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Articles in press have been peer-reviewed and accepted, which are not yet assigned to volumes/issues, but are citable by Digital Object Identifier (DOI).

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, DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.2021.000
[Abstract](715) [FullText HTML](191) [PDF 2034KB](152) [Peer reviewing opinions] Related References Share
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Objective  To evaluate the laboratory evidence support in the identification of foodborne disease events and related factors in Gansu province, and provide evidence for improving the quality of investigation results of food-borne disease events.   Methods  Epidemiological survey reports of food borne disease events involving more than 5 patients in Gansu from 2018 to 2020 were collected, and information about laboratory tests or related factors were analyzed, and the conclusions of the reports were evaluated according to the requirements of relevant guidelines and standards.   Results  A total of 102 survey reports of foodborne disease events were collected, of which 47 had clear etiological conclusions, but only 15 (31.91%) had sufficient laboratory evidences. Chemical events accounted for 83.33%, and the proportions of bacterial and botanical or mushroom poisoning events were only 24.0% and 25.0%, respectively. The other 55 foodborne disease events were unexplained. The analysis suggested that the timely reporting to CDCs had an impact on the collection of samples in the event response, and only 23.08% of test items were appropriate.   Conclusion  It is necessary to strengthen the laboratory testing for bacterial and botanical or wild mushroom poisoning cases. The proportion of unexplained events can be reduced by improving the sample collection and detection item selection.
, DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202209080397
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Objective   To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients complicated with diabetes in Inner Mongolia autonomous region from 2016 to 2020, and provide evidence for the development of pulmonary TB prevention and control measures for this special population.   Methods   The basic information, including gender, age, occupation, patient origin, treatment outcome, initial and retreatment, of pulmonary TB patients complicated with diabetes registered in Inner Mongolia from 2016 to 2020 were collected from the Infectious Disease Surveillance System. Software SPSS 20.0 was used for epidemiological analysis.   Results   From 2016 to 2020, a total of 1 526 pulmonary TB patients complicated with diabetes were registered in Inner Mongolia with the average annual registration rate of 1.22/100 000 (1 526/125 272 000), accounting for 2.94% of the total number of pulmonary TB patients. Among the pulmonary TB patients complicated with diabetes, 1 124 were men and 402 were women. The ratio of male to female was 2.80:1, higher than 1.96:1 in pulmonary TB patients without diabetes (χ2=36.560, P<0.001). The pulmonary TB patients complicated with diabetes were mainly farmers, accounting for 53.74%, followed by the jobless or the unemployed, accounting for 18.41%, consistent with the occupation distribution of pulmonary TB patients without diabetes. The pulmonary TB patients with diabetes were mainly detected in their medical care seeking in hospitals, accounting for 48.95%, followed by referral (27.65%). The pulmonary TB patients without diabetes were mainly detected in their medical care seeking in hospitals, accounting for 39.24%, followed by follow up (27.28%). In the pulmonary TB patients complicated with diabetes, the initial treatment rate was 83.48%, and the retreatment rate was 16.52%, similar to the rates in pulmonary TB patients without diabetes. The success treatment rate was 92.90% in the pulmonary TB patients with diabetes and 96.09% in the pulmonary TB patients without tuberculosis (χ2=38.661, P<0.001). The average annual registration rates of pulmonary TB patients complicated with diabetes in the eastern Inner Mongolia, Alxa in western Inner Mongolia and Ulanqab in central Inner Mongolia were at high levels, while the rates in Bayannur and Wuhai in the western Inner Mongolia were at low levels.   Conclusion   From 2018 to 2020, the number and registration rate of pulmonary TB patients complicated with diabetes in Inner Mongolia showed increasing trends, and the proportion of the pulmonary TB patients complicated with diabetes in total pulmonary TB patients showed an increasing trend too. Different prevention and control measures should be taken for the prevention and control of pulmonary TB in special population.
, DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202301020558
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Objective  To understand the characteristics and mechanism of the cerebral inflammatory response induced by Streptococcus parasuis clinical strains in mice.   Methods  The bacterial loads, kinetics of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β and NOD-like receptor (NOD1/2) transcription level in the brain of mice infected with clinical S. parasuis strain NN1, S. parasuis clinical strain BS26 and highly pathogenic Streptococcus suis (S. suis) strain P1/7 were analyzed with quantitative polymerase chain raction. The NO concentration, IL-1β and NOD1/2 mRNA transcription levels of the murine primary astrocyte and microglia cell line BV2 cell infected with aforementioned three strains were also evaluated.   Results  S. parasuis clinical strains NN1 and BS26 persisted in the brain of infected mice for more than 48 hours. They could upregulate the transcription level of iNOS, IL-1β and NOD1/2 mRNA in the brain of infected mice at the early phase of infection. Microglia cells might play a more important role to induce the production of NO and IL-1β in the brains of mice infected with S. parasuis clinical strains NN1 and BS26. NOD1/2 receptors were crucial for the activation of astrocytes by S. parasuis clinical strains NN1 and BS26.   Conclusion  S. parasuis clinical strains NN1 and BS26 could induce the cerebral inflammatory responses at the very early phase of infection via NOD1/2 receptors. Astrocytes and microglia played an important role in the cerebral inflammatory response induced by the infection of S. parasuis clinical strains on mice. In addition, the mechanism to activate astrocyte and microglia cells by the infection of S. parasuis clinical strains varied.
, DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202303240119
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v.abstractInfoEn , DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202208220371 [Abstract](30) [FullText HTML](5) [PDF 2135KB](7) [Peer reviewing opinions] Related References Share Abstract: Objective To evaluate the changes of underreporting of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) before and after the transformation of TB prevention and control service model in Yunnan province, provide scientific data support for accurately assessing the prevalence of pulmonary TB in Yunnan and provide reference for improving the quality of pulmonary TB reporting in medical institutions. Methods According to the national unified investigation protocol of underreporting of pulmonary tuberculosis, the probability proportional sampling method (PPS) was usewd to select county-level medical institutions in Yunnan in 2015 and 2020. The patients diagnosed with pulmonary TB in the medical institutions were investigated and analyzed, and the underreporting of pulmonary T was evaluated. The difference of underreporting between groups was compared by χ2 test, and the difference of underreporting of pulmonary TB patients was taken as the dependent variable, and multivariate analysis was performed by logistic regression equation. Results The overall underreporting rate of pulmonary TB was 25.10% in 2015 and 1.71% in 2020, the difference was significant (χ2=1092.742, P<0.001). The results of the multivariate analysis showed that non-designated institutions (aOR=11.118, 95%CI: 8.582–14.405), hospitalization (aOR=1.404, 95%CI: 1.111–1.774), no etiological results (aOR=2.212, 95%CI: 1.176–4.161), tuberculous pleurisy (aOR=9.398, 95%CI: 5.595–15.789) and area with high TB incidence (aOR=1.899, 95%CI: 1.543 –2.337) were the risk factors of the underreporting in 2015 (all P<0.05), Young age (aOR=4.363, 95%CI: 1.250–15.321), no etiological results (aOR=52.531, 95%CI: 26.184–105.386) and area with high TB incidence (aOR=2.040, 95%CI: 1.146–3.629) were the risk factors of the underreporting in 2020 (all P<0.05). Conclusion The development of new TB prevention and control service mode is conducive to improve the quality of pulmonary TB reporting in medical institutions at county level in Yunnan, and the improvement of pathogen positive rate and the reporting responsibility of designated medical institutions were the main reasons for reducing the underreporting of pulmonary TB. In the future TB prevention and control, it is still necessary to pay attention to the reporting of pulmonary TB patients in medical institutions, especially the patients at young age, in areas with high TB incidences and without etiological detection results, and continue to reduce the underreporting of pulmonary TB in medical institutions. , DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202208290382 [Abstract](51) [FullText HTML](16) [PDF 3210KB](15) [Peer reviewing opinions] Related References Share Abstract: Objective To analyze the epidemiological characteristics and spatiotemporal distribution of hepatitis C in Jiangxi province and provide scientific basis for risk identification, early warning and effective prevention and control of hepatitis C. Methods The surveillance data of hepatitis C in Jiangxi from 2016 to 2021 were collected, spatial autocorrelation analysis was performed with ArcGIS 10.2, and spatiotemporal epidemiological analysis was performed with SaTScan . Results A total of 14 982 hepatitis C cases, including 4 deaths, were reported in Jiangxi during 2016 −2021. The annual average reported incidence rate was 5.44/100000, and the average case fatality rate was 0.03%. More cases