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Risk assessment of public health emergency concerned in mainland China, July 2018
Wenxiao Tu, Di Mou, Xiaobo Liu, Xiaoye Wang, Jinghuan Ren, Ling Meng, Zhiheng Hong, Nijuan Xiang
, DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.07.003
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Objective To assess the risk of public health emergencies, both the indigenous ones and the imported ones from foreign countries, which might occur in mainland of China in July 2018. Methods An internet based expert counsel was conducted to analyze the surveillance data of public health emergencies and priority communicable diseases in China reported through different channels, and the experts in all the provincial centers for disease control and prevention attended this video conference. Results According to the analysis of recent and previous surveillance data of infectious diseases and public health emergencies, it is predicted that the incidence of public health emergencies of July 2018 would continue to decrease, mainly caused by the decreasing of chickenpox, mumps and other common infectious diseases outbreaks among students as the summer vacation is coming. However, the food poisoning and heat stroke will rise. According to the occurrence of the previous 5 years, the outbreak events of infectious diseases in July may be mainly caused by hand, foot and mouth disease, dengue fever, infectious diarrhea and brucellosis. The importation risk of dengue will continue to rise, and the risk of local transmission of dengue will also rise among those areas where aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus are endemic, particularly in the metropolises of Southern China and the areas which have points-of-entry. According to the meteorological forecast, the risk of flood will increase in the upper reaches of the Yangtze river, the middle reaches of the Yellow River and the basin of Haihe river, and there may be two or three typhoons landing on China; so disease prevention and control after flooding should be concerned in those possible flood areas. Internationally, the risks of importation of Rift Valley fever from Kenya, ebola virus disease from the Democratic Republic of Congo and measles from Brazil are low. Conclusion It is expected that the public health emergencies in mainland of China in July 2018 will be on the normal seasonal decline. However, particular attention should be paid to the dengue fever, food poisoning and heat stroke, and close attention should be paid to the disease prevention and control after flooding. There is no special foreign public health events which should be concerned in mainland of China in July 2018.
Investigation of antibody level against Neisseria meningitidis W135 and Y in healthy population in Tianjin, 2016
Xiaoyan Luo, Wei Zhang, Wei Chen, Haitao Huang, Zhigang Gao
, DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.07.009
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Objective To understand the antibody level against Neisseria meningitidis W135 and Y in healthy population in Tianjin and provide scientific evidence for the prevention and control of meningococcal meningitis. Methods In 2016, a total of 811 healthy people were selected in urban, suburb and outer suburb areas in Tianjin through age-stratified random sampling. Blood samples were taken from them to detect IgG against N. meningitidis W135 and Y with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). Results The positive rate of antibody against N. meningitidis W135 and Y were 26.51% and 29.96% respectively, the median of antibody titers were all <0.01 μg/ml. The positive rate of IgG against N. meningitidis W135 was 21.07% in males and 31.20% in females, the difference was significant (χ2=10.610, P=0.001). The positive rate of IgG against N. meningitidis Y was 26.93% in males and 32.57% in females, the difference was not significant (χ2=3.051, P=0.081). The positive rates of IgG were highest in urban area (44.00% for W135 and 49.50% for Y), followed by those in suburb area (27.49% for W135, 31.87% for Y) and in outer suburb area (7.00% for W135, 6.50% for Y), the differences were significant (χ2=7.682, P=0.001; χ2=89.559, P=0.001). In different age group, the positive rates of IgG against W135 and Y were highest in age group >50 years (52.50% for W135, 40.00% for Y), the differences had significance (χ2=81.434, P=0.001; χ2=34.391, P=0.001). Conclusion Infections with N. meningitidis W135 and Y were detected in Tianjin, and general population is susceptible to the infection. It is necessary to strengthen the surveillance for meningococcal meningitis and take strict measures to prevent the outbreaks ofN. meningitidis W135 and Y.
Investigation of two non-specific respiratory tract inflammatory reaction clusters caused by infectious microbe in a company of Zhejiang
Xuefeng Jiang, Fengyan Yao, Chunxiao Ma, Xiaofei Fu, Enfu Chen, Meibian Zhang
, DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.07.001
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In July and December 2016, two fever clusters, characterized by non-specific inflammatory reaction, occurred in a company of Zhejiang. Field investigation and laboratory detection indicated that the non-specific inflammatory reactions were caused by aerosol of high concentration of infectious microbe from the contaminated humidification system.
