, risk factor exposure, risk factor prevention/control and treatment, public health policy and service capacity were 73.20 (ranking 6th), 61.40 (ranking 8th) and 32.20 (ranking 24th), 44.50 (ranking 14th) and 61.40 (ranking 8th) respectively. In secondary index, the scores of the prevalence rate (80.30, ranking 5th) and behavior (70.30, ranking 3rd) were at higher levels, but the scores of PM2.5 concentration, hypertension prevention and control, diabetes prevention and control, hyperlipemia prevention and control, the successful smoking cessation rate, treatment process and prevention system construction were lower than the national averages. In the third level indexes, the scores of 12 indicators ranked within top 10, and scores of 26 indicators were lower than the national averages. Compared with neighboring Chongqing, the scores of 3 and 7 third-level indicators (60.0% and 63.6%) in the first two dimensions were higher, and the scores of 10 indicators (77.0%) in the third dimension were lower. Compared with Beijing, the index scores in the second dimension were obviously higher, the index scores in other dimensions were lower.ConclusionAccording to the index analysis, the prevalence of cardiovascular disease and the exposure of risk factors, the public health policy and service capacity in Sichuan are not the most serious compared with other provinces in China, the scores are higher than national average as well as eastern, central and western area averages. The premature death of cardiovascular disease needs to be reduced continuously, and the total numbers of hypertension, hyperglycaemia and hyperlipemia patients and obese people in Sichuan are high and related scores are lower than national and western area averages, indicating necessity to strengthen the prevention and control of these diseases. The capability of cardiovascular disease prevention and treatment in Sichuan needs to be further improved compared with eastern China.
Evaluation of distribution of cardiovascular disease associated health resources in China
Yingying Jiang, Fan Mao, Yan Zhang, Jing Liu, Yong Huo, Lingzhi Kong, Linhong Wang, Maigeng Zhou
2020, 35(5): 387-393. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2020.05.006
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ObjectiveTo evaluate the distribution of health resources related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) at provincial level in China.MethodsThe data for this study were collected from the research of China Cardiovascular Health Index (CHI) in 2017. The indicators of CHI-Public Health Policy and Service Capability were used to evaluate and analyze the specific situation of 31 provinces (excluding Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan). The full score of the CHI-Public Health Policy is 100. The higher the score is, the better public health policy and service capabilities are.ResultsThe average score of health policy and service capacity in the field of cardiovascular disease prevention and control in 2017 was 50.96. It was 53.09 in southern China, 48.10 in northern China, 60.52 in eastern China, 41.51 in central China and 45.75 in western China. Shanghai had the highest score (79.54), followed by Beijing (77.09), Jiangsu (75.62), Zhejiang (68.93) and Tianjin (65.63). Heilongjiang, Shanxi, Guizhou, Tibet, Inner Mongolia had lower scores. In 2015, government provided 29.96% CVD related expenses. The residents' health literacy level was 10.25%. The numbers of disease control personnel and general practitioners per 10 000 people were 1.39 and 1.37, respectively. Beijing, Tianjin, Shandong, Shanghai, and Hebei had higher one million population based consumption for hypertension, hyper lipid, and high blood glucose treatment medicines. The average availability rate of the eight types of essential medicines for cardiovascular diseases in primary health care centers was 61.50%. The availability rate in Shanghai was highest (96.95%), followed by Beijing (89.32%), Jiangsu (88.53%), Shandong (84.20%) and Zhejiang (80.32%).ConclusionThere was an uneven distribution of cardiovascular disease health resources at provincial level in China, characterized by better health policy and health resource distribution in eastern and southern areas than central, western, and northern areas. The availability of essential CVD medicines in primary care centers and the number of general practitioners per capita might be associated with a reduction of the burden of cardiovascular disease.