were reported in men, and the cases were mainly aged 40−69 years. The cases were was mainly farmers, the jobless or the unemployed and retirees. Spatial autocorrelation analysis showed that the incidence of hepatitis C had a certain spatial clustering during 2016−2021, and the areas with high incidences were mainly distributed in counties or districts of Pingxiang, Jiujiang, Fuzhou and Nanchang. One class I clustering area and three II clustering areas were detected by spatiotemporal scanning. The class I cluster area mainly covered the urban area and surrounding counties of Pingxiang. Conclusion The incidence of hepatitis C had obvious demographic characteristics and spatiotemporal clustering in Jiangxi. The urban areas and surrounding districts of Pingxiang, Jiujiang, Fuzhou and Nanchang were the key clustering areas of hepatitis C incidence, to which special attention needs to be paid. , DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202301030560 [Abstract](20) [FullText HTML](7) [PDF 1567KB](2) [Peer reviewing opinions] Related References Share Abstract: Objective To investigate the cross-immune reaction of the protein antigens between two kinds of common non-tuberculous mycobacterium (NTM) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis in China and provide reference for the development of new tuberculosis vaccines by using NTM. Methods The genomic homology between Mycobacterium intracellular, Mycobacterium abscess and M. tuberculosis was calculated with the mean nucleic acid consistency calculator, the homologous genes were analyzed with OrthorFinder and the comparison with the B cell epitope encoding gene of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was made. The inactivated antigen and whole protein antigens of the three kinds of bacteria were prepared respectively, and the white rabbits from New Zealand were immunized by subcutaneous injection. After immunization, indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect the serum IgG levels and cross-immunization serum IgG levels of the immunized rabbits. Results There were 2350 and 2740 homologous genes with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Mycobacterium abscess and Mycobacterium intracellular, among which 479 and 521 homologous genes were rich in B-cell epitopes. The protein antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium intracellular and Mycobacterium abscess all stimulated the white rabbits to produce high levels of antibody IgG titers, reaching 1∶320000, 1∶160000 and 1∶80000, respectively. Both Mycobacterium intracellular and Mycobacterium abscess immunized rabbits sera had cross-reaction with M. tuberculosis protein antigens at high levels, resulting in antibody titers up to 1∶40000 and 1∶80000 respectively. Conclusion There were high level cross-immune reactions between Mycobacterium intracellular, Mycobacterium abscess and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, suggesting that the two kinds of non-tuberculous mycobacterium (NTM) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis have more common protein antigens, which has a good potential application value in developing new tuberculosis vaccines. , DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202201050563 [Abstract](65) [FullText HTML](32) [PDF 12131KB](8) [Peer reviewing opinions] Related References Share Abstract: Objective To analyze the pathogen causing an upper respiratory tract infection in a kindergarten in Changshu, Jiangsu. Methods Pharyngeal swab were collected from sick children patients with acute upper respiratory tract infection in the children care setting in Changshu, Jiangsu in September 2021. The screening of 18 respiratory pathogens were conducted by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) by using the samples collected. The VP4/VP2 gene fragments of rhinovirus, a pathogen with high detection rate, were amplified by nested PCR. The genotype of rhinovirus was analyzed according to the sequence of VP4/VP2 by using software MEGA 7.0. The phylogenetic tree was constructed. Results A total of 51 pharyngeal swabs were collected from the sick children, including 24 boys and 27 girls, in the child care setting where the upper respiratory tract infection epidemic occurred. The main clinical symptoms were runny nose and sore throat; The screening results of 18 respiratory pathogens showed that 41 samples were positive for virus, accounting for 80.39% (41/51). The detection rate of single virus was 64.7% (33/51), and the co-detection rate of viruses was 15.7% (8/51). The detection rate of rhinovirus was highest in single virus positive samples (42.4%,14/33). Other viruses, including parvovirus B19 (18.2%, 6/33), Boca virus (15.2%, 5/33), coronavirus 229E (6.06%, 2/33), human metapneumovirus, influenza B virus, adenovirus, respiratory syncytial virus and coronavirus OC43 and NL63 (3.03%, 1/33), were also detected respectively. After the amplification of VP4/VP2 gene fragments of 12 strains of rhinovirus isolated from the positive samples, the sequence analysis showed that the strains belonged to 12 serotypes of rhinovirus including 9 strains of A49, 1 strains of A19, 1 strain of A22 and 1 strain of A41. Conclusion Mutiple viruses were detected in samples from the cases of upper respiratory tract infections in Changshu,in September 2021. Rhinovirus A49 had the highest detection rate, which might be closely related to this epidemic of upper respiratory tract infection. , DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202208040342 [Abstract](75) [FullText HTML](17) [PDF 6182KB](24) [Peer reviewing opinions] Related References Share Abstract: Objective To study SARIMA model in the prediction of tuberculosis (TB) in Shanxi province in 2022 and 2023, and provide reference for TB prevention and control. Methods The monthly incidence data of TB in Shanxi from 2010 to 2021 were collected from China Disease Prevention and Control Information System-Tuberculosis Management Information System. Based on the monthly data of TB incidence in Shanxi from 2010 to 2020, the SARIMA model was constructed by using R 4.1.0 software , and the model was tested with the monthly incidence data of 2021. Besides, an optimal model was established to predict the incidence trend of TB in Shanxi in 2022 and 2023. Results From 2010 to 2021, a total of 191 517 cases of TB were reported in Shanxi, and the incidence rate dropped from 68.29/100 000 to 23.74/100 000, showing an overall downward trend. The incidence was lower in January, February and October and higher in March and June, especially in the late winter and early spring, the incidence was highest. Based on the monthly incidence of TB from January 2010 to December 2020, the ARIMA (0,1,1) (1,1,1)12 model was fitted, and AIC, RMSE, MAPE and MAE of the model were 202.07, 0.49, 9.19, and 0.33, respectively. The testing results suggested that the average absolute error percentage of the model was 11.34%, the incidence of TB in Shanxi was predicted to be (0.51−2.12)/100 000 in 2022 and (0.18−1.81)/100 000 in 2023. Conclusion ARIMA (0,1,1) (1,1,1)12 model has a good prediction power on TB in Shanxi, which has practical significance in the prevention and control of TB. , DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202111100582 [Abstract](57) [FullText HTML](24) [PDF 4778KB](15) [Peer reviewing opinions] Related References Share Abstract: Objective To analyze the epidemiological characteristics and spatiotemporal clustering of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Jingzhou from 2017 to 2020, and provide evidence for the prevention and control of HFRS. Methods Descriptive epidemiological method was used to describe the three distributions of HFRS cases in Jingzhou. Kernel density estimation (KDE) was used to analyze the spatial clustering of HFRS. Spatiotemporal scanning statistics were used to analyze the temporal and spatial clustering of HFRS. Results A total of 875 cases of HFRS, including 15 deaths, were reported in Jingzhou from 2017 to 2020, with an incidence rate of 3.89 per 100 000 and the case fatality rate of 1.71%. The incidence rate was highest in 2020 (5.67/100 000), and lowest in 2017 (2.18/100 000). HFRS cases were reported in 8 counties (districts) of Jingzhou. The areas with the high incidence rates were Jiangling (9.98/100 000), Gong'an (5.96/100 000), and Jianli (5.60/100 000). The annual incidence of HFRS had two peaks, one was during April-July and another one was during November-January. The incidence rate in men was higher than that in women (RR=2.71, 95% CI: 2.33–3.14). The incidence rate was highest in age group 60−64 years (10.90/100 000), followed by age groups 65−69 years (8.96/100 000) and 55−59 years (8.07/100 000). The cases aged over 60 years accounted for 36.06% of the total cases. The cases were mainly farmers (666 cases, 76.11%). KDE showed that high and above intensity clusters were distributed in parts of Jiangling, Jianli, and Gong'an. There was a spatiotemporal clustering area, covering 42 townships in Shashi, Gong'an, Shishou and Jianli, from April 1 to July 19, 2020. The canter of clustering area was Puji township of Jiangling, and the radius of the area was 41.89 km Conclusion The incidence of HFRS in Jingzhou was at a relatively high level. The high-risk areas were dominated by Jiangling, Jianli and Gong'an. The high incidence had shifted from young age group to old age group, and the HFRS vaccination failed to cover the population in this area. , DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202209290429 [Abstract](46) [FullText HTML](10) [PDF 11988KB](11) [Peer reviewing opinions] Related References Share Abstract: Objective To understand the infection status of human rhinovirus (HRV) in adult patients with respiratory tract infection in Changshu, Jiangsu province in the winter of 2021. Methods The pharyngeal swab samples from outpatients and inpatients with respiratory tract infection were collected in hospitals in Changshu. 