Epidemiological investigation of the first imported Chikungunya fever in Wenzhou, Zhejiang
Xianchuan Zhang, Chaorong Ni, Xiaoming Zhang, Qiongjiao Pan, Ling Li
, DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003–9961.2018.07.000
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On September 9, 2017, a businessman from Bangladesh was confirmed to be infected with Chikungunya fever virus by the Baiyun airport port inspection department of Guangzhou Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau. On the same day, the businessman arrived in Wenzhou and checked in a local hotel. It was the first confirmed Chikungunya fever case in Wenzhou. A series of prevention and control measures were taken timely by Wenzhou center for disease control and prevention to prevent the secondary ceases. It is necessary to strengthen disease surveillance capability and improve public health emergency response to prevent the possible outbreak of diseases.
Genetic characteristics of phlebovirus carried by ticks in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region
Kaili Song, Yanwen Xiong, Xiunian Diao, Yujiang Guo, Yanjun Kang, Xincheng Qin, Xingwang Li
, DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2017.07.000
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Objective To understand genetic characteristics of Phlebovirus carried by ticks in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China. Methods Total RNA was extracted from tick homogenate. The screening of phlebovirus positive samples and the amplification of complete genome of phlebovirus in tick samples were performed by using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, then the genome sequences were used for sequence and phylogenetic analyses. Results The complete L and S segment sequences of three strains (BL10, BL33 and BL79) isolated from the tick samples in Xinjiang were amplified successfully. The 3 strains shared 98.0%−99.7% homology with Bole Tick Virus 1. Additionally, phylogenetic analysis indicated these strains had close relationship with Bole Tick Virus 1. Conclusion The three strains belonged to phlebovirus, which could be identified as Bole Tick Virus 1.
CONTENTS
CONTENTS IN BRIEF
2018, 33(6): 0-0.  
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Epidmic Bulletin
National Data of Class A, B and C Communicable Diseases in May 2018
Division of Infectious Disease
2018, 33(6): 445-445.   DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.06.001
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Summary of National Data of Class A, B and C Communicable Diseases in China, May 2018
Division of Infectious Disease
2018, 33(6): 446-446.   DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.06.002
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Risk Assessment
Risk assessment of public health emergencies concerned in the mainland of China, June 2018
Meng Ling, Chang Zhaorui, Wang Zhe, Li Haijiao, Mu Di, Ran Lu, Li Yu, Li Dan, Li Fan, Hong Zhiheng, Tu Wenxiao, Ni Daxin, Xiang Nijuan
2018, 33(6): 447-451.   DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.06.003
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Objective To assess the risks of public health emergencies,both the indigenous ones or the imported ones from foreign countries,which might occur in the mainland of China in June 2018. Methods An internet based expert counsel was conducted to analyze the surveillance data of public health emergencies and priority communicable diseases in China reported through different channels,and the experts in all the provincial centers for disease control and prevention attended this video conference. Results According to the analysis of recent and previous surveillance data of communicable diseases and public health emergencies,it is predicted that the incidence of public health emergencies or communicable diseases would be lower in June than in May 2018. The emergencies might be mainly the communicable disease outbreaks occurred in schools,such as varicella,hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD),mumps and other infectious diarrheal diseases. The incidence of HFMD would be still high. Food poisoning events would increase,mainly caused by microbes. Food poisoning caused by poisonous flora and fauna and poisonous mushroom would increase significantly. The risk of importation of dengue fever still exists,and the indigenous transmission in high risk areas,such as Yunnan and Guangdong provinces,might occur. The incidence of infectious diarrhea caused by norovirus would be low,however,the risk of the outbreaks related with travel both at home and abroad still exists. Anthrax cases reported would continue to increase. The risks of importation of Ebola virus disease from Democratic Republic of Congo and Nipah virus infection from India to China are estimated to be low. Conclusion It is predicted the incidence of public health emergencies in the mainland of China would decrease in June 2018. Particular attention should be paid to the public health risks of HFMD and food poisoning. Close attention should be paid to dengue fever, infectious diarrhea caused by norovirus, anthrax, Ebola virus disease in Democratic Republic of Congo and Nipah virus infection in India.
