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Evaluation of communicable disease reporting based on three level intelligent platform in Ningbo
Keqin Ding, Liang Zhang, Bo Yi, Yi Chen, Hongjun Dong, Guozhang Xu
Accepted Manuscript , DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.09.013
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Objective To evaluate the performance of communicable disease reporting based on a three level intelligent platform in Ningbo from March 28 to July 24 in 2017. Methods The communicable disease management information system and digital disease control platform of Ningbo were used to evaluate the performance of the intelligent platform communicable disease reporting in Ningbo. Results During this period, all the hospitals in Ningbo reported 24 497 communicable disease cards through the intelligent platform, 24 259 cards successfully transferred to national disease management information system, the successful rate was 99.03%. The average reporting time decreased by 3 minutes than before. From April to July, the timeliness reporting rate of communicable disease increased from 99.97% to 99.99%. ID number complete rate increased from 88.96% during the same period in 2016 to 99.95%. Comprehensive index increased from 97.79% in 2016 to 99.99%. The reporting consistent rate increased from 94.50% to 100%. Conclusion During the four-month operation, the performance of communicable diseases reporting based on the three level intelligent platform in Ningbo was well. Compared with the traditional model, the quality of communicable disease reporting has been greatly improved.
Epidemiological characteristics of rabies in pastoral areas in Yushu, Qinghai, 2013-2017
Sang Ga, Guilan Zhang
Accepted Manuscript , DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.10.0350
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Objective To analyze the monitoring data of rabies in the pastoral areas of Yushu prefecture, Qinghai province, from 2013 to 2017, discuss the epidemiological characteristics of rabies and provide evidence for the rabies prevention and control in pastoral areas. Methods The surveillance data of the rabies in Yushu from 2013 to 2017 were collected and analyzed and the information about dog biting were collected by using questionnaire. Results From 2013 to 2017, a total of 252 cases of dog biting were reported in Yushu, and 5 confirmed rabies cases occurred in 2 males and 3 females. Averagely, 63 dog biting cases occurred each year. The incidence was 1.98/100 000, and case fatality rate was 100%. The interval between onset and death was short (averagely 3–4 days). The incubation period was longer in cases with biting on lower limbs. The detection rates of rabies virus in human and wolf brain samples and cattle spinal marrow samples were all 100%. Of 5 rabies cases, 4 died within 1–7 days after exposure, and 1 died after 7 days of exposure. In addition, 5 cases of one dog biting multi people were reported, involving 16 persons and causing 5 deaths (4 deaths after street dog bite, 1 death after domestic dog bite). All the 11 persons who had grade Ⅱ exposure survived due to timely post exposure treatment. Dog biting mainly occurred during November–April. Conclusion From 2013 to 2017, the incidence of rabies in the pastoral areas of Yushu was in increase. The frequency of close contact between the wild host of rabies and livestock and human greatly increased. The poor management of dogs and low standard post exposure treatment rate were the main reasons for the increased incidence of rabies.