15 common respiratory virus were detected by real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). VP4-VP2 genes of rhinovirus were amplified and sequenced. The phylogeny of the obtained sequences were analyzed through MEGA 7.0 software. Results 120 positive samples of virus infection were detected in 333 pharyngeal swab samples, with a positive detection rate of (36.04%, 120/133). HRV accounted for 28.33% of the positive samples (34/120), followed by adenovirus (22.50%, 27/120) and influenza B virus (15.83%, 19/120). Among the positive samples, single virus was mainly detected, accounting for 83.33% (100/120) and multi-virus positive samples accounted for 16.7%, in which two kinds of viruses was detected in 80% of samples (16/20) and three kinds of viruses were only detected in 4 samples. A total of 32 VP4-VP2 genes were amplified from 34 HRV positive samples. There were 19 strains of HRV-A, 9 strains of HRV-B and 4 strains of HRV-C, involving 20 serotypes. Conclusion HRV is one of the main viruses causing respiratory tract infection in adults in Changshu in winter of 2021. HRV-A was the main serotype. , DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202301310014 [Abstract](38) [FullText HTML](12) [PDF 8866KB](8) [Peer reviewing opinions] Related References Share Abstract: Objective To understand the predominant microbial populations carried by five species of ticks in Qingdao, Shandong province, and provide evidence for the construction of microbiology resource bank of tick-borne diseases. Methods Ticks carried by hedgehogs in Qingdao were collected in 2019 and classified by morphological identification and 16 s ribosomal RNA sequencing. RNA libraries were constructed according to five species of tick and PE 2×150 sequencing was performed using Illumina NovaSeq6000. Metagenomic analysis and taxonomic analysis were performed on the high-throughput sequencing data, and the genetic evolution of Dabie bandavirus was analyzed by MEGA 7. Results The collected ticks were identified as Haemaphysalis flava (n=155), Rhipicephalus sanguineus (n=62), Dermacentor sinicus (n=67), Haemaphysalis longicornis (n=77) and Haemaphysalis campanulata (n=59). The abundance of bacteria varied greatly among five species of tick. A total of 101 species of bacteria were identified from 6 phylas, 19 orders and 35 families. The bacterium with the highest abundance in Haemaphysalis flava and Haemaphysalis campanulata were Micrococcales (37.9%, 71.5%). Pseudonocardales was the bacterium with the highest abundance in the Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Dermacentor sinicus and Haemaphysalis longicornis. The abundances were 51.9%, 49.6% and 34.8%, respectively. The virus abundance of Haemaphysalis flava, Dermacentor sinicus and Haemaphysalis campanulata ranged from 0.28% to 2.82%. The virus abundance of Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Haemaphysalis longicornis were 22.98% and 59.31% respectively. Yongjia tick virus and Dabieshan Tick virus were detected in all five species of tick, and their abundance ranged from 12% to 51.4% and from 2.4% to 12.2%, respectively. Nickie virus, Hubei tick virus 3, Wenzhou tick virus 3 and Huangpi tick virus 1 were detected in Haemaphysalis flava. Hubei sobemo-like virus 15 and Dabie bandavirus were only detected in Haemaphysalis longicornis. The L, M and S segments of Dabie bandavirus belong to C2 lineage. The phylogenetic analysis found that the L and M segments had the highest identities with the strains (KR 706567.1 and KR 706566.1) isolated from a patient in Shandong and the S segment showed the highest identity with the strain JQ693006.1 isolated from a patient in Laizhou of Shandong. Conclusion The spectrum of microorganism carried by different speices of tick were diverse in Qingdao. The research results could provide data support for the construction of tick microbial resource bank and tick-borne disease control in Qingdao. , DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202206160270 [Abstract](116) [FullText HTML](15) [PDF 2042KB](8) [Peer reviewing opinions] Related References Share Abstract: Objective To understand the prevalence of drug resistance of imported Plasmodium falciparum in Jiangxi province from 2017 to 2020 and provide technical support for clinical drug use. Methods From 2017 to 2020, blood samples were collected from imported falciparum malaria cases in Jiangxi, the drug resistant genes of Plasmodium falciparum were amplified using a nested PCR assay, followed by DNA sequencing, and the sequences were aligned. Results A total of 85 blood samples of imported falciparum malaria cases were collected, all the cases were imported from Africa. The mutation rates of chloroquine resistance transporter gene (Pfcrt) and multidrug resistance gene 1 (Pfmdr1) of Plasmodium falciparum were low (16.67%, 14/84 and 1.18%, 1/85), the mutation rate of dihydrofolate reductase gene (Pfdhfr) was high (96.39%, 80/83), and no mutation of kelch spirochete gene (K13) was found by sequencing analysis. Conclusion In recent years, imported cases of falciparum malaria in Jiangxi were all from Africa, and the resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to chloroquine was low. Based on the clinical experiments, the treatment of imported falciparum malaria cases from Africa with chloroquine in combination of other drugs can be considered. The resistance to pyrimidine was high, and no artemisinin resistant strain was found. However, due to the impact of COVID-19 epidemic in recent 2 years, it was impossible to conclude that there was no artemisinin resistant strains in our province based on the small sample size, so it is necessary to continue the surveillance. , DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202211150502 [Abstract](31) [FullText HTML](12) [PDF 2254KB](12) [Peer reviewing opinions] Related References Share Abstract: Objective To analyze the distribution and incidence trend of injury mortality in residents in Yantai, and provide evidence for injury prevention and control in this area. Methods The surveillance data of injury deaths of residents in Yantai from 2012 to 2021 were collected. Excel 2019 and software SPSS 22.0 were used to calculate the crude mortality rate, standardized mortality rate of injury. The annual percent change (APC) and average annual percent change (AAPC) of the injury mortality rate and the standardized mortality rate were calculated by using Joinpoint regression model, and the trends were also examined. Results From 2012 to 2021, the crude mortality rate of injury in residents in Yantai was 53.02/100 000, and the standardized mortality rate was 35.48/100 000 with a downward trend with year (AAPC=−5.45%, P<0.001). The crude mortality rate of injury in men was 73.54/100 000, and the standardized mortality rate was 51.79/100 000 with a downward trend with year (AAPC=−6.67%, P<0.001). The top three causes of injury death in men were road traffic accident, fall and suicide. The crude mortality rate of injury in women was 31.86/100 000, and the standardized mortality rate was 18.78/100 000 with a downward trend with year (AAPC=−4.78%, P<0.001). The top three causes of injury death in women were road traffic accident, suicide, and fall. The crude mortality rate of injury in children and adolescents aged 0−14 years was 8.23/100 000, and the standardized mortality rate was 8.20/100 000 with a downward trend with year (AAPC=−8.79%, P<0.01). The top three causes of injury death in children and adolescents were road traffic accident, drowning and other unintentional injuries. The crude mortality rate of injury in residents aged 15−64 years was 43.45/100 000, and the standardized mortality rate was 35.13/100 000 with a downward trend with year (AAPC=−7.50%, P<0.001). The top three causes of injury death in residents aged 15−64 years were road traffic accident, suicide, and other unintentional injuries. The crude mortality rate of injury in residents aged ≥65 years was 137.27/100 000, and the standardized mortality rate was 126.86/100 000. There was no statistical difference in injury mortality rate over the years (AAPC=−1.98%, P>0.05). The top three causes of injury death in residents aged ≥65 years were road traffic accident, fall, and suicide. Conclusion From 2012 to 2021, the mortality rate of injury in residents in Yantai showed a downward trend. The mortality rate of injury in men was higher than that in women. Road traffic accident was the first cause of injury death. There were different distribution characteristics of injury deaths among people with different age. Therefore, it is necessary to take targeted prevention, control strategies and measures. , DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202209230423 [Abstract](39) [FullText HTML](14) [PDF 3142KB](6) [Peer reviewing opinions] Related References Share Abstract: Objective To understand the pathogenic spectrum in diarrhea cases in Guilin and provide evidence and support for the prevention and control of diarrhea. Methods The stool samples were collected from diarrhea cases in designated hospitals in Guilin from 2019 to June 2021 for the detection of 5 kinds of common viruses causing diarrhea and 17 kinds of common bacteria causing diarrhea.Then pathogen spectrum characteristics of diarrhea cases were analyzed. Results In 385 samples, 9 kinds of pathogens were detected with an overall positive rate of 37.40%. The positive rate of bacterial pathogen was 12.99%, the positive rate of viral pathogen was 27.27%. The co-infection rate of two or more pathogens,mainly viruses, was 9.61%. There were no significant differences in pathogen detection rate among different age groups (P=0.510). The differences in pathogen detection rate were significant among different seasons. The pathogen positive rate in age group 0−2 years was highest (27.78%), followed by age groups >60 years (27.08%) and 36−60 years (26.39%). The infections were mainly caused by rotavirus, norovirus and halomonas. Conclusion Multiple diarrhea pathogens were detected in Guilin. The incidence peak of bacterial diarrhea was in summer and the incidence peak of viral diarrhea was during spring-summer. Therefore, it is necessary to take targeted prevention and control measures and carry out diarrheal pathogen detection in clinical diagnosis and treatment to prevent and control the spread of diarrhea. , DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202209300433 [Abstract](57) [FullText HTML](14) [PDF 7951KB](20) [Peer reviewing opinions] Related References Share Abstract: Objective To understand the characteristics of scarlet fever's