Food Poisoning
Epidemiological characteristics of food poisoning in China, the first quarter, 2018
Wang Xiaoye, Wu Xiaomin, Wang Rui, Ren Jinghuan, Wang Zhe, Zhang Yanping
2018, 33(6): 452-456.   DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.06.004
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Objective To understand epidemiological characteristics of food poisoning in China and provide evidence for the early warning,prevention and control of food poisoning. Methods Descriptive epidemiological analysis was conducted by using the food poisoning data during the first quarter,2018 collected from National Management Information System of Public Health Emergencies. Results A total of 38 food poisoning events were reported in 16 provinces during this period, involving 1 035 cases and 19 deaths. The event number reported in rural area accounted for 78.95% of the total. The first 3 provinces reporting high event numbers were Yunnan,Guangxi,and Sichuan. The numbers of plant/herbal poisoning events,related cases and deaths accounted for 44.74%,22.32% and 52.63% of the total,respectively. The numbers of the bacterial food poisoning events,related cases and deaths accounted for 28.95%,56.33% and 0 of the total,respectively. The numbers of food poisoning events and related cases in canteens accounted for 31.58% and 36.62% of the total, respectively. The numbers of food poisoning events and related cases in food service unit accounted for 15.79% and 39.90% of the total,respectively. Conclusion Strengthening the supervision of canteens and food service units and improving public awareness of poisonous plants and safe use of pesticides are the main measures for the prevention and control of food poisoning.
Infectious Disease Surveillance
Genetic analysis of Yersinia pestis strains isolated from Marmota himalayana plague focus of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
Wang Yumeng, Liang Ying, Zhang Enmin, Ma Na, Shen Xiaona, Cai Hong, Zhang Zhikai, Xia Lianxu, Liang Weili, Dai Ruixia, Li Wei
2018, 33(6): 457-462.   DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.06.005
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Objective Identify the characteristics of genomovar of Yersinia pestis (Y. pestis)isolated from Naqu and Biru county in Tibet Autonomous Reagion and study the distribution of isolates with same genomovars characteristics in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau,including Tibet and Gansu,Sichuan,Yunnan provinces. Methods Analysis the molecular subtypes of 98 Y. pestis strains isolated in the plague focus of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau by 4 PCR-basic molecular subtyping methods,i.e.,Plate tectonics rearrangements,Different region (DFR),Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR),Multiple-Locus Variable-Number Tandem Repeat Analysis (MLVA). Results The rearrangement pattern of No.57-60 plate tectonics are the same in all Y. pestis strains isolated from Naqu and Biru county,just as the strains Z176003 (isolated in Naqu county and whole genomy was sequenced). No same genomy characterisctics were found in other strians from other regions in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Conclusion Strains isolated from Naqu and Biru county has its own characteristics of genome rearrangement and exclustive profiles of DRF and CRISPR. There were is a few different in VNTR loci of MLVA subtyping methods.
Characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from foods in Changping district of Beijing
Niu Huancai, Wu Yang, Shu Gaolin, Liu Yi, Ma Wenjun, Li Dongxun
2018, 33(6): 463-468.   DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.06.006
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Objective To understand the virulence genes,antibiotic resistances and molecular characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes. Methods A total of 22 L. monocytogenes strains isolated from 12 kinds of foods between 2010 and 2016 in Changping were used for serotyping,virulence genes detection,antibiotic susceptibility test,multi-locus sequence typing (MLST)and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Results The 22 L. monocytogenes strains belonged to 5 serotypes, 1/2c and 3a were the predominant serotypes. A total of 19 virulence gene profiles (T1-T19)were found,and most strains carried 6-12 kinds of virulence genes. All the L. monocytogenes isolates were sensitive to ampicillin,penicillin,meropenem, sulfamethoxazde,vancomycin and ciprofloxacin,and a few strains were resistant to tetracycline and erythromycin. The result of MLST showed 8 different sequence types,including 7 new STs,i.e. STA1-STA7,and the predominant ST was STA3. Seventeen PFGE patterns were found with a similarity coefficient from 63.5%-100.0%,and the PT Ⅰ was predominant. Conclusion Most L. monocytogenes isolates isolated in Changping belonged to serotype 1/2c and 3a,STA3 and PT Ⅰ strains were predominant. Most strains had different virulence genes profiles. Resistance to tetracycline and erythromycin were found in a few L. monocytogenes isolates. Our data provides a reference for the study of foodborne Listeria spp.