Incidence trend and characteristics of cerebral infarction in residents in Tianjin, 2010-2016
Xiaodan Xue, Dezheng Wang, Ying Zhang, Wei Li, Chengfeng Shen, Shuo Pang, Guohong Jiang
Accepted Manuscript , DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.10.0249
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Objective To investigate the incidence trend and characteristics of cerebral infarction in residents in between 2010 and 2016, analyze the incidence differences in population with different characteristics, and provide evidence for the prevention and control of cerebral infarction. Methods The data of new cerebral infarction cases between 2010 and 2016 were collected from Tianjin Cerebral Infarction Surveillance System. The incidence of cerebral infarction and its distribution in different age groups, gender groups and urban or rural areas was analyzed. The population data based on the Sixth National Population Census in 2010 were used for standardized rate estimation. Difference among different groups was compared with χ2 test. The χtrend2 test was used to analyze the incidence trend with years and in different age groups. The change the incidence during this period and prediction of the incidence during 2017–2020 were analyzed by using Joinpoint software. Results The average age of initial cerebral infarction was 65.50 years, the smoking rate was 32.18%, and the recurrent rate was 34.01%. The incidence rate of cerebral infarction in Tianjin increased gradually from 2010 to 2016 with the crude incidence rate ranging from 379.70/100 000 to 583.64/100 000, and with the standardized incidence rate ranged from 212.40/100 000 to 291.52/100 000 (P<0.000 1). The increase in rural area was more obvious. The incidence rate was consistently higher in male residents (the crude incidence: 450.17/100 000–698.82/100 000, the standardized incidence rate: 249.20/100 000–350.34/100 000) than in female residents (the crude incidence rate: 308.44/100 000–467.87/100 000, the standardized incidence rate: 174.48/100 000–232.85/100 000, allP<0.001). And in all age groups, the incidences in men were higher than in women (P<0.001). According to the prediction, the incidence of cerebral infarction in Tianjin will reach 808.58/100 000, and the standardized incidence of the disease will be 371.03/100 000 by 2020. Conclusions The incidence of cerebral infarction increased during the past 7 years. There was no turning point for decrease, and the increasing trend was more obvious in rural areas and in men. Attention should be paid to the disease and targeted interventions should be taken to reduce the incidence of cerebral infarction.
Surveillance for circulation and genetic evolution of avian influenza A (H7N9) virus in poultry markets in Guangzhou, 2014-2017
Lan Cao, Kuibiao Li, Yanhui Liu, Yiyun Chen, Jianyun Lu, Enjie Lu, Wenhui Liu, Dan Xia, Tiegang Li, Ming Wang, Biao Di, Zhicong Yang
Accepted Manuscript , DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.10.0274
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Objective To understand the circulation and gene evolution of avian influenza A (H7N9) virus in Guangzhou and provide research data for prevention and control of human infection with avian influenza A (H7N9) virus. Methods The samples were collected in poultry markets in Guangzhou during 2014–2017. Avian influenza A (H7N9) virus was detected by real-time RT-PCR, and the HA gene was plotted for phylogenetic tree. Results A total of 28 252 samples were detected, in which 888 were positive for H7N9 virus (3.14%). The circulation peak of H7N9 virus occurred during February–May. The highest detection rate was 13% in April. The nucleotide homology of HA gene was 88.6%–100%, and the amino acid homology was 92.0%–100%. The highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H7N9) virus has been detected in the environment in 2017. Evolutionary analysis revealed that the HA gene exhibited multiple evolutionary branching characteristics. In recent years, the virus HA gene has been localized, belonging to the Southern China branch. And we have detected the isolate belonging to other evolution branch from wild birds. Conclusion Avian influenza A (H7N9) virus continued to exist in Guangzhou during 2014–2017, and the virus mutated rapidly. It is necessary to strengthen the surveillance for avian influenza A (H7N9) virus in wild birds.
Distribution characteristics and drug resistance of Salmonella in outside environment and foodborne disease patients in Yuyao, 2014-2016
Jianqun Zhang, Shaojun Huang, Chao Miao, Shijie Yuan, Xuehui Luo
Accepted Manuscript , DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.10.02018-0000
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Objective To understand the distribution characteristics and drug resistance of Salmonella in water, food and food borne disease patients after flood disaster in Yuyao, Zhejiang province, and provide scientific basis for clinical treatment and prevention of foodborne diseases. Methods Samples were collected from river water in the urban area, food and diarrhea patients in Yuyao, and then enrichment culture, isolation, biochemical identification, serotyping and drug susceptibility test were carried out. Results A total of 283 Salmonella strains were detected in Yuyao during 2014−2016, the detected strains belonged to 32 serotypes,S. Typhimurium was predominant (40.28%). Salmonella had high resistance rate to ampicillin (51.59%) and piperacillin (42.05%). It was found that 36 strains were multi-drug resistant. Conclusion The contamination rate of S almonella in outside environment was high in Yuyao, the detected Salmonella strains had multiple serotypes, high drug resistance rate and high multidrug resistance. S. Typhimurium was predominant. The distribution and drug resistance of Salmonellain river water, foods and foodborne disease patients after flood disaster had relevance and unique characteristics.