spatial and temporal distributions, as well as the clustering areas, in China from 2010 to 2019, and to provide evidence for scarlet fever prevention and control in China. Methods Scarlet fever cases in 31 Chinese provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) were collected from the Chinese notifiable infectious disease system between 2010 and 2019. The month is the time cluster unit, and the city is the minimum spatial unit.The spatial-temporal scan statistic was calculated with the software SaTScan 10.0.2, and the results were visualized with ArcGIS 10.7. Results From 2010 to 2019, 596220 cases of scarlet fever were reported in China, with an annual incidence of 4.37 per 100,000 population. Scarlet fever incidence in China increased overall, with the lowest incidence of 1.62 / 100,000 in 2010 and the highest incidence of 6.04 / 100,000 in 2019. Two peaks were found in the annual temporal distributions in terms of incidence. The first peak occurred between May and June, and the second between November and December. Male cases accounted for 61.14% of the total number of cases. Scarlet fever was most common in children under the age of ten, accounting for 93.27% of the total incidence. The majority of scarlet fever cases were found in the Northeast. The main clusters of scarlet fever were found in the Northeast, North, and Northwest. The relative risk of scarlet fever has increased in cities adjacent to provinces with a high incidence of scarlet fever. Scarlet fever cluster areas have increased in the southern region, with the majority of them concentrated in economically developed cities and provincial capitals, including Shanghai, Shenzhen, Xiamen, Leshan, Dali, Lijiang, Hangzhou, Changsha, Chengdu, Kunming, Guiyang and other cities. Conclusion Scarlet fever has grown more common in China since 2010. Children are more likely to be infected in summer and winter. The northern region had a higher incidence than the southern region. Scarlet fever is getting more common in southern China. Scarlet fever risk has increased in cities near high-incidence provinces. To stop the spread of scarlet fever, it is necessary to strengthen disease surveillance in kindergartens and primary schools, as well as investigate and deal with clustered epidemics in a timely manner. , DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202204250176 [Abstract](72) [FullText HTML](29) [PDF 8431KB](25) [Peer reviewing opinions] Related References Share Abstract: Objective To meet the needs of epidemic risk assessment and prevention and control, address the difficulties in global COVID-19 pandemic data collection, classification, analysis and application, a global epidemic data analysis and risk assessment platform was developed. Methods From the aspects of public health need, architecture design, and function construction, the design and application of the global epidemic data analysis and risk assessment platform were expounded. The effects of the platform were analyzed. Results By making full use of advanced technologies and methods, such as big data, cloud computing, artificial intelligence, machine learning, model algorithms and geographic information systems, an integrated browsing platform was established for the standardization, visualization, correlation and modeling purpose of epidemic information. Conclusion The platform fills the gap in the systematization of global epidemic surveillance in China, provides technical support for the routine surveillance of global COVID-19 pandemic, and provides data for scientific research and evidence-based decision-making. , DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202303090309 [Abstract](30) [FullText HTML](16) [PDF 1542KB](3) [Peer reviewing opinions] Related References Share Abstract:v.abstractInfoEn
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$v.abstractInfoEn , DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202109220515 [Abstract](681) [FullText HTML](271) [PDF 11143KB](42) [Peer reviewing opinions] Related References Share Abstract: Objective To evaluate the application effect of a rapid PCR method for detecting Corynebacterium striatum (C. striatum) in clinical isolates and clinical sputum specimens. Methods A single PCR method for the detection of C. striatum was established using PCR primers Cst_1-F/Cst_1-R designed for the species-specific gene ftr1. The C. striatum reference strain ATCC6940, ATCC43751, 152 clinical isolates and 30 non-C. striatum strains was used to verify the effectiveness of this method. The resultof this PCR method was compared with that of 16S rRNA gene sequencing and MALDI-TOF MS.The specificity and sensitivity of this PCR method were evaluated. Finally, this PCR method was used to detect 88 clinical sputum specimens. Results The result of the PCR method was 100% consistent with that of 16S rRNA sequencing and MALDI-TOF MS in the identification of 152 C. striatum clinical isolates. There was no cross reaction in 30 non-C. striatum strains.The limit of detection was 1 ng template DNA per reaction.When applied this PCR method to detect clinical sputum specimens, the consistency of this method compared with sputum smear microscopy was 86.4% (76/88). Conclusion As a convenient, economic and effective method, the PCR assay in this study may replace 16S rRNA gene sequencing and MALDI-TOF MS for the clinical identification of C. striatum. Also, this assay has good application effect in the detection of C. striatum in clinical sputum specimens. [Abstract](1965) [FullText HTML](727) [PDF 2067KB](502) [Peer reviewing opinions] Related References Share Abstract: The pandemic of COVID-19 continues to spread worldwide, suggesting that the epidemic would continue in natural state. Although some progress has been achieved in the treatment of COVID-19, it is far from containing the spread of the epidemic. Therefore, human beings have pinned their hopes of controlling the COVID-19 epidemic on the development of vaccines. Currently, several COVID-19 vaccine products have been applied to immunize the population after completion of phase Ⅲ clinical trials. The safety, immunogenicity, efficacy, immunization procedures and response to virus mutations of different COVID-19 vaccines are the great concern of the public. The public and experts in the field are confused about the efficacy of vaccines due to the different evaluation indicators used by research and development institutions in publishing vaccine development and application information and the interpretation by media from different perspectives and calibers. This paper summarizes the published research data and discusses the hot issues in development and post-marketing application of COVID-19 vaccine. , DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.2021 [Abstract](972) [FullText HTML](493) [PDF 818KB](62) [Peer reviewing opinions] Related References Share Abstract:$v.abstractInfoEn
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In May 2021, a total of 67 infectious diseases were reported globally, affecting 225 countries and regions. Except for influenza, the top five infectious diseases affecting greatest number of countries and regions were corona virus disease 2019(COVID-19, 225), dengue fever (30), measles (29), poliomyelitis (15) and malaria (9). The top five infectious diseases with highest case fatality rates were Ebola virus disease (52.2%), Middle East respiratory syndrome (34.4%), lassa fever (20.3%), plague (6.0%) and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (5.3%). The top five infectious diseases with greatest number of deaths were COVID-19, malaria, measles, dengue fever and cholera. The prevalent infectious diseases in Asia were COVID-19 and dengue fever, the prevalent infectious diseases in Africa were COVID-19, Ebola virus disease, plague, cholera, yellow fever, lassa fever and Rift valley fever, the prevalent infectious diseases in America were COVID-19 and dengue fever, the prevalent infectious disease in Europe was COVID-19.
, DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202011300402
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$v.abstractInfoEn , DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202012270443 [Abstract](1068) [FullText HTML](468) [PDF 1997KB](50) [Peer reviewing opinions] Related References Share Abstract:$v.abstractInfoEn
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$v.abstractInfoEn Column Display Method: | 2023, 38(2). [Abstract](58) [PDF 10756KB](12) Peer reviewing opinions Related References Share Abstract: 2023, 38(2): 1-3. [Abstract](63) [FullText HTML](23) [PDF 1392KB](10) Peer reviewing opinions Related References Share Abstract:$v.abstractInfoEn
2023, 38(2): 129-129. DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202302230059
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$v.abstractInfoEn 2023, 38(2): 130-131. DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202302230058 [Abstract](91) [FullText HTML](61) [PDF 404KB](17) Peer reviewing opinions Related References Share Abstract:$v.abstractInfoEn
2023, 38(2): 132-134. DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202302210054
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In January 2023, a total of 64 infectious diseases were reported globally, affecting 235 countries and regions. Except for influenza, the top five infectious diseases affecting greatest number of countries and regions were COVID-19 (235), monkeypox (110), dengue fever (31), measles (27) and cholera (15). The top five infectious diseases with highest case fatality rates were Nipah virus disease (62.5%), Ebola virus disease (47.0%), Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (37.5%), Lassa fever (15.1%) and West Nile fever (7.6%). The top five infectious diseases with greatest number of deaths were COVID-19, malaria, cholera, measles and dengue fever. The prevalent infectious diseases in Asia were COVID-19, cholera and dengue fever, the prevalent infectious diseases in Africa were COVID-19, cholera, yellow fever, Lassa fever, malaria and monkeypox, the prevalent infectious diseases in America were COVID-19, cholera, monkeypox, dengue fever and chikungunya fever, the prevalent infectious disease in Europe were COVID-19, monkeypox and invasive group A streptococcus infection.