Analysis on influence of air temperature on incidence of hand, foot and mouth disease in Xiantao, Hubei, 2014-2015
Zhao Qiuping, Li Xudong, Wang Yue, Bao Junzhe, Aristotle Sun
2018, 33(6): 469-472.   DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.06.007
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Objective To understand the influence of air temperature on hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD)in Xiantao of Hubei province,and establish an early warning temperature range of HFMD. Methods Air temperature surveillance data and disease surveillance data in Xianto were collected to analyze the association between air temperature and incidence of HFMD, and nonlinear distribution lag model was used to analyze the influence of air temperature on HFMD incidence. Results When the air temperature was at 15-20℃,especially at 17.33℃,the max RR was highest (1.16,95% CI:1.078-1.259)and there was a lag effect of daily average temperature on the incidence of HFMD. A lag of 5 days was observed. When air temperature was at -2-0℃,a lag of 0-2 days was observed. The RR increased. Conclusion The early warning temperature range of HFMD was 15-18℃,the RR was highest at 17.33℃. There was a lag effect of daily average temperature on the incidence of HFMD. A prediction model using air temperature parameter can be established for the early warning of HFMD,early response to possible HFMD epidemic and etiological study.
Analysis on spatial temporal epidemiological characteristics of hand, foot and mouth disease at township level in Jingzhou, Hubei, 2015-2017
Liu Tian, Yao Menglei, Huang Jigui, Wu Yang, Liu Man, Liu Wenhui, Wang Li, Mao Anlu
2018, 33(6): 473-477.   DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.06.008
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Objective To study the spatial temporal clusters of hand foot and mouse disease (HFMD) at the township level in Jingzhou of Hubei province during 2015-2017,and provide evidence for the prevention and control of HFMD. Methods The muster distribution method was used to analyze the seasonal characteristics of HFMD. Software SaTScan 9.4.2 was used to detect the spatiotemporal clusters of HFMD at township level in Jingzhou during 2015-2017. The detection effects with different population size as biggest scan windows were compared to select the best scan window. The results were visualized with software SaTScan 7.0. Results HFMD had certain seasonality in Jingzhou during 2015-2016,but had no seasonality in 2017. Taking 20% of the population as the maximum spatial cluster size was the best mode. Five HFMD clusters were identified by the best model. The first level cluster was in Mengjiaxi town and its surrounding area,including 21 towns,from April 17,2016 to May 16,2016 (LLR=815.19, RR=7.24, P=0.000). The other clusters were distributed in Jingzhou,Shashi,Honghu and Jianli counties (district)from April to July 2016. Conclusion The incidence of HFMD had obvious a spatiotemporal distribution. It is necessary to conduct targeted HFMD prevention and control in key areas and allocate health resources reasonably.
Environmental avian influenza surveillance and current status of human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9)virus in Jiuquan, Gansu, 2014-2017
Xiang Guofeng, Yu Deshan, Li Guoqiang, Li Yufeng, Gan Zhiqiang, Zhao Guiliang, Nie Zhenyuan
2018, 33(6): 478-482.   DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.06.009
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Objective To analyze the surveillance results of avian influenza in poultry related environment in Jiuquan of Gansu province and provide evidence for the early warning and prevention of human infection with avian influenza A (H7N9) virus. Methods Different environmental samples were collected from live poultry markets in different counties (district)of Jiuquan from 2014 to 2017 for the nucleic acid detection of avian influenza viruses by using real-time PCR, and the results were used for statistical analysis. Results A total of 1 091 environmental samples were collected,in which 231 samples were positive foe avian influenza virus nucleic acid (21.17%),including 162 A (H9N2)positive samples (70.13%),51 A (H7N9) positive samples (22.08%)and 18 samples which were positive for both A (H7)and A (H9)viruses (7.79%). From 2014 to 2016,only avian influenza A (H9N2)virus was detected,the annual positive rate of influenza virus nucleic acid were 3.23%, 22.05% and 31.32% respectively. In 2017,the positive rate of influenza virus nucleic acid was 19.31%,the positive rate was 52.41% for A (H9N2)virus (76 strains), 35.17% for A (H7N9)virus (51 strains)and 12.41% for both A (H7)and A (H9) viruses (18 strains). The detection rate of influenza virus was highest in urban and rural live poultry markets (30.14%), followed by that in poultry farms (11.79%)of and in poultry slaughtering and processing sites (10.23%). Among the different types of samples,the detection rate in sewage samples was highest,followed by that in chopping board samples and in poultry drinking water samples. There were significant differences in positive rate among different years,different surveillance sites and different types of samples. The first human case of avian influenza A (H7N9)virus infection in Gansu province was detected by active surveillance after A (H7N9)virus nucleic acid was detected in poultry. Conclusion Environmental surveillance results of influenza virus is the important evidence for the early warning of human infection with avian influenza A (H7N9)virus. It is important to strengthen the surveillance.