Analysis on infection source of the first case of human infection with avian influenza A (H7N9) virus in Daxing district of Beijing, 2017
Qiuling Li, Yanqing Gao, Wenjun Hou, Jinfeng Tang, Limin Zhou, Tianchi Zheng, Bofeng Wu, Dating Chen, Han Wang, Hongyan Cui, Jiangtao Han
Accepted Manuscript , DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.10.0225
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Objective To understand the infection source of the first case of human infection with avian influenza A (H7N9) virus in Daxing district of Beijing in 2017, and provide scientific evidence for the prevention and control of human H7N9 virus infection. Methods Field epidemiological investigation and laboratory testing method were used to trace the possible source of infection. Results The exposure to live poultry of the case occurred one week before the onset of the disease. Throat swabs, deep cough sputum fluid, and serum samples of case were nucleic acid positive for H7N9 virus. H7N9 virus nucleic acid was detected in both live poultry and its environment. Seven other exposed individuals and close contacts were found to be nucleic acid negative. Sequencing analysis of hemagglutinin (HA) gene and neuraminidase (NA) gene showed no significant variation. Conclusion Live poultry exposure history was one of key risk factors of H7N9 virus infection. The source of infection was live poultry purchased from a floating market. The sequencing of the virus and the HA0 cleavage site of the virus indicated that the virus belongs to the virus of H7N9 Yangtze River Delta branch and is a low-pathogenic avian influenza virus.
Molecular epidemiology of rotavirus in infectious diarrhea patients in Taizhou, 2015−2016
Weiwei Shen, Ying Sheng, Jian Weng, Donghong Wang, Danhong Qiu, Congcong Li, Yaya Guan, Xiaoxiao Zhou, Haijiang Lin
Accepted Manuscript , DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.10.000
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Objective To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of rotavirus infection and molecular characteristics of rotavirus in Taizhou, Zhejiang province. Methods Stool samples and information of patients with infectious diarrhea were collected from 2 sentinel hospitals in Taizhou from 2015–2016. The dual-fluorescence PCR was used to detect A/B group rotaviruses. The G/P genotyping and sequencing of all group A rotavirus-positive samples were performed. The homology and phylogenetic relationship of VP7 gene of major types were analyzed. Results Eighty-one strains of rotaviruses were detected in 1 589 diarrhea samples (5.10%), in which group A rotavirus accounted for 98.77% (80/81) and group B rotavirus accounted for 1.23% (1/81). The results showed the differences in incidence of rotavirus infection among age groups, seasons and occupations were significant, but there were no gender and living place specific significant differences. The group A rotavirus genotype mainly included G9P[8](53.75%), G2P[4](25.00%), G3P[8] (11.25%), G1P[8](2.50%), G4P[6](2.50%). The study showed that G9P[8] genotype was mainly G9-Ⅵsubtype according to the homology and evolutionary analysis of VP7 gene. The rotaviruses with same genotype were highly homogenous. Conclusion Rotavirus is a common pathogen causing diarrhea in Taizhou. Genotyping and evolution analysis showed the diversity and stability of group A rotavirus in this area. It is suggested to include G9 type rotavirus into vaccine strains, and conduct consecutive etiological surveillance in susceptible populations, especially young children.