2023, 38(2): 135-138. DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202202100034
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Objective  To assess the risk of public health emergencies occurring in China (except Hong Kong, Macao Special Administrative Regions and Taiwan Province, the same below) or possibly imported from outside China in February 2023.   Methods  Based on various data and departmental notification information on domestic and foreign public health emergencies reports and surveillance of key infectious diseases, the expert consultation method was used and experts from provincial (autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government) centers for disease prevention and control were invited to participate in the assessment by video conference.   Results  The number of public health emergencies to be reported in February 2023 is expected to increase compared to former month. In February 2023, affected by immune escape and reinfection of Omicron variants XBB, CH and other possible emerging subtypes, it is expected that the COVID-19 may become endemic in more areas of the world. In China, because of the increased flow of people after the Spring Festival and the opening of schools, the possibility of the spread of the virus will increase. The influenza viruses activity level may increase in February, and influenza A (H1N1) is more likely to be the main influenza virus.   Conclusion  Special attention is given to COVID-19, and general attention is given to seasonal influenza.
2023, 38(2): 139-143. DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202302200050
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Objective   To assess the global epidemic of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in January 2023 and the risk of importation.   Methods   According to the daily COVID-19 data publicly released by Johns Hopkins University, combined with the travel restrictions published by Sherpa, an epidemiological description method was used to provide a comprehensive and timely assessment of the global epidemic risk through a general overview, a comprehensive assessment of the epidemic trends in each continent and key countries, as well as a comprehensive analysis of the epidemic and travel requirements in 14 neighbouring countries.   Results   Compared with the previous month, the number of confirmed cases and deaths respectively decreased by 40.37% and increased by 147.95% globally in January 2023. Daily new confirmed cases showed a decreasing trend, while deaths in all continents stayed stable except Asia in January. The time taken for every 50 million new confirmed cases and 500 thousand deaths globally has increased slightly. The number of deaths in Japan, America, China, and Australia increased rapidly. Zambia, Argentina, New Zealand and Mexico were the countries that showed a sharp rise in the number of deaths in January. Russia was the country with special concern among the 14 neighbouring countries.   Conclusion   The global daily new confirmed cases and deaths showed a downward trend in January, but the epidemic situation was prominent in some regions and countries. It is necessary to continuously monitor countries with global focus and establish a communication mechanism with relevant agencies to exchange information and provide timely warnings.
2023, 38(2): 144-147. DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202207250335
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Objective   To analyze the spatiotemporal distribution of primary and secondary syphilis in Zhejiang province from 2016 to 2020, explore the clustering area and provide theoretical basis for the accurate prevention and control of syphilis.   Methods   The data of primary and secondary s yphilis cases in Zhejiang were collected from China Disease Control and Prevention Information System, and software arcgis 10.8 was used to establish a spatial analysis database for spatial autocorrelation analysis. Software SaTScan 9.7 was used for spatiotemporal scanning analysis.   Results   In Zhejiang, a total of 33 226 cases of primary and secondary syphilis were reported from 2016 to 2020, with the average incidence rate of 11.65/100 000 (from 2.62/100 000 to 40.40/100 000), and the annual incidence rates showed a decrease trend (χ2=26.136, P<0.001). In terms of the overall spatial distribution, the incidence was higher in eastern area and lower in central area. The global autocorrelation results showed that the incidence of primary and secondary syphilis showed clustering (Moran's I index were all >0, Z values were all >1.96, and P values were all <0.001), and the local autocorrelation analysis showed that there was one high-high clustering area in Jiaojiang, Huangyan, Sanmen and Linhai of Taizhou and 4 low-low clustering areas (Qingtian in Lishui, Lucheng, Ouhai and Rui’an in Wenzhou, Pan’an and Dongyang in Jinhua, Keqiao in Shaoxing, Longyou in Quzhou). The results of local G-statistic hotspot analysis showed that there were 6 ‘positive hotspots’ (Jiaojiang, Huangyan, Luqiao, Tiantai, Sanmen and Linhai of Taizhou) and 5 ‘negative hotspots’ (Lucheng, Ouhai, Rui’an of Wenzhou, Longyou of Quzhou, Shengzhou of Shaoxing) in Zhejiang. Spatiotemporal scanning detected four clustering areas, the most likely clustering and secondary likely clustering were mainly in Taizhou, Ningbo and Zhoushan along the eastern coast.   Conclusion   The incidence rate of primary and secondary syphilis reported in Zhejiang showed spatial clustering. In the future, syphilis prevention and control in the eastern coastal area of Zhejiang should be strengthened.
2023, 38(2): 148-151. DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202205060197
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Objective   To analyze the surveillance data of avian influenza virus in external environment in Maanshan from 2009 to 2021 and provide scientific evidence for the improvement of avian influenza surveillance and the prevention and control of human infection with avian influenza virus.   Methods   A total of 1602 environment samples from 2009 to 2021 were collected from live poultry markets, large poultry farms, free range poultry farms and poultry processing plants, respectively, for the detection of the nucleic acid of avian influenza virus by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR, and the results were analyzed statistically.   Results   The positive rate of the nucleic acid of avian influenza virus was 17.92% in 1602 samples in external environment surveillance . The positive samples were mostly detected in winter and in live poultry markets. The positive rate was highest in poultry sewage samples. The main sub-type of influenza A virus was H9.   Conclusion  Live poultry market is still the high risk place for human infection with avian influenza virus from 2009 to 2021. It is necessary to strengthen the surveillance for avian influenza virus in live poultry markets in key areas during winter-spring, and implement fully the hygiene managements measures in live poultry markets.
2023, 38(2): 152-156. DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202208040343
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Objective  To investigate the delay of treatment in pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients in Inner Mongolia autonomous region from 2016 to 2020, identify the influencing factors and provide evidence for the formulation of pulmonary TB control measures and the reduction of treatment delay rate.   Methods  The registration information of pulmonary TB patients in Inner Mongolia from 2016 to 2020 was collected from the National Health Security Information System. Median and quartile space description were used for statistical description, and the influencing factors of the treatment delay were analyzed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression models.   Results  The median of treatment delay in the pulmonary TB patients was 32 (11, 67) days in Inner Mongolia from 2016 to 2020, the average annual treatment delay rate was 70.80% (36769/51933) and showed a downward trend (χ2=335.552, P<0.001). Univariate analysis showed that there were significant differences in the treatment delay rate among the patients in different ethnic groups, the patients in different age groups, the patients with different residence registration, the patients with different occupations, the patients with different case finding and diagnosis results (χ2=43.507, 166.956, 296.935, 566.818, 416.006, 30.997, all P<0.001), there were no significant differences in the treatment delay rate among the patients in different gender groups and treatment groups (P=0.419, 0.727). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that being ethnic minority, age >45 years (compared with age <25 years), being farmer/herdsman, being retirees, being jobless and unemployed (compared with students), case finding by referral, follow-up and others (compared with health examination and active screening) and positive etiological diagnosis were the risk factor for delayed treatment of pulmonary TB patients.   Conclusion  The delay of treatment in pulmonary TB patients in Inner Mongolia was serious, so the prevention and control measures should be formulated to reduce the treatment delay rate according to relevant risk factors for the reductions of transmission risk and the incidence of TB.
2023, 38(2): 157-162. DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202206300305
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Objective  To evaluate the effect of implementation of tuberculosis (TB) prevention and treatment plan in Jiangxi province from 2015 to 2020.   Methods  To carry out “The 13th Five-Year” final on-site assessment and special investigation, and to collect data from TB information management system from 2015 to 2020 based on “The 13th Five-Year” Plan for National TB Prevention and Treatment’.   Results  During period of “The 13th Five-Year”, the investment from government was 9.9724 million yuan, 0.44 yuan per capita; in 2020, reported TB incidence was 56.02/100000 in Jiangxi province; successful treatment rate in TB patients was 94.86%; overall arrival rate was 98.42% among TB patients and suspected TB patients; screening rate was 97.63% in population with high-risk of drug-resistance TB, drug-resistance screening rate was 87.52% within new pathogen-positive patients, the rate of treatment acceptance among Rifampicin-resistant patients was 77.87%; molecular biology detection capability was covered 100% on city and county level; the rate of public awareness rate of core knowledge of TB prevention and treatment was 80.46%.   Conclusion  The goal of TB prevention and treatment plan of “The 13th Five-Year” in Jiangxi province was basically achieved, especially drug-resistant TB prevention and treatment and laboratory building were all had reached established goals. Cooperation between health facilities and CDC, drug-resistant TB medical insurance and new technique application of ‘Internet Plus’ would be the challenges for TB control and prevention in Jiangxi province.