Cardiovascular health in Fujian province: a study based on China Cardiovascular Health Index 2017
Shaofen Huang, Wenling Zhong, Yanrong Yin, Xiuquan Lin, Yingying Jiang, Fan Mao, Maigeng Zhou
2020, 35(5): 394-400. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2020.05.007
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ObjectiveTo evaluate the cardiovascular health status of the population in Fujian province comprehensively based on the China Cardiovascular Health Index (CHI) (2017) study.MethodsThe total CHI score and the score of each dimension for Fujian province were analyzed by using the subnational results of CHI (2017). The CHI score ranged from 0 to 100, and the higher the score is, the better the cardiovascular health level is.ResultsThe CHI score for Fujian province was 61.6, ranking 5th in China. In secondary level indicators, the scores of probability of premature death of cardiovascular disease, prevalence of cardiovascular disease, treatment outcome and policy were 88.5, 86.1, 71.0 and 90.1 respectively, ranking the top 5 in China, while the scores of behavior, successful smoking cessation rate and treatment ability were 39.6, 31.7 and 29.6 respectively, ranking behind. In the third-level indicators, there were 14 indicators ranking behind in China, including smoking rate (29.3%), physical inactivity rate (19.6%), insufficient intake rate of vegetable and fruit (52.1%), prevalence rate of hyperlipoidemia (34.4%), detection rate of blood lipid (28.3%), control rate of diabetes (25.9%), successful smoking cessation rate (8.0%), number of doctors at cardiovascular and neurology departments (184.6 per million people), number of beds at cardiovascular and neurology departments (703.7 per million people), number of catheter room (0.4 per million people), number of ambulances (48.5 per million people), number of chest pain centers (0.1 per million people), number of CDC professionals (1.18 per 10 000 people), residents' health literacy level (7.87%).ConclusionIt is necessary to develop the targeted prevention and control strategies or measures according to the analysis results, such as the scores of exposure to behavioral risk factors of cardiovascular diseases, prevention and control of hypertension, hyperglycaemia and hyperlipemia, treatment ability, residents' health literacy level, to improve people's cardiovascular health status in Fujian.
Evaluation of current status of cardiovascular disease treatment by province in China-data from China Cardiovascular Health Index
Bin Zhang, Yan Zhang, Dong Zhao, Jing Liu, Yingying Jiang, Fan Mao, Maigeng Zhou, Linhong Wang, Yong Huo
2020, 35(5): 401-405. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2020.05.008
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ObjectiveTo evaluate the current status of cardiovascular disease treatment in China.MethodsThe materials and data used in this study were from the research results of Cardiovascular Health Index (CHI) (2017) in China. Fifteen indicators from the dimension of "disease treatment" of CHI (2017) were selected to measure and analyze the conditions of 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities in China, excluding Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan. The scores of CHI in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases in China were ranked and compared by province. The full score of each index in CHI "disease treatment" dimension was 100, and higher score indicated better treatment of cardiovascular diseases.ResultsIn 2017, the average score of cardiovascular disease treatment was 44.04 in China. Area specific analysis results showed that the score of cardiovascular disease treatment in southern China was 47.29, which was higher than that in northern China (39.51). The score in eastern China was 46.93, higher than that in central China (41.08) and in western China (42.48). The highest score was in Beijing (62.01), followed by Zhejiang (61.73), Shanghai (61.72), Hunan (60.96) and Hainan (60.39). The lowest score was in Ningxia (27.11), while other provinces with lower scores were Liaoning (28.16), Anhui (34.56), Yunnan (35.09) and Inner Mongolia (35.23).ConclusionThe performance of cardiovascular disease treatment varied with area in China, characterized by the better treatment in southern China than in the northern China, and the better treatment in eastern China and southern coastal area than in other areas.