Hypopsia surveillance in primary and middle school students in Zhejiang, 2017
Fang Gu, Yuanyuan Zhan, Ronghua Zhang, Jia Meng, yan Zou
Corrected proof , DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.09.018
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Objective To understand the epidemiological characteristics of hypopsia in primary and middle school students in Zhejiang province, and provide scientific evidence for the prevention and control of hypopsia. Methods Using stratified cluster sampling method, the eyesight of primary and middle school students in areas with different economic levels, urban and suburban areas of Zhejiang province was surveyed. GB/T 26343-2010 was used to detect the visual acuity of the naked eye. hypopsia was defined as baked eye vision <5.0. Software SPSS 17.0 was used for statistical analysis, χ2 test was done for rate comparison and Goodman-Kruskal Gamma test was conducted for correlation analysis. Results A total of 8 343 primary and middle school students in Zhejiang were surveyed, the hypopsia rate was 73.53% and severe hypopsia rate was 47.03%. The primary school students, junior high school students and senior high school students with hypopsia accounted for 55.99%, 81.51% and 86.73%, the differences were statistically significant (χ2=783.526, P<0.001). The hypopsia prevalence was higher in urban students, or in girls. Students with better economic conditions had the higher prevalence of hypopsia (χ2=80.206, P<0.001). Conclusion The eyesight level of primary and middle school students in Zhejiang is much lower than national level. It is necessary to strengthen the prevention and control of hypopsia in students, the key populations are high grade students of primary schools and students of junior high school, especially girls as well as the boys in grade 9–10, who are prepared to enter a higher school.
A survey of deworming with praziquantel in domestic dogs infected with Echinococcus in Huanxian, Gansu
Zijing Liu, Ning Xiao, Lijie Zhang, Yu Feng, Pengfei Ge, Fan Li, Junrui Zhang, Ruixia Yan
Corrected proof , DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.09.015
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Objective To assess the performance of deworming with praziquantel in domestic dogs in the endemic area of echinococcosis in Huanxian county of Gansu province, identify the factors influencing the deworming in domestic dogs and further control the infectious source of echinococcosis. Methods Three townships were selected through stratified sampling in 12 townships in Huanxian according to the positive rate of Echinococcus antigen in dog feces (high, medium and low levels). One natural village was selected randomly from each selected township and all the dog owners in the selected villages were investigated. We collected the information about the frequency of praziquantel distribution, the feeding pattern of praziquantel and the attitude of dog owners to dog deworming by using standard questionnaire. Results Among 138 dog owners, only 30 (21.74%) gave their dogs monthly deworming during July 2016–June 2017. The proportion of monthly deworming was 8.51% (4/47) in the village praziquantel where praziquantel tables were distributed every 10 months, while it was 26.83% (11/41) in the village praziquantel where praziquantel tables were distributed every 6 months and 30.00%(15/50) in the village praziquantel where praziquantel tables were distributed every 4 months (trendχ2 =5.8, P<0.05). The main reasons for failing to monthly dog deworming included that the dog owners forgot to medicate (26.85%, 29/108), no praziquantel was supplied for dog owners (25.93%, 28/108) and dog owners misremembered the frequency of deworming (24.07%, 26/108). The swallowing rate of praziquantel tables in dogs was 75.00% (135/180). Conclusion The swallowing rate of praziquantel tables in dogs was high in Huanxian, while the proportion of monthly deworming by dog owners was not high enough. The main reasons included that the dog owners forgot to medicate or misremembered the frequency of deworming. It is suggested to increase the frequency of praziquantel distribution and remind the dog owners more frequently. Government should play a leading role in the control of echinococcosis by coordinating prevention efforts and set up a supervision mechanism to ensure the monthly deworming for every dog.
Epidemiological characteristics of tuberculosis in Yangquan, Shanxi, 2000–2017
Lihong Jing, Rien Cai, Yifei Feng, Yongbao Wang
Corrected proof , DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.09.008
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Objective To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of tuberculosis (TB) in Yangquan, Shanxi province, and provide scientific evidence for the development of TB prevention and control strategy. Methods Descriptive epidemiological analysis was conducted by using the incidence data of TB in Yangquan during 2000–2017. Results A total of 12 462 TB cases were reported in Yangquan from 2000 to 2017, the average annual incidence was 52.40/100 000. The lowest incidence was 32.02/100 000 in 2015, the highest incidence was 79.05/100 000 in 2005. The differences in annual incidence of TB were significant (χ2=978.412, P=0.000). Yuxian county had reported highest incidence since 2006, and the incidence showed an increasing trend in recent years. The differences in TB incidence among different counties were significant (χ2=252.028, P=0.000). There were 3 624 TB cases reported from March to June, accounting for 29.08%. The male to female ratio of the TB cases was 2.10∶1. Among the reported cases, 6 668 cases occurred in age group 20–49 years, accounting for 53.51%. 5 336 cases occurred in farmers, accounting for 42.82%, and 1 023 cases occurred in students, accounting for 8.21%. Conclusion The incidence of TB increased year by year in Yangquan during 2000–2005, and showed a marked decrease during 2005–2017. Farmers and students were the populations at high risk. It is necessary to improve the standardized management of TB cases and implement comprehensive TB prevention and control measures to effectively control the incidence and prevalence of TB.