2023, 38(2): 163-165. DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202208230370
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Objective   To investigate the prevalence of asymptomatic norovirus infections status in kitchen workers in schools, child care settings, and catering service units and other key places in Tongzhou district of Beijing from 2019 to 2021, and provide evidence for scientific prevention and control of norovirus infection.  Methods   The simple random sampling method was used to select the kitchen workers, especially the kitchen workers preparing cold dish, from catering service units, schools, childcare settings, construction sites, hotels as study subjects,and their anal swabs or stool samples were collected for norovirus nucleic acid detection by fluorescence quantitative PCR. Descriptive method was used to analyze the asymptomatic norovirus infection status of the kitchen workers.  Results   A total of 3880 samples were collected from 552 units, and 15 norovirus positive cases were detected, including 1 sample positive for GⅠ and 14 samples positive for GⅡ. The asymptomatic norovirus infection rate was 0.39% (15/3880),in which 0.30% (5/1656) in man, and 0.45%(10/2224) in women. No asymptomatic infections were detected in age groups ＜ 18 years and ＞ 60 years, and 2055 cases were detected in age group 19− years, with a positive rate of 0.34% (7/2055), and 1637 cases were detected in age group 46− years, with a positive rate of 0.49% (8/1637). In 2019 when no COVID-19 epidemic occurred, the asymptomatic norovirus infection rate was 1.00% (1/100), but the asymptomatic norovirus infection rate was 0.39% (11/2805)in 2020 and 0.31%(3/975)in 2021 in the context of COVID-19 epidemic.   Conclusion   The asymptomatic norovirus infection rate in kitchen workers in key places in Tongzhou was similar to the average level in Beijing during the same period. In COVID-19 epidemic period, the asymptomatic norovirus infection rate was lower than that before the epidemic.
2023, 38(2): 170-173. DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202205160221
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Objective  To understand the epidemiological characteristics and incidence trend of genital herpes in Shaanxi province and provide evidence for the prevention and control of genital herpes.   Methods   The incidence data of genital herpes reported by medical institutions in Shaanxi from 2005−2020 were collected from disease information management system. Excel 2010 was used for data process and software SPSS 26.0 was used for statistical analysis.   Results   During 2005−2020, a total of 9 618 cases of genital herpes were reported in Shaanxi. The average incidence rate was 1.59/100 000. The reported incidence rate increased with year, reached peak in 2009 (2.75/100 000), and then decreased with year. The monthly distribution of reported cases was similar without obvious seasonality. The male to female ratio of the genital herpes cases was 3.63∶1. Most cases (6 438 cases) were aged 20−39 years, accounting for 66.94%. The cases were mainly distributed in the jobless or the unemployed, the cases in the married (3 797 cases) accounted for 71.45%, there were 1 859 cases with the education level of junior high school (35.22%), and the case number reported accumulatively by the medical institution in Xi'an was highest (6434 cases).   Conclusion   During 2005−2020, the annual incidence of genital herpes showed an increase till 2009, and then decreased, but it is still necessary to further strengthen the prevention and control of genital herpes, expand the coverage of case screening and health education to prevent the spread of genital herpes.
2023, 38(2): 174-180. DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202209130399
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Objective  To understand the circulation and whole-genome features of rotavirus A in Gansu province during 2018−2020.  Methods  Stool samples were collected from children with diarrhea in 6 sentinel hospitals in Gansu for the extraction of viral nucleic acids of rotavirus A, adenovirus , norovirus, astrovirus and sapovirus with real-time PCR, and the DNA sequencing library of partial rotavirus positive samples were constructed following the instructions, the gene sequencing was conducted by the second generation sequencing method, and the sequencing data were analyzed by phylogenetic software.  Results  In the 2 553 stool samples collected, 853 were positive in nucleic acid test of adenovirus, norovirus, astrovirus, sapovirus and rotavirus (33.41%). The detection rate of rotavirus was highest (17.43%), followed by norovirus (12.65%), adenovirus (6.58%), astrovirus (4.70%) and sapovirus (1.02%). In the gene sequencing of 50 rotavirus positive samples, the full sequences of 31 strains were obtained, including 24 G9P［8］ strains, 2 G2P［8］ strains, 3 G2P［4］ strains,1 G9P［6］ strain and 1 G9P［4］ strain. Whole genome analysis suggested that except the VP7 segment, the VP3 and NSP4 segments also had more obviously differences in all the 31 strains. This study obtained 21 G9P［8］ Wa-like strains (G9-P［8］-I1-R1-C1-M1-A1-N1-T1-E1-H1), 3 G9P［8］-E2 strains (G9-P［8］-I1-R1-C1-M1-A1-N1-T1-E2-H1), and G9P［8］-E2 strains accounted for12.5% (3/24) in 24 rotavirus G9P［8］ strains sequenced.  Conclusion  Rotavirus was the major pathogen causing diarrhea in children in Gansu during 2018−2020, G9P［8］ was the most predominant genotype, and G9P［8］-E2 reassortant strain was detected for the first time . It is necessary to continue the surveillance for virus variation.
2023, 38(2): 181-184. DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202206200279
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Objective   To analyze the changes in incidence of notifiable infectious diseases in Jiading district of Shanghai in the context of COVID-19 epidemic.  Methods   The incidence data of notifiable infectious disease in Jiading during 2017−2021 were collected for the comparison of the incidence rates before and after the implementation of COVID-19 prevention and control measures.   Results   The incidence rate of notifiable infectious diseases in Jiading was 167.59/100000in 2020, 60.20% lower than the average level during 2017-2019 (421.04/100000) (χ2=2424.369, P＜0.001）and the incidence rate was 213.82/100000 in 2021, 49.22% lower than the average level during 2017 − 2019 (χ2=1 578. 996, P<0.001). The incidence of class B and C infectious diseases in 2020 and 2021 were lower than the average incidence during 2017−2019, and the incidence of class B infectious diseases decreased by 38.79% in 2020 and 30.70% in 2021, respectively. The incidence rate of class C decreased by 71.23% in 2020 and 58.76%in 2021, respectively. The incidence rates of intestinal infectious disease, respiratory infectious disease, blood infectious disease and sexually transmitted disease during 2020 − 2021 were lower than the average levels during 2017−2019, which decreased by 59.27%, 68.02% and 36.52% respectively in 2020, and decreased by 37.96%, 56.37% and 30.51% respectively in 2021.The incidence rates of HFMD in 2020 and 2021 were still highest during 2020 − 2021 ( 39.01/100000 and 75.87/100000).   Conclusion   The implementation of COVID-19 prevention and control measures had influence on the incidence of notifiable infectious diseases with different transmission routes, especially the respiratory infectious diseases, but the influence on the rank of top five notifiable infectious diseases was not obvious.
2023, 38(2): 185-190. DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202201130688
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Objective  To understand the seasonality, population distribution and pathogenic food of salmonella infection in Yuyao from 2015 to 2020, and provide scientific evidence for the prevention and control of salmonellosis.   Methods   A total of 2104 stool samples or anal swabs samples were collected from the patients with foodborne diseases in Yuyao Maternity and Child Healthcare Center (a sentinel hospital) from 2015 to 2020 for the culture and isolation of Salmonella , and the isolated Salmonella strains were serotyped. Circular distribution method was used to analyze the seasonality of Salmonella infection. The gender, age and population distribution of Salmonella infection were descripted, and pathogenic food were identified.   Results  A total of 234 Salmonella strains were detected, the averages annual positive rate was 11.12%. The Salmonella detected belonged to 36 serotypes. Salmonella Typhimurium(38.89%) and Salmonella Enteritidis (11.97%) were predominant. Circular distribution analysis indicated that the annual detection rate peaked during May-July and high detection lasted to September. The peak day was 15th July from the analysis of circular distribution.The detection rate was highest in 1–5 years old group (18.49%), followed by 0–1 year old group (16.51%), 5–10 years old groups (10.64%). The detection rates of Salmonella were high in eggs or egg product, grain or grain product, fruit or fruit product (P<0.05).   Conclusion  The detection rates of Salmonella in food was high in Yuyao. The seasonality of Salmonella detection was obvious. Infants and preschool aged children were the susceptible population to Salmonella infection. Salmonella was detected in all main foods. It is necessary to strengthen the prevention of food contamination by Salmonella.