Molecular characteristics of hemagglutinin gene of influenza A(H3N2)virus in Quzhou, 2015-2017
Huang Shiteng, Yang Ruijun, Lyu Lei, Chen Xufu, Ye Chenghua, Wan Sheng
2018, 33(6): 483-488.   DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.06.010
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Objective To understand the molecular evolutional characteristics of hemagglutinin (HA)gene of influenza A (H3N2)virus in Quzhou,Zhejiang province,from 2015 to 2017 and provide scientific evidence for the prevention and control of influenza. Methods A total of 18 influenza A (H3N2)virus strains isolated in Quzhou from 2015 to 2017 were selected. The full-length of HA genes were amplified by RT-PCR and sequenced. Bioinformatics software was used to analyze the sequences. Results The homologies of nucleotide and amino acid of 18 influenza A (H3N2)strains were 97.36%-100.00% and 96.76%-100.00%,respectively. The average genetic distances of the HA genes between the vaccine strains and the isolated strains were 0.008 2,0.007 1 and 0.011 2 at nucleotide levels,and 0.009 2,0.003 1 and 0.010 0 at amino acid levels,respectively. The HA genetic clades of the isolated strains had transformed from 3C. 3a to 3C. 2a. The amino acid sites of the isolated strains had changed compared with the vaccine strain A/Switzerland/9715293/2013 and A/Hong Kong/4801/2014,there were 5 antigenic epitopes (A,B,C,D and E regions),2 receptor binding sites (T131K,T135N/K) and 6 potential glycosylation sites (122NES,126NWT,133NGT,135NSS,144NSS,158NYT)involved. Conclusion The results revealed that the antigenic drift might occur in influenza A (H3N2)virus strains isolated in Quzhou from 2015 to 2017,suggesting that the efficacy of the vaccine strain A/Hong Kong/4801/2014 need to be re-evaluated.
Incidence of brucellosis and its prevention and control in Zhangjiakou, 2010-2017
Han Guoyi, Cui Buyun, Hao Liping, Fu Zong, Hou Min, Zhang Hongjie
2018, 33(6): 489-492.   DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.06.011
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Objective To understand the incidence and incidence trend of brucellosis in Zhangjiakou,Hebei province,and provide evidence for the prevention and control of brucellosis. Methods The surveillance data of brucellosis in Zhangjiakou during 2010-2017 were collected for a statistical analysis with software SPSS 20.0 to understand its absolute case growth, incidence trend and growth rate. Results A total of 16 626 brucellosis cases were reported in Zhangjiakou from 2010 to 2017. The annual incidence rate was 40.56/10 0 000,46.42/10 0 000,64.64/10 0000,77.64/100 000,55.57/100 000,32.69/100 000 and 17.33/100 000,respectively. The incidence rate increased during 2010-2014,but declined during 2015-2017. The seroprevalence was 16.61% and the average brucellosis prevalence was 10.14%. Br melitensis was predominant pathogen. Compared with adjacent areas,the differences in incidence had significance (P<0.05). The incidence was higher in western area than in eastern area. The incidence of brucellosis declined after effective intervention measures were taken in population at high risk. Conclusion The health education and behavioral intervention in population at high risk for brucellosis facilitate the control of brucellosis in Zhangjiakou,but brucellosis still occurs in Zhangjiakou and adjacent areas. Joint prevention and control of brucellosis still need to be strengthened.
Analysis on knowledge, attitude and practice to avian influenza A(H7N9)of urban residents of Wusheng, Sichuan
Yu Jiang, Yang Chengyu, Ma Yaoyao, Le Yinghui, Liu Shan, Chen Tao, Huang Fangjun, Chen Rong
2018, 33(6): 493-497.   DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.06.012
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Objective To understand the knowledge,attitude and practice of residents to avian influenza A (H7N9)in Wusheng county of Sichuan province and their comment on the prevention and control of the disease. Methods A questionnaire survey was conducted among 483 local residents selected through random cluster sampling. Results Among the residents surveyed,the awareness rate of knowledge about avian influenza A (H7N9)was 67.74%. And 50.10% of the residents showed anxiety to the avian influenza epidemic,80.12% of them feared to be infected (both themselves and family members or friends). After the epidemic,66.46% of the resident strengthened their protection,67.72% of them intentionally avoided the contact with birds,90.89% of them purchased no poultry and the related foods any more,and 86.13% of them washed hands immediately after contacting poultry. The changes in their behaviors were associated with their age and education level. Meanwhile,77.41% of the residents satisfied with the release of epidemic information by the government. Conclusion The awareness of avian influenza A (H7N9)related knowledge was high in residents in Wusheng. Some people were worried about the epidemic. It is necessary strengthen prevention and control of human infection with H7N9 virus,health education and related scientific research,and the epidemic response.