Behavioral characteristics and prevalence of HIV, Treponema pallidum and HCV infections in drug users in Ningbo, Zhejiang, 2009–2018
Haibo Jiang, Hang Hong, Hongjun Dong, Hongbo Shi, Xiaomin Gu
2020, 35(5): 406-410. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2020.05.009
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ObjectiveTo understand the change of behavioral characteristics and the prevalence rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Treponema pallidum, and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections in drug users in Ningbo of Zhejiang province.MethodsFrom 2009 to 2018, annual cross-sectional survey was conducted between April and June among drug users in drug rehabilitation center and blood samples were taken from them for the detections of HIV, Treponema pallidum and HCV antibodies. Trend χ2 test and multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the relationship between Treponema pallidum infection and drug use or sexual behavior.ResultsThe average age of the 4 000 drug users was 33.48±8.25 years. Among them, 82.98% were males, and 86.15% had the education level of junior high school or below. Novel type drug users accounted for 66.03%, and the trend increased year by year ( χ2=9.230, P=0.002). The overall positive rates of HIV, Treponema pallidum and HCV were 0.48%, 13.80% and 21.06%, respectively. The positive rate of Treponema pallidum showed an increase trend year by year ( χ2=5.355, P=0.021), and the HCV positive rate showed a decrease trend year by year ( χ2=37.921, P<0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that female (aOR=3.512, P<0.001), older age (aOR=2.163, P=0.014) and commercial sex in the past year (aOR=1.536, P<0.001) were risk factors for Treponema pallidum infection (P<0.05).ConclusionThe HIV and HCV infection rates in drug users in Ningbo were low, but the infection rate of Treponema pallidum was on rise. The use of novel type drugs was in increase. Targeted effective interventions should be conducted in female and older drug users as well as drug users having commercial sex.
Surveillance results of acute bacterial diarrhea in adult patients visiting enteric disease clinics in Beijing, 2015–2018
Yi Tian, Haikun Qian, Bing Lyu, Mei Qu, Da Huo, Xin Zhang, Ying Huang, Quanyi Wang, Lei Jia
2020, 35(5): 411-415. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2020.05.010
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ObjectiveTo analyze the epidemiological and clinical characteristics, and pathogen spectrum changes in adult patients visiting enteric disease clinics due to acute bacterial diarrhea in in Beijing from 2015 to 2018.MethodsFrom January 2015 to December 2018, the clinical and epidemiological data of the acute diarrheal cases and their stool samples were collected in Beijing. The samples were tested for Vibrio cholerae, Shigella, Salmonella and other intestinal bacteria. Univariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to analyze the epidemiological and clinical factors for the positivity of bacterial infection, and multivariate logistic regression was used to adjust confounding factors. Descriptive analysis was used to identify the pathogen spectrum changes.ResultsFrom 2015 to 2018, a total of 13 126 samples were collected, of which 2 689 were bacteria-positive (20.49%). The annual positive detection peaked from July through September. The related epidemiological factors of intestinal bacterial infection included age, residence and season. The differences in positive rate of bacterial infection among years were significant. Fever (≥38.5 ℃), abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting were the clinical symptoms of intestinal bacterial infection. Diarrhea of 6–10 times per day was associated with higher positive detection rate compared with 3–5 times per day. Cases diagnosed as infectious diarrhea had higher positive detection rate than the ones diagnosed as non-infectious diarrhea. From 2015 to 2018, the major intestinal bacteria detected were Escherichia coli, Salmonella and V. parahaemolyticus, but the distribution of pathogen spectrum varied with years.ConclusionFrom 2015 to 2018, the major intestinal bacteria detected in adults in Beijing were E. coli, Salmonella and V. parahaemolyticus. Specific prevention and control measures shall be strengthened for intestinal bacterial diarrhea with certain epidemiological and clinical characteristics.
Multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis on clinical strains of Brucella isolated in Xinjiang
Bo Li, Hai Jiang, Buyun Cui, Wei Li, Zhiguo Liu, Xiujian Shang
2020, 35(5): 416-420. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2020.05.011
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ObjectiveMultilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) was conducted for the genotyping of the clinical Brucella strains isolated in Xinjiang to understand the population structure and genetic evolution of the isolated strains.MethodsA total 24 Brucella clinical strains isolated from 7 prefectures in Xiniang in 2015 and 2016 and 3 standard reference strains were analyzed by MLVA-16 using multicolor capillary electrophoresis to determine sequences types. In order to analyze the genetic relationship among isolated strains, we constructed a minimum spanning tree by using BioNumerics.ResultsMLVA-16 could distinguish different species of Brucella, the genotype of panel1 and panel2A of 24 strains were all 42 and 108, while locus of panel2B showed polymorphism. The results of the cluster analysis showed that 24 strains were in a branch and in a large branch with Brucella melitensis. Some isolates had close genetic distance with isolates in other regions.ConclusionThe Brucella melitensis serotype 3 was the major pathogen causing brucellosis in Xinjiang. MLVA-16 using multicolor capillary electrophoresis is a rapid and reliable genotyping method, which can provide evidence for traceability of human brucellosis in Xinjiang.
Experimental detection of DNA of Brucella in peripheral blood lymphocytes
Junjie Chen, Zhanjun Wang, Xiaowen Yang, Gaowa Yu, Yanling Cui, Songnan Du, Guozhong Tian, Tiancheng Zhang, Ying Meng, Hai Jiang
2020, 35(5): 421-424. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2020.05.012
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ObjectiveTo investigate the feasibility of the diagnosis potential of Brucella nucleic acid detection in peripheral blood lymphocytes for patients with a tube agglutination titer (SAT) less than 1∶100 and disease duration less than one year.MethodsThe blood samples of the patients were collected for peripheral blood lymphocytes and serum isolations. Then, the nucleic acid extraction was conducted, and PCR amplification was performed by using the Brucella identification primer B4/B5 to detect the presence of Brucella DNA in the collected samples.ResultsA total of 278 blood samples from patients with brucellosis were collected from January 2017 to February 2018, of which 82 had a SAT of 1∶100 or less, and the disease duration did not last for one year. In 82 patient samples, 50 out of 82 peripheral blood lymphocyte samples were positive for nucleic acid of Brucella, while 15 of 82 serum samples were positive for nucleic acid of Brucella, the difference was significant (P<0.05). Among the SAT (-), 1∶25, 1∶50, 1∶100, 1∶200 of serum antibody titers, the SAT(-) group had the highest detection rate of Brucella DNA in whole blood lymphocytes, while the 1∶200 group had the lowest detection rate.ConclusionThe detection of Brucella nucleic acid in peripheral blood lymphocyte can be used for the diagnosis of brucellosis in cases with negative serum antibody detection, providing a new method for the diagnosis of brucellosis.
Establishment and evaluation of SYBR Green fluorescent PCR for detection of Aeromonas
Xiaoli Du, Jiuyin Liu, Ying Hong, Li Wang, Liangliang Jiang, Jin Chen, Xin Lu, Biao Kan, Haijian Zhou, Zhigang Cui
2020, 35(5): 425-429. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2020.05.013
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ObjectiveTo establish a SYBR Green fluorescent PCR assay for the detection of Aeromonas.MethodsSYBR Green fluorescent PCR was established by using 16S rRNA gene amplification primers of Aeromonas reported, and its specificity, sensitivity and practical application value were evaluated.ResultsThe detection limit of SYBR Green fluorescent PCR was 10–7 ng/ml. The assay to detect 21 Aeromonas strains showed positive results, but the assay showed negative results for Vibrio, Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Yersinia enterocolitica and Shigella. For 104 stool samples of healthy people, Aeromonas was isolated from 8.65% of the samples, 28.85% of the samples showed positive results in SYBR Green fluorescent PCR. Eight of them were positive by both methods. If the pathogen was isolated after positive SYBR Green fluorescent PCR detection, one sample (11.11%) would be missed, but 71.15% (74/104) of the workload of isolation, culture and identification might be reduced.ConclusionSYBR Green fluorescent PCR has high specificity and sensitivity. It can reduce the workload by about 70% in the early screening of large samples, and is suitable for the monitoring of Aeromonas infection and carrier.