2023, 38(2): 191-195. DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202207200337
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Objective  To understand the distribution and contamination of avian influenza virus in the external environment of live poultry markets and analyze the serological test results of population with occupational exposure in Changsha, Hunan province, from 2018 to 2021, and provide evidence for the prevention and control of human infection with avian influenza virus and policy-making.  Methods  From January 1, 2018 to December 31, 2021 in Changsha, the external environmental samples of live poultry markets were collected and detected for avian influenza virus nucleic acid by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and horse blood cell hemagglutination inhibition test (HI) was used to detect H5N6 and H7N9 antibodies in serum samples, and turkey blood cell was used to detect H9N2 antibodies in serum samples. Software SPSS 19.0 was used to analyze the data and compare the positive rates of different samples, at different areas and at different times.  Results  From January 1, 2018 to December 31, 2021, a total of 813 external environmental samples of live poultry markets and 150 serum samples of people with occupational exposure to poultry were collected in Changsha. The average positive rate of avian influenza virus in the external environment of live poultry markets was 64.58% in Changsha from 2018 to 2021, the annual positive rate showed an increasing trend from 2019 to 2021, and 254 samples were positive for subtype H9, accounting for the highest proportion. Among the six different types of sample, the positive rate in cage surface swabs was highest (79.03%), and the positive rate in poultry throat swabs was lowest (10.00%). Among the districts and counties in Changsha, Yuelu had the highest positive rate of avian influenza virus (94.67%). In terms of time distribution, the average annual positive rate was highest in the fourth quarter (67.50%), and lowest in the third quarter (57.82%), the positive rate was lower in summer than in winter. From 2018 to 2021, one H9N2 antibody positive sample was detected in the serological test for the population with occupational exposure to poultry. There were significant differences in the positive rate of avian influenza virus among different types of samples and different areas (P<0.05).  Conclusion  The main subtype of avian influenza virus was H9 in the external environment of live poultry market in Changsha during 2018−2021. Winter was the season with high detection rate, and there was H9N2 recessive infection in population with occupational exposure. Trading, transportation and personnel flow in live poultry markets were high-risk factors for the cross-species spread of avian influenza virus. Live poultry markets should be regarded as a key places for avian influenza prevention and control, and continuous surveillance for avian influenza virus should be carried out to prevent the spread of avian influenza virus in human.
2023, 38(2): 196-200. DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202207180327
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Objective  To analyze the effect of active pulmonary tuberculosis screening in rural elderly population in Quzhou, Zhejiang province.   Methods  In 2020, chest digital radiography (DR) was conducted in the health examination for the elderly who were aged ≥65 years and had local residence for consecutive 6 months in 89 townships of 6 counties (districts) of Quzhou. The suspected pulmonary TB cases by the examination were referred to designated hospitals for diagnosis. The information about active screening and case survey were collected to understand the coverage of the active screening and the detection rate of pulmonary TB in elderly population.   Results  In 2020, a total of 311 385 persons met the requirements for health examination, in whom 187 065 received health examination, and 186 096 completed health examination and chest DR. The screening rate was 59.76% (186096/311385), and the screening rate was higher in women (64.22%, 98652/153606) than in men (55.42%, 87444/157779), the difference was significant (χ2=2507.786, P=0.001). The screening rate was highest in age group 70– years (82.82%) and lowest in age grtoup ≥85 years (37.95%), and showed a downward trend with age, the difference was significant (trend χ2=6510.086, P=0.001); The screening rate was highest in Changshan county (80.75%, 30199/37396) and lowest in Kecheng district (35.47%, 21596/60889), the difference was significant (χ2=46983.142, P=0.001). A total of 174 active pulmonary tuberculosis cases were detected with a detection rate of 93.50/100 000 (174/186096), and the detection rate was significantly higher in men (160.10/100 000, 140/87444) than in women (34.46/100 000, 34/98652), the difference was significant (χ2=78.331, P<0.001). The detection rate was highest in Changshan county (175.50/100 000, 53/30199) and lowest in Longyou county (28.97/100 000, 8/27613), the difference was significant (χ2=39.904, P=0.001). The differences in detection rate among different age groups had no significance (χ2=1.775, P=0.777).   Conclusion  The active screening of pulmonary TB by chest DR in rural elderly in their health examination can be widely used in areas with high incidences of pulmonary TB, but the screening rate and detection rate need to be increased, and the screening strategy need to be improved according to the high-risk factors in local population.
2023, 38(2): 201-205. DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202209170409
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Objective  To understand the prevalence of depressive symptoms in middle school students in Yuyao, of Zhejiang province, identify the influencing factors and provide evidence for the development of psychological intervention measures to promote the mental health of middle school students.   Methods  A questionnaire survey was conducted in the students selected through stratified cluster sampling from 2 junior high schools, 2 senior high schools and 1 vocational and technical school in Yuyao. The depression symptoms were assessed by CES-D, and the influencing factors of depression were identified by Poisson regression analysis.   Results  A total of 1 378 questionnaires were distributed and 1 374 were returned, with an effective response rate of 99.71%. The score of CES-D was (12.95±4.76) and the detection rate of depressive symptom was 17.90%. The positive rate in girl students (21.53%) was higher than that in boy students (14.37%), the difference was not significant (P>0.05). There were no significant differences in the detection rate of depressive symptom among different grades (P>0.05). The results of Poisson regression analysis showed that being girl student (OR=1.465), living in town (OR=1.450), living in school (OR=3.498), having been beaten and scolded by parents in the past 30 days (OR=1.795) , school suspension due to illness in the past year (OR=3.031), having been seriously injured in the past year (OR=3.177), having been bullied in school in the past 30 days (OR=2.133) and Internet addiction (OR=1.747) were the risk factors for depressive symptoms. Conclusion The prevalence rate of depressive symptoms in middle school students in Yuyao was 17.90%. It is necessary to pay close attention to mental health of middle school students, and to develop scientific and effective psychological intervention measures.
2023, 38(2): 202-206. DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202207160324
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Objective   To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of hepatitis B in Sichuan province from 2010 to 2021, establish an autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model to predict the incidence trend of hepatitis B, and provide theoretical basis for the prevention and control of hepatitis B in Sichuan.   Methods   Descriptive epidemiological method was used to analyze the epidemiological characteristics of hepatitis B in Sichuan from 2010 to 2021. Software R 4.0.2 was used to establish an ARIMA model to predict the monthly incidence of hepatitis B in Sichuan.   Results   A total of 536 017 cases of hepatitis B were reported in Sichuan from 2010 to 2021, the average annual incidence rate was 54.44/100 000. The overall incidence rate showed a decreasing trend first and then an increasing trend, and the incidence had no obvious seasonality. The incidence of acute hepatitis B decreased year by year. Liangshan, Bazhong and Ganzi were the areas with high incidences. The majority of the patients were farmers (62.85%), and the cases were mainly aged 35−54 years old (41.83%). The male to female ratio of the cases was 1.95∶1. ARIMA (0,1,1) (0,1,1)12 was the optimal model. The actual number of cases from January to June 2022 were all within the 95% CI of the predicted value of the model. The mean absolute percentage error of the model was 4.86%.   Conclusion   Although the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B in Sichuan has effectively contained the incidence of acute hepatitis B, the overall incidence rate of hepatitis B was still high. Male, those aged 35−54 years and farmer are the key populations in hepatitis B prevention and control. The established ARIMA (0,1,1) (0,1,1)12 model can well predict the incidence of hepatitis B in Sichuan.
2023, 38(2): 211-214. DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202303010363
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Objective  To understand the serum antibody level of family members and neighbors of leprosy patients and provide evidence for the follow-up in family members and neighbor of leprosy patients.   Methods  The general information of the study subjects and the detection data of IgM, MMP-IgG and LID-IgG by ND-O-BSA-ELISA were entered into EXCEL electronic database, and then the detection data were analyzed by χ2 test and t test with software SPSS 18.0.   Results  Three family members of leprosy patients were IgM positive, no positive cases were detected in the neighbors, but there was no significant difference in the change of IgM between the two groups (P>0.05); In the family members of leprosy patients, 50 were MMP-IgG positive, accounting for 23.47%, and 44 were LID-IgG positive, accounting for 20.66%. There were 12 MMP-IgG positive cases, accounting for 4.90%, and 11 LID-IgG positive cases, accounting for 4.90%, in the neighbors of leprosy patients. The differences in changes of MMP-IgG and LID-IgG in the two groups were significant (P<0.001).   Conclusion  ND-O-BSA-ELISA can effectively detect the level of leprosy specific antibody in the family members and neighbors of leprosy patients. In the physical examination and follow-up, attention should be paid not only to the patients, but also to their family members and neighbors.