Incidence pattern of notifiable communicable diseases in Fengtai district of Beijing, 1989-2016
Wang Lin, Liu Xiaojun, Xie Junqing, Wang Mei, Bai Junmei, Wu Yuchen, Xin Zhenjiang
2018, 33(6): 498-502.   DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.06.013
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Objective To understand the incidence pattern of communicable diseases in class A and B in Fengtai district of Beijing from 1989 to 2016. Methods The estimated annual percentage change was calculated to describe the changes in morbidity and mortality rates of the communicable diseases over time,and correlation analysis was conducted to assess the trends of morbidity and mortality between the communicable diseases under consecutive surveillance and all the communicable diseases in class A and B. Results From 1989 to 2016,the morbidity rate of communicable diseases in class A and B in Fengtai decreased from 778.43/100 000 to 170.91/100 000. Intestinal infectious infections were the major diseases and the proportion of respiratory infectious diseases increased. The morbidity rate of AIDS increased from 0.26/100 000 to 5.77/100 000,while the morbidity of syphilis increased from 0.14/100 000 to 18.24/100 000. The morbidity of pulmonary tuberculosis ranked 2nd from 4th and the morbidity of syphilis ranked 3rd from 5th. The morbidity and mortality of the communicable diseases under consecutive surveillance were similar to those of all the communicable diseases (morbidity:r=0.989,P=0.000;mortality:r=0.924,P=0.000). The first three leading causes of deaths were viral hepatitis,pulmonary tuberculosis and AIDS. From 2004 to 2016,the crude mortality rate of the communicable diseases in class A and B increased from 0.59/100 000 to 1.59/100 000,while the standardized mortality rate decreased from 0.75/100 000 to 0.54/100 000. Conclusion The overall morbidity rate of communicable diseases in Class A and B decrease decreased in Fengtai during this period. The average annual mortality rate of the communicable diseases under consecutive surveillance increased more obviously compared with that of all the communicable diseases. Bacterial dysentery,pulmonary tuberculosis,AIDS and syphilis were the major diseases,to which much attention should be paid.
Technique and Method
Influence of different rapid one-step DNA extraction on PCR detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae
Zhang Junge, Zhao Fei, Liu Liyong, Ma Shanshan, Shan Xiaoyun
2018, 33(6): 503-509.   DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.06.014
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Objective To understand the effect of one-step nucleic acid extraction method and its optimization scheme in the detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP). Methods The DNA of strains and eight positive clinical throat swab specimens of MP were extracted with two classical DNA extraction one-step methods (ROSE method and Chelex-100 method)and their optimized programs and commercial nucleic acid kit (QIAGEN). PCR and real time PCR were applied to compare different DNA extraction methods. Results The SDS widely used in DNA extraction could influence Taq enzyme activity seriously. The DNA extracted by the classical DNA extraction one-step methods could not be applied to PCR detection unless it was diluted more than 10 times,even 100 times. There was the most yield of DNA in improved Chelex-100 one-step extraction. For 30 clinical specimens,the positive detection rate of commercial nucleic acid kit,modified Chelex-100 method and boiling method were 100.00% (30/30),80.00% (24/30)and 43.33% (13/30),respectively,and the detection CT values of the commercial nucleic acid was lower than the other two methods. Conclusion The DNA extracted by the classical one-step method must be diluted before being used for PCR amplification. The improved Chelex-100 method was simple and effective,which can be used for MP strains. The commercial kit (Qiagen)was best in DNA extraction for clinical specimens. The improved Chelex-100 method could be also used for clinical specimens,but it was not suitable for the determination of pathogen load.