Surveillance results of Neisseria gonorrhoeae resistance in sexually transmitted disease clinics in Zhejiang, 2013–2018
Jia Huang, Lihua Hu, Jianmei Zhao, Mingqin Lu, Binfei Xu, Linjie Zhao
2020, 35(5): 430-434. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2020.05.014
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ObjectiveTo analyze the trend of resistance of clinical isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to six antibiotics in some sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in Zhejiang province.MethodsThe minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of penicillin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, azithromycin, ceftriaxone and spectinomycin to N. gonorrhoeae were detected by agar dilution method using the isolates from STD clinics in some areas of Zhejiang from 2013 to 2018, and the plasmid mediated penicillinase producing N. gonorrhoeae (PPNG) strain was determined by paper acidity method.ResultsA total of 672 N. gonorrhoeae strains were tested in 6 years. The detection rates of PPNG and plasmid mediated high-level plasmid mediated tetracycline-resistant N. gonorrhoea (TRNG) strains were 48.81% (328/672) and 45.09% (303/672) respectively, the annual detection rate ranged from 45.71% to 52.85% and 35.00% to 66.32% respectively, which were at a high level without significant change ( χ2=1.372, 1.424, P>0.05); the resistance rate to ciprofloxacin was as high as 100.00% (672/672), no sensitive strain was found. The resistance rate to azithromycin increased from 12.00% in 2013 to 28.32% in 2018, with the average of 24.26% (163/672), the change trend was significant ( χ2=6.035, P<0.05); the low sensitive rate to ceftriaxone was 9.08% (61/672), and the drug resistance rate to spectinomycin was 0.60% (4/672). There was a dilution increase of MIC50 and MIC90 respectively for both antibiotics with a significant change trend ( χ2=18.876, 8.132, P<0.01).ConclusionCeftriaxone and spectinomycin are suitable for the first-line treatment of gonorrhea in some areas of Zhejiang, but the low sensitive rate to ceftriaxone is increasing year by year, and long term surveillance for dynamic change of drug resistance of N. gonorrhoeae in needed.
Antibiotic susceptibility of reference and clinical strains of slowly growing nontuberculous mycobacteria of 5 species rarely isolated in China
Shilin Xiao, Xiuqin Zhao, Zhiguang Liu, Haican Liu, Machao Li, Yi Jiang, Lili Zhao, Guilian Li, Kanglin Wan
2020, 35(5): 435-441. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2020.05.015
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ObjectiveTo explore the susceptibility of clinical isolates and reference strains of 5 species of nontuberculous mycobacteria, including Mycolicibacter kumamotonensis, Mycobacterium lentiflavum, Mycobacterium shimoidei, Mycobacterium szulgai, Mycobacterium triplex, which are rarely isolated in China.MethodsThe minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 36 antibiotics to 10 clinical isolates (1 strain of M. kumamotonensis, 3 strains of M. lentiflavum, 2 strains of M. shimoidei, 2 strains of M. szulgai and 2 strains of M. triplex) and 5 reference strains of each species were detected with microplate Alamar Blue assay. The drug susceptibility patterns of the strains were then analyzed, and the drug susceptibility patterns were compared between clinical isolates and reference strains.ResultsThe majority of the five species strains were sensitive to rifabutin, rifapentine, aminoglycosides, most of fluoroquinolones, capreomycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin, azithromycin, linezolid and clofazimine. In addition, M. triplex strains were found to be sensitive to cephalosporins.ConclusionM. kumamotonensis, M. lentiflavum, M. shimoidei, M. szulgai and M. triplex were sensitive to multi antibiotics, while some clinical strains showed resistances. It is suggested that drug susceptibility test and combined drug therapy are necessary to treat the infections caused by these five species.