2023, 38(2): 166-169. DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202205250239
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Objective  To understand epidemiological characteristics of public health emergencies in Jinhua, Zhejiang province, from 2008 to 2020, and provide scientific evidence for public health emergency response and control.   Methods  The incidence data of public health emergencies in Jinhua from 2008 to 2020 were collected from the public health emergency management information system, a subsystem of national disease prevention and control information system in China, for a descriptive epidemiological analysis.   Results  A total of 152 public health emergencies were reported in Jinhua from 2008 to 2020, including 61 general events and 91 unclassified events. The events reported were mainly infectious diseases epidemics (134 events, 88.15%), followed by poisoning events (16 events, 10.53%). The annual incidence peaks of the public health emergencies were during April-May and during November-January. Infectious diseases epidemics and food poisoning events mainly occurred in schools and childcare settings. Acute occupational poisoning cases, other poisoning cases and insect-borne infectious disease cases were mainly fatal.   Conclusion  The public health emergencies in Jinhua were mainly infectious disease epidemics. Schools and childcare settings were the key places for disease prevention and control, and the surveillance and early warning of respiratory and intestinal infectious diseases in schools and childcare settings should be strengthened. Meanwhile, it is necessary to strengthen the prevention and control of public health emergencies which might causing deaths, such as other poisoning event and insect-borne infectious disease epidemic, improve health education and conduct timely detection and response of public health emergencies for the early control.
2023, 38(2): 215-218. DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202208100354
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Objective  To investigate the significance of T cell spot test of tuberculosis infection (T-SPOT.TB) and peripheral platelet count (PLT) and platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) in the differential diagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and inactive pulmonary TB.   Methods  A retrospectively analysis was conducted for 250 clinical cases of suspected pulmonary TB, including 115 active pulmonary TB cases, 63 inactive TB cases and 72 non-TB pneumonia cases, in Yichun People's Hospital from January 2019 to June 2021. The laboratory detection results, such as T lymphocyte spot test for TB, PLT, PLR, bacterial acid-antacid staining, and final diagnosis of the cases were collected for statistical analysis.   Results  The positive rate of T-SPOT.TB in the non-TB pneumonia patients (4.17%) was significantly lower than those in the inactive pulmonary TB patients (82.54%) and active pulmonary TB patients (85.22%), the platelet count and PLR in the active pulmonary TB patients were significantly higher than those in the inactive pulmonary TB patients and the non-TB pneumonia patients. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the sensitivity and specificity of T-SPOT.TB combined with PLT and PLR in the diagnosis of active pulmonary TB were 63.30%, and 86.50%.   Conclusion  T-SPOT. TB combined with PLT and PLR is helpful in the differential diagnosis of active pulmonary TB and inactive pulmonary TB, and can provide evidence for clinical anti-TB therapy.
2023, 38(2): 219-226. DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202208290383
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Objective   Monkeypox discovered in 1958, mainly spread in west and central Africa. Since May 2022, more than 77 000 monkeypox cases have occurred in 109 countries around the world, and on July 23 2022, the World Health Organization announced that the monkeypox outbreak represented a public health emergency of international concern. On September 16, the first imported monkeypox case was reported in the mainland of China. In the context of global spread of monkeypox, including in non-epidemic countries, more attention should be paid to the possible monkeypox epidemic in China, including technology development and prevention and control preparedness.   Methods  Multidimensional analysis was conducted on the patent status, subjects, technology development and competitive position of monkeypox virus research in the world based on ESTP model.   Results  The results showed that although the patents application in monkeypox virus research field has a history of more than 30 years, the total number of patents was not large. Relevant patent applications were mainly made in America, and monkeypox related pharmaceutical preparations and anti-infective drugs were the main patent application technology categories. In China, the patent activity indicators such as RSI index, patent occupancy were low, and the patent quality indicators such as average protection coverage and average protection area were not high.   Conclusion  Compared with America, Canada, Australia, the research in monkeypox virus in China started later. It is necessary to further strengthen the strategic development for the research of monkeypox virus, improve the intensity and coverage of patent protection, and improve the level of relevant intellectual property rights and core technology reserve capacity in the field of medical health and biosafety.
2023, 38(2): 227-232. DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202207300341
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Objective  To analyze the association between insufficient physical activity and the symptoms of decreased resistibility in the college students in Hubei, Jiangxi and Chongqing provinces (municipality) in China.   Methods  From November to December 2021, a total of 9 349 college students from 4 universities in Hubei, Jiangxi and Chongqing were selected by cluster sampling and investigated by questionnaire. The survey collected the information about the demographic variables, symptoms of decreased resistibility, and physical activity of the college students, and χ2 test was used to analyze the difference in symptoms of decreased resistibility in college students with different demographic characteristics, and Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between physical activity and symptom of decreased resistibility in the college students with statistical software SPSS 19.0.   Results  The detection rate of symptom of decreased resistibility was 17.5%. Logistic regression analysis showed that compared with daily outdoor activities <30 min, daily outdoor activities more than 30 min（30 min−<2 h, 2 h−<4 h, 4 h−<6 h, ≥6 h） were negatively correlated with the symptom of decreased resistibility in the college students (OR=0.54−0.64, all P<0.001). Stratified analysis showed that daily outdoor activities for more than 30 minutes were negatively correlated with the symptom of decreased resistibility in both the boy students (OR=0.51−0.67) and the girl students (OR=0.44−0.60 ) (all P<0.05), except for 30 min−<2 h in the boy students.   Conclusion  The lack of outdoor activities might be the risk factor for symptom of decreased resistibility in the college students.
2023, 38(2): 233-236. DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202208190374
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Objective  To identify the pathogen of an epidemic of vomiting and diarrhea with unknown cause in a kindergarten in Lanzhou, Gansu province.   Methods  A total of 44 samples, including 17 anal swabs from sick children and 27 environmental samples, were collected. The nucleic acids of rotavirus, norovirus, zavivirus and sapovirus were detected by real-time fluorescence polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and the bacterial pathogen isolation was conducted by using the anal swabs.   Results  In the 44 samples, no diarrheagenic Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella and Yersinia enterotica were isolated, and the nucleic acid detection results of rotavirus, norovirus, astrovirus and zavivirus were negative, but 11 children's anal swabs were positive for the nucleic acid of sapovirus. Two anal swabs with obvious bands were selected for whole-genome sequencing, the results showed that the sapovirus belonged to GⅠ.2, and BLAST indicated that the similarity of the whole genome sequence with the sapovirus detected in Shenzhen in 2016 was 98.96%−98.98%.   Conclusion  The epidemic of diarrhea was caused by sapovirus GⅠ.2, which was first reported sapovirus infection epidemic in Gansu, indicating that it is necessary to strengthen the surveillance, prevention and control of viral diarrhea.
2023, 38(2): 237-241. DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202201060671
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Objective  To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of an epidemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by occupational exposure in Xining, Qinghai province, from October 17 to November 2, 2021 and provide evidence for the prevention and control of COVID-19 epidemic.   Methods  In accordance with the requirements of the COVID-19 prevention and control protocol (eighth edition), epidemiological survey and field response were conducted and throat swabs were collected from the confirmed cases and close contacts. Real time-PCR(RT-PCR) was used to detect severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) nucleic acid. Gene sequencing was performed for the throat swabs of partial confirmed cases by high throughput sequencing.   Results  A total of 11 COVID-19 cases were reported in this epidemic, including 3 cases in a family and 8 cases in medical staff. Nine cases were women, 2 cases were men. The cases in epidemic had 3 generations. The average incubation period was 3.18 day. The infection was mainly occurred in working place. The risk factors included sharing telephone, computer and other office equipment. The initial symptoms were cough (10 cases, 90.97%). Unstandardized taking off protective suit in field epidemiological survey and inappropriate design of waterproof boot cover were the main risk factors for the occupational exposure. The SARS-CoV-2 detected belonged to VOC/Delta variant.   Conclusion  This epidemic was caused by occupational exposure. It is suggested to strengthen the field supervision and guide of the wearing of protective suits, improve the design of waterproof boot cover and reduce the contacts of field workers with others.
2023, 38(2): 242-242.
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CN 11-2928/R

ISSN 1003-9961

Established in:1986 , Monthly

Responsible Institution:National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China

Sponsor: Editorial Board of Disease Surveillance，National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention，Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention

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