Drug Resistant Surveillance
Etiology of multi-drug resistant Salmonella Kentucky isolates from retail chicken and a patient in Ningbo
Yang Yuanbin, Gao Hong, Zhang Danyang, Yan Peng, Shen Xuanyi, Song Qifa
2018, 33(6): 510-514.   DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.06.015
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Objective To understand the molecular characteristics and drug resistance pattern of Salmonella Kentucky isolated from retail chicken and a diarrhea patient's stool in Ningbo. Methods The S. Kentucky strains were identified with standard serum agglutination method. The susceptibility of the strains to 12 antibiotics was tested by using micro broth dilution method. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE)was performed to compare the molecular characteristics of the isolates. PCR was used to detect the drug resistance genes,gyrA,blaCTX-M14-like,blaCTX-M15-like,blaTEM and blaOXA. Results Two strains of S. Kentucky isolated from different sources were all resistant to 9 antibiotics and multi-drug resistant Salmonella. The PFGE finger printing of the 2 isolates digested by 2 enzymes (XbaⅠ and BlnⅠ)were exactly the same. The quinolone-resistant gene gyrA contained mutations at codon 83 and 87,with substitutions of serine to phenylalanine and aspartate to glycine, respectively. The extended spectrum β-lactamases phenotype determining genes blaCTX-M14-like,blaCTX-M15-like and blaTEM were all positive,while blaOXA was negative. Conclusion Super ciprofloxacin resistant S. Kentucky strain was detected from retail chicken and a diarrhea patient's stool in Ningbo,which shared the same PFGE pattern,indicating the multi-drug resistant S. Kentucky had caused a sporadic case. Surveillance for super ciprofloxacin resistant S. Kentucky should be performed in the poultry farm and healthy population. More strict supervision should be carried out for rational use of antibiotics in the poultry farms to prevent multi-drug resistant of Salmonella.
Analysis on susceptibility of 53 non tuberculosis mycobacterium isolates to 9 common anti-tuberculosis drugs in Gansu
Cai Jing, Zhang Xin, Wei Daijue, Li Kai, Tong Chongxiang
2018, 33(6): 515-519.   DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.06.016
[Abstract](38) [FullText HTML](0) [PDF 1181KB](1) peer reviewing opinions Related References Cited By (0) Share
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Objective To understand the susceptibility of non tuberculosis mycobacterium (NTM)isolates to common anti-tuberculosis drugs in Gansu province. Methods The clinical isolates of Mycobacterium were collected to identify NTM by means of PNB/TCH differential media and DNA sequence analysis of 16S rRNA gene. The drug resistance of NTM strains to streptomycin, rifampicin,protionamide (TH1321),isoniazide,sodium aminosalicylate,levofloxacin,ethambutol, kanamycin and pyrazinamide were tested by using absolute concentration method. Results A total of 53 NTM strains were identified from 1 081 clinical mycobacterial isolates,the isolation rate was 4.90%,from which 6 species of NTM were identified including 36 M. intracellulare strains (67.92%),8 M. kansasii strains (15.09%),4 M. avium strains (7.55%),2 M. gordon strains (3.77%),2 M. abscessus strains (3.77%) and 1 M. fortuitum strain (1.89%). Forty nine NTM strains showed different resistance to 9 anti-tuberculosis drugs,the overall resistant rate was 92.45%. The resistant rate to rifampicin was highest (73.58%),followed by that to protionamide (TH1321) (69.81%),isoniazide (67.92%),streptomycin (62.26%), sodium aminosalicylate (60.38%),pyrazinamide (47.17%),ethambutol (28.30%),levofloxacin (26.41%)and kanamycin (15.09%). Conclusion The susceptibility of NTM to common anti-tuberculosis drugs is poor. It is necessary to use anti-tuberculosis drugs rationally according to the results of drug susceptibility test to increase cure arte and reduce drug resistance.
Death Surveillance
Discussion on data cleaning of vital registration system in Xuanwei, Yunnan, 2014-2016
Wan Xia, Liu Liqun, Yang Gonghuan
2018, 33(6): 520-524.   DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.06.017
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Objective To investigate the problems existed in the vital registration system (VRS) and improve capacity building for primary public health staff by cleaning the database of VRS from 2014 to 2016 in Xuanwei,an area with high lung cancer mortality in Yunnan province of China. Methods The new VRS was used to report death cause surveillance data. The duplicate records,extreme values,abnormal values,missing values and logical consistency were checked,and proper deletion or modification were done. Frequency statistics and cause analysis were conducted for abnormal data. The annual constituent ratio of diseases (death causes) was calculated to evaluate the data quality after database cleaning. Results After data cleaning,there were 24 704 valid death records in the database;the deletion rate was 1.10%. The inconsistent rate of death case age obtained from identification card number,birth of date and the self-eported was less than 0.58%. Up to 68.82% of the death records were reported more than 1 month later,and 9% of the death records were reported 1 year later or even 3 years later,in which 454 were death records of lung cancers,and 78.63% of 357 lung cancer deaths were from Xuanwei. There were 131 duplicate death records,which were mainly reported during January-March of following year. The level of medical institutions making the second diagnosis was obviously lower than the level of those making the first diagnosis. There were around 2% of death records without identified causes. Conclusion The quality of death surveillance data has been greatly improved after the application of new VRS. However,the timeliness of reporting needs to be further strengthened. More strict review procedure is needed for the after-event death reporting in the following year. Specific functional upgrade of the system is needed to improve surveillance quality.