Establishment and application of molecular quality control methods for standard strains for food inspection
Xiao Xu, Jichun Shi, Chune Wang, Li Liang, Kang Li, Wenyuan Sun, Cuiping Chen, Qiang Ye
Corrected proof , DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.09.011
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Objective The molecular quality control methods were established and applied for the standard strains of food inspection. Methods The different molecular methods, such as 16S rRNAgene sequence analysis, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and multi locus sequence typing, were used for the molecular confirmation of the standard strains of food inspection used according to national food safety standards, and they were verified by the different batch strains. Results The results obtained after 16S rRNA gene sequence alignment were consistent with the genus of the strain and the 16S rRNA gene sequences of different batch standard strains were identical; Sequence typing (ST) type of the standard strains were identified and the ST of different batch isolates were identical. The research on the method of PulseNet was exploded on the strains without the standard method to obtain the suitable condition of restrictive endonuclease and electrophoresis parameters. The methods were then used to establish molecular fingerprints of standard strains. The PFGE profile similarity of different batches was 100%. Conclusion The molecular biology technology was applied on the quality control of the standard strains for the first time in this study. It hit the bottleneck of traditional quality control methods. The stability of the standard strains was assessed at the molecular level to ensure the stability and consistence of the standard strains in the food inspection process.
Analysis of prevalence of dyslipidemia and related risk factors in Uygur adults in Kashgar of South Xinjiang
Yaohui Li, Zhenxiang Xue, Wen Wang, Dongmei Luo, Xuelian Song, Tongmin Wang, Bawudun Ayxamgul·, Mamatiemin Munirzecz·, Nurmamat Nazibam·, Ziyan Zhou, Zhoubin Zhang
Corrected proof , DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.09.017
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To investigate the prevalence of dyslipidemia and related risk factors in Uygur adults in Kashgar of South Xinjiang. Methods Through cluster random sampling, Uygur adults aged ≥18 years were selected for analysis. Questionnaire survey, physical examination and laboratory detection were conducted for each participant. The population distribution of dyslipidemia was described, and risk factors were explored using non-conditional logistic regression analysis. Results Finally, 4 504 eligible participants were included in our analysis. The total prevalence of dyslipidemia was 50.84%, the prevalence of low high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was 46.65%, the prevalence of high triglyceride (TG) was 12.79%, the prevalence of high low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) was 3.46% and the prevalence of high total cholesterol (TC) was 1.18%. The age-adjusted prevalence was 49.41%, 45.87%, 11.47%, 2.98% and 0.95%. The results of multivariable non-conditional logistic regression analysis showed that compared with females, males had 1.56 times higher risk of dyslipidemia (OR=2.56, 95% CI: 2.22–2.95). Overweight (male:OR=1.52, 95% CI:1.16–1.98; female:OR=1.55, 95%CI:1.27–1.89), obesity (male:OR=3.15, 95% CI:2.16–4.61; female:OR=2.09, 95%CI:1.69–2.60), abdominal obesity (male:OR=2.01, 95% CI:1.53–2.65; female:OR=1.78, 95% CI:1.43–2.22)and diabetes in females (OR=1.64, 95% CI:1.27–2.12) were the risk factors for dyslipidemia. Compared with the women with normal weight (BMI <24 kg/m2), the prevalence of dyslipidemia increased with the increase of BMI in both men and women (χ2=384.69, P<0.001). Overweight men (OR=5.55, 95%CI: 4.03–7.63) and the obese men (OR=11.77, 95% CI: 7.94–17.45) had higher risk for dyslipidemia (P interaction = 0.030), and the prevalence of low HDL-C also increased significantly (Pinteraction=0.039). Conclusion prevalence of dyslipidemia in Uygur adults in Kashgar was at relatively high level, especially low HDL-C. Synergic effect between BMI and gender had significant influence on prevalence of dyslipidemia and low HDL-C. More attention should be paid to overweight, obesity, and abdominal obesity, especially blood the lipid control in overweight and obese males.