Characteristics of deaths caused by traffic accidents in Dali Bai Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan, 2014–2018
Zhannan Cao, Zhaoyun Shi, Lijuan Zuo
2020, 35(5): 442-445. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2020.05.016
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PurposeTo understand the epidemiological characteristics of traffic accident-caused deaths in Dali Bai autonomous prefecture of Yunnan province from 2014 to 2018 and provide a reference for the prevention and control of traffic accidents.MethodThe surveillance data of Dali residents who died of traffic accidents from 2014 to 2018 were collected and encoded according to International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). Excel 2010 and software SPSS 19.0 were used for statistical analysis. The 2010 national census data were used for data standardization. The crude mortality rate, standardized mortality rate, death constituent ratio were calculated.ResultThe cumulative number of reported traffic accident-caused deaths was 3 079 in Dali from 2014 to 2018, with an average crude mortality rate of 17.25/100 000 and a standardized mortality rate of 17.75/100 000, the annual mortality rate showed a decrease trend. The age of most death cases ranged from 15 years to 60 years, accounting for 85.00% of total deaths. The incidences of traffic accident-caused deaths were higher in January and February. The top three causes of deaths were waking on roads (45.53%), riding motorcycles (27.83%) and driving or taking cars (9.03%). The first three types account for 82.40% of the total traffic accidents. The mortality rate of walking and motorcycle accidents showed downward trend from 2014 to 2018.ConclusionTraffic accident is one of the factors that seriously threaten the people′s life and safety in Dali, but the death level caused by traffic accidents showed downward trend. However, due to increase of all kinds of vehicles, it is necessary to further strengthen the comprehensive prevention and control of traffic accidents.
Trend of the mortality rate of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in residents in Hangzhou, 2006–2018
Yan Zhang, Qingmin Liu, Wen Fu, Bing Liu, Yanjun Ren, Jue Xu
2020, 35(5): 446-450. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2020.05.017
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ObjectiveTo analyze the mortality rate of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and its trend in residents in Hangzhou from 2006 to 2018, and provide scientific basis for COPD prevention and control.MethodsThe data of death cause surveillance in Hangzhou from 2006 to 2018 were collected from the chronic diseases surveillance system of Zhejiang to calculate the crude mortality rate and the standardized mortality rate of COPD in residents in Hangzhou. The annual percentage change (APC) was used to analyze the changing trend of COPD mortality.ResultsThe crude mortality rate and the standardized mortality rate of COPD were 74.17/100 000 and 44.55/100 000 respectively in residents in Hangzhou from 2006 to 2018. The standardized mortality rate showed a decreasing trend from 2006 to 2018 and the APC was −9.52% (P<0.001). The crude mortality rate was 82.65/100 000 in males and 65.67/100 000 in females(χ2=860.713, P<0.001). The standardized mortality rate showed decreasing trends in both males and females, the APC were −9.24% and −9.88%, respectively. The standardized mortality rate was 49.14/100 000 in rural areas and 41.54/100 000 in urban areas ( χ2=8 487.052, P<0.001), showing decreasing trends, the APC were −8.06% and −10.15%, respectively. Except those aged below 35 years and 35–44 years, the standardized mortality rate of COPD in all age groups showed a downward trend from 2006 to 2018 (P<0.001).ConclusionThe COPD mortality in residents in Hangzhou decreased from 2006 to 2018. More efforts are needed to reduce COPD mortality in rural residents, males and elderly population.