Parasitic Disease Surveillance
Investigation of prevalence of clonorchiasis in Sanjiang plain area
Tang Lei, Ge Tao, Yin Shihui, Yuan Shuang, Xing Zhifeng
2018, 33(6): 525-527.   DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.06.018
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Objective To understand the prevalence of clonorchiasis in Sanjiang plain area of Heilongjiang province,and provide evidence for the prevention and treatment of clonorchiasis. Methods A survey was conducted in 26 villages in 9 counties (cities),and the modified Kato thickness smear method was used to detect the eggs of Clonorchis sinensis. Results A total of 6 574 people were surveyed and 575 of them were found to be infected with Clonorchis sinensis,the infection rate was 8.75%. Most infections were mild. Clonorchis sinensis infection status differed in people with different regional,gender,age, occupation and education level. In general,the incidence of infection in Sanjiang intersection was higher than that in other areas,males were higher than women,mainly infected by young adults,higher education level in junior middle school than other educational backgrounds,and the characteristics of fishermen higher than other occupational groups. Conclusion The infection rate of Clonorchis sinensis is high in the intersection of three rivers in Sanjiang plain area and young men are key population in the prevention and control of clonorchiasis.
Chronic Non-infectious Disease Surveillance
Analysis on iodine nutrition and thyroid levels of pregnant women with access to iodine supplement intervention in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region
Ma Pinjiang, Huang Jia, Wang Chenchen, Duan Yimin, Zhang Ling
2018, 33(6): 528-530.   DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.06.019
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Objective To understand the pregnant women's nutritional status and thyroid hormone level difference after oral iodine oil supplement in areas at high-risk in southern Xinjiang and provide evidence for scientific iodine supplement. Methods A survey was conducted in Baicheng and Wushi counties where iodine supplement intervention had been carried out since 2015. In county,two villages were selected from each of two townships selected. In each village,15 pregnant women and 50 non-pregnant women aged 18-40 years were surveyed to test their urinary iodine and thyroid hormones levels. Results After the iodine supplement intervention,the median of urinary iodine levels in pregnant group and non-pregnant group were 181.73 μg/L and 228.35 μg/L respectively. In pregnant group,those whose urine iodine level <50 μg/L and <100 μg/L accounted for 5.83% and 16.66%,respectively. There were differences between the two groups in urine iodine level (χ2=6.470,P<0.05). The abnormal rate of serum free thyroxine (FT4)was 16.76%,and those with the low rate accounted for 25.83% in pregnant group and 13.43% in non-pregnant group. The abnormal rate of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)was 22.35%. The difference in FT3 and FT4 abnormal rates between two groups had statistical significance (t=15.027,t=9.070,P<0.05),the difference in TSH abnormal rate between two groups had no statistical significance (t=0.380,P>0.05). The incidence of hypothyroidism was 3.33% and the incidence of subclinical hypothyroidism was 10.00% in pregnant group. In non-pregnant group,the incidence of hyperthyroidism was 0.72%,the incidence of hypothyroidism was 5.04% and the incidence of subclinical hypothyroidism was 17.98%. There was significant difference in incidence of hypothyroidism between two groups (χ2=4.380,P<0.05). Conclusion After the intervention of iodine supplement,the iodine nutrition level of the pregnant women was in a suitable range. Subclinical hypothyroidism was the main form of abnormal thyroid function,which might be the common type of thyroid dysfunction in this area. TSH, FT3, FT4 detections were important for the early diagnosis, treatment and prevention of abnormal thyroid function.
Overseas Dynamic
Emergence of monkeypox in West and Central Africa, 1970-2017
Gong Zhenyu, Gong Xunliang
2018, 33(6): 531-532.   DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.06.020
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CN 11-2928/R

ISSN 1003-9961

Established in:1986 , Monthly

Responsible Institution:National Health and Family Planning Commission of the People's Republic of China/国家卫生和计划生育委员会

Sponsor: Editorial Board of Disease Surveillance,National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention,Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention/中国疾病预防控制中心 传染病预防控制所

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