2017-2018年流感季节美国流感活动以及2018-2019年流感季节流感疫苗的组成建议
Fuzhe Gong, Zhenyu Gong
Corrected proof , DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.09.021
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Establishment and evaluation of high-throughput fluorescent PCR assay for identifying 16 kinds of Staphylococcus aureusenterotoxins
Le Zuo, Yinxiang Jiang, Xiaolu Shi, Yaqun Qiu, Yiman Lin, Min Jiang, Qinghua Hu
Accepted Manuscript , DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.09.012
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Objective To establish a high-throughput fluorescent PCR assay (fluorescent probe melting curve method) for the identification of 16 kinds of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins. Methods Primers were designed according to S. aureus enterotoxin SEA-SEQ gene sequences with the different annealing temperature, and the PCR assay was established, then the limit detection, sensitivity, specificity and repeatability of the assay were evaluated by detecting 158 strains of food borne S. aureus in comparison with conventional PCR. Results The limit detection of the established PCR assay ranged from 0.80 ng/μl to 2.15 ng/μl. The specificity was 100.0%, no cross fluorescence signal was produced, and the coefficient of variation was lower than 1%. Compared with conventional PCR, the sensitivity and specificity of new PCR assay were 95.4% and 100.0%, the Kappa was 0.88. Conclusion The established PCR assay is rapid, accurate and specific and can be used to identify all the 16 kinds of enterotoxins of S. aureus.
Risk assessment of public health emergencies concerned in the mainland of China, September 2018
Ling Meng, Yu Li, Rui Wang, Xiaoye Wang, Hongjun Zhou, Jinghuan Ren, Dan Li, Zhiheng Hong, Wenxiao Tu, Guoqing Shi, Nijuan Xiang
Corrected proof , DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.09.003
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Objective To assess the risk of public health emergencies, both the indigenous ones and the imported ones, which might occur in the mainland of China in September 2018. Methods An internet based expert counsel was conducted to analyze the surveillance data of public health emergencies and priority communicable diseases in China reported through different channels, and the experts in all provincial centers for disease control and prevention attended this video conference. Results Generally speaking, it is predicted that the incidence of communicable diseases and public health emergencies would be higher in September than in August in 2018. The high incidence season of dengue fever would come, and the risk of its local transmission in southern provinces and flood-stricken areas would increase. It is still the high incidence season of food poisoning, and the risk in students and during the vacations of Mid-Autumn Festival and National Day would increase. Japanese encephalitis might still occur. The risks of communicable disease outbreaks such as hand, foot and mouth disease, varicella, mumps and influenza occurred in schools would increase. Disaster affected communities are at high risks of waterborne, foodborne and vector-borne diseases as well as other contagious communicable diseases. The risk of importation of Ebola virus disease from the Democratic Republic of Congo to the mainland of China is estimated to be low. Conclusion Close attention should be paid to dengue fever and food poisoning, and general attention should be paid to Japanese encephalitis, the public health risk caused by nature disaster such as flood, and Ebola virus disease in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
Clinical characteristics of brucellosis in acute phase in different age groups
Xiaochen Bai, Huihui Zeng, Bing Han, Chang Dou, Huali Sun, Meihua Song, Aibin Wang, Fang Qian, Yujiao Duan, Yanli Xu, Rui Song, Zhihai Chen, Rongmeng Jiang
Corrected proof , DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.09.009