An acute gastroenteritis outbreak caused by human astrovirus in Bao'an district of Shenzhen, 2017
Yixiong Chen, Li Luo, Lu Ran, Yiyao Lian, Zhiyong Gao, Na Liu, Miao Jin, Yuan Li
2020, 35(5): 451-455. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2020.05.018
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ObjectiveTo explore the pathogens and transmission risk factors of an acute gastroenteritis outbreak occurred in a school in Bao'an district, Shenzhen in 2017.MethodsAccording to the case definition, cases were searched in the school from October to November 2017. Descriptive epidemiological method was used for data analysis. Five classes with high attack rates were selected as the target. A retrospective cohort study was conducted to investigate the possible risk factors in 269 students, including their exposure history, dining and drinking habits. The survey data were used for logistic regression analysis. Stool samples and anal swabs of some infected cases, water samples from drinking fountains, barrelled water samples, and toilet water samples were collected for the detections of rotavirus, astrovirus, adenovirus, norovirus, and sappovirus by fluorescence PCR.ResultsA total of 98 cases were identified in the school from October 20 to November 17, 2017. The overall attack rate was 3.21% (98/3 052). The attack rate was 3.59% in boy students (61/1 698) and 2.73% in girl students (37/1 354), respectively. No significant difference was found between boys and girls (χ2=1.782, P=0.181). The highest attack rate (3.94%, 6/152) was reported in students in teaching building 3, followed by 3.62% (84/2 319) in students in main teaching building. Significant differences in attack rate were found in attack rates among the students in different teaching buildings (χ2=7.837, P=0.049). There was no significant differences in attack rate among students in classes on different floors of the main teaching building(χ2=1.861, P=0.713). In this study, 269 students were investigated. Results of the retrospective cohort study showed that direct drinking water (RR=6.975, 95% CI: 1.871–26.027) and case contact (RR=6.514, 95% CI: 2.314–18.358) were the risk factors of this outbreak. The overall human astrovirus positive rate of the stool samples and anal swabs was 28.00% (7/25). No human astrovirus was detected in water samples.ConclusionThis outbreak of human astrovirus infection was mainly caused through contact transmission. It is recommended that schools conduct early detection, isolation, and reporting of communicable disease cases to minimize the exposure in healthy students.
Genetic characteristics of human adenovirus 4a causing an epidemic of febrile illness
Lin Zou, Ling Tong, Chong Zhang, Bojun Zhen, Lu Xi, Yanna Yang, Yanchun Wang, Hongjun Li, Tiegang Zhang, Xiang Gao, Guofeng Zhang
2020, 35(5): 456-459. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2020.05.019
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ObjectiveTo understand the genetic characteristics of human adenovirus 4a causing an epidemic of febrile illness occurred in a primary school in Tongzhou district of Beijing in October, 2019.MethodsThe oropharyngeal swabs were collected from the febrile illness cases for the detections of 32 kinds of respiratory viruses and bacteria by real-time PCR. The Fiber, Hexon and Penton gene fragments were amplified and sequenced by PCR for adenovirus positive specimens. The Fiber, Hexon and Penton gene sequences were analyzed by BLAST in NCBI. A phylogenetic tree was constructed by using Fiber, Hexon and Penton gene sequences with software BioEidt 7.2.5 and MEGA 6.06.ResultsThe oropharyngeal swabs of 6 febrile illness cases were all positive for adenovirus in real-time PCR. There were no other respiratory pathogens detected in the oropharyngeal swabs. Fiber, Hexon and Penton gene sequence alignment results indicated that the adenovirus strains from the 6 cases belonged to adenovirus 4a. The phylogenic tree analysis indicated that the adenoviruses isolated in this epidemic shared high homology with adenovirus 4a circulating in USA in recent years.ConclusionThis epidemic of febrile illness was caused by human adenovirus 4a.
Monkey bite in a public park and possible exposure to herpes B virus–Thailand
Zhenyu Gong, Xunliang Gong
2020, 35(5): 460-460. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2020.05.020
[Abstract](1746) [FullText HTML](601) [PDF 1761KB](8) Peer reviewing opinions Related References Cited By (0) Share
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CN 11-2928/R

ISSN 1003-9961

Established in:1986 , Monthly

Responsible Institution:National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China

Sponsor: Editorial Board of Disease Surveillance,National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention,Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention

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