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Objective To investigate the clinical characteristics of brucellosis in acute phase in different age groups. Methods The clinical data of 246 hospitalized brucellosis patients were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into 5 groups: infant group (age 0–3 years), preschool group (age 3–7 years), adolescent group (age 7–18 years), young adult group (age 18–45 years) and middle age and elderly adult group (age 45–77 years). Results The differences in fatigue (P=0.015), hidrosis (P=0.048), lower back pain (P<0.001) and hepatosplenomegaly (P=0.013) among the acute brucellosis patients in different age groups were significant. The laboratory test results of white blood cell count (P=0.001), neutrophil percentage (P<0.001), lymphocyte count (P<0.001), serum alanine transaminase (P=0.024), aspartate aminotransferase (P<0.001), ALB (P<0.001), C-reactive protein (P<0.001) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (P<0.001) also showed significant differences among the acute brucellosis patients in different age groups. Less children showed fatigue and hidrosis compared with the adults, but they were more susceptible to liver function damage and hepatosplenomegaly. While lower back pain mainly occurred in middle age and elderly adults, and C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate increased with age. Conclusion The clinical characteristics of acute brucellosis patients varied in different age groups. These characteristics should be taken into account in clinical diagnosis of brucellosis.
Evaluation of quality of measles surveillance in Wenzhou by using Rank-sum ratio, 2013–2016
Wancang Li, Jingjiao Wei, Lingping Chen, Xiaoyu Sun, Xiaochun Zheng, Zhigang Wang
Accepted Manuscript , DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.09.010
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ObjectiveTo conduct a synthetic evaluation of the quality of measles surveillance in Wenzhou of Zhejiang province from 2013 to 2016.MethodsRank-sum ratio (RSR) was used to evaluate 12 quality indicators of 3 categories in measles surveillance in Wenzhou during this period, the surveillance quality was evaluated according to rank-sum ratio size.ResultsAt county (district) level, Pingyang and Cangnan, Taishun, Yongjia and Wencheng, Longwan and Wencheng, Taishun were at higher rank in indicator quality of basic immune level, high probability of measles epidemic spread, measles surveillance and comprehensive evaluation, respectively. Ruian, Dongtou and Longwan, Lucheng, Lucheng and Longwan were at lower rank, respectively.ConclusionRSR method was flexible and simple, which has no specific requirements on samples, can eliminate the effects of comprehensive evaluation indexes of different dimension and has high applicable value in multiple indexes comprehensive evaluation of measles surveillance.
Isolation and identification of Zika virus in MRC-5 cell line
Xingle Li, Yi Li, Ruolin Wang, Jia Su, Kai Kang, Dacheng Guo, Bianli Xu, Xueyong Huang
Accepted Manuscript , DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.09.004
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Objective To culture, isolate and identify Zika virus in MRC-5 cell line. Methods MRC-5 cell line was used for Zika virus isolation from seminal fluid sample collected from a laboratory conformed Zika virus infection case, the cytopathic effect was observed, and the isolate was identified with real-time PCR. The Zika virus strain was sequenced and evolutionary analysis was conducted. Results The seminal fluid sample was cultured in MRC-5 cell line for three generations in blind passage. No obvious cytopathic effect was observed, but the real-time PCR result was positive. The Zika virus strain belonged to Asian genotype, which was named as Henan/001/2016 (GenBank No. MF593625). The strain was most close to Natal RGN strain genetically, the nucleotide homology and amino acid homology in E gene segment were 99.7% and 100% respectively. Conclusion MRC-5 cell line is suitable for the isolation and identification of Zika virus.
Molecular characteristics of two dominant serotypes Salmonella isolated in Zhuhai Guangdong
Yanmei Fang, Chunxiao Yang, Lirong Zhang, Bosheng Li, Quande Wei
Accepted Manuscript , DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.09.005
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Objective To understand the antibiotic resistance and molecular characteristics of Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:– isolated in Zhuhai, Guangdong province, and provide reference data for molecular epidemiological investigation of food borne diseases. Methods Disk diffusion method was used for antibiotic susceptibility test. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multiple loci variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) were conducted for 121 strains of S. typhimurium and S. 1,4,[5],12:i:– isolated from diarrhea patients in Zhuhai by using the protocols published on PulseNet International Network and European Food-borne Disease Surveillance Network. Results The antibiotic susceptibility test showed that 45 strains of S. typhimurium (45/51, 88.24%) and 51 strains of S. 1,4,[5],12:i:– (51/70,72.86%) were multidrug resistant, the difference was significant (χ2=4.256, P=0.039). The antibiotics to which two serotypes strains' resistant rates were >50% were ampicillin, tetracycline, compound sulfamethizole and chloramphenicol. PFGE results indicated that the 121 isolates belonged to 88 types. There was no obvious clustering characteristics in two serotypes, but the types of S. typhimurium were more dispersed, the predominant 11 PT15 isolates had two serotypes. MLVA results indicated that STTR5 and STTR6 had highest repeat number (11 and 14), followed by STTR9 and STTR3. Up to 95.87% of the strains had no PCR amplification products. MLVA typing showed that there were 50 types. The predominant types were MT18 and MT10, which contained 23 and 11 isolates respectively, in two serotypes. Analysis with the minimum spanning tree (MST) found that 111 isolates (91.74%) were distributed in group I. Conclusion The multidrug resistant rates of two serotypes Salmonella in Zhuhai were high, their molecular types were diverse, but the type of S. typhimurium was more dispersed. They had similar genetic characteristics.
Analysis of distribution and drug resistance of bacteria in ICU and general wards of a teaching hospital
Lei Wang, Zixuan Yang, Haiquan Kang, Bing Gu
Accepted Manuscript , DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.09.014
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A total of 12 307 strains of pathogenic bacteria firstly isolated form the patients in intensive care unit (ICU) and general wards in a hospital in 2016 were collected. The distribution of bacteria and their drug resistance were analyzed. Acinetobacter baumannii (25.50%) was the isolated pathogen ranking first in ICU, while Pseudomonas aeruginosa (16.68%) was the isolated pathogen ranking first in general wards. The antibiotic resistant rate of the pathogens from ICU was higher than that of the pathogens from general wards, and severe multi drug resistance was detected in the pathogen strains from ICU. It is necessary to standardize the antibiotic use strengthen the prevention of nosocomial infection to control the prevalence of drug resistance in ICU.
Field epidemiological investigation and control of a human adenovirus type 55 outbreak in a hospital
Yufang Yang, Xiuying Li, Xinjin Yang, Maoyu Chen, Jianhua Liang, Fengjuan Huang
Accepted Manuscript , DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.09.019
[Abstract](199) [FullText HTML](118) [PDF 1943KB](15) [peer reviewing opinions] Related References Cited By (0) Share
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Objective To understand the epidemiological characteristics of an outbreak of human adenovirus type 55 infection in a class Ⅱ (A) hospital in Jiangmen, Guangdong province, in July, 2015, and provide evidence for the control of the epidemic. Methods The standard questionnaire was used for the field survey. The definition of case was established and the cases′ epidemiology characteristics were described. Throat swabs of the patients were collected and RT-PCR was conducted for pathogen detection. The comprehensive prevention and control were carried out based on the investigation results. Results A total of 43 cases were detected from 21 June to 8 July in 2016, no severe case or death occurred. Human adenovirus type 55 infection was confirmed by the results of throat swab testing. Infections mainly occurred in the department of neurosurgery (41 cases, 95.35%) and its attack rate was 24.12% (40/170). The spread of the infections was stopped by a series of prevention and control measures. Conclusion This outbreak was caused by the human adenovirus type 55. The infection was mainly transmitted by respiratory droplets spread and through close contacts. It is suggested to consider human adenovirus infection in clinical diagnosis of respiratory diseases to improve the diagnosis of respiratory infectious diseases.
2018年8月中国甲乙丙类传染病疫情动态概要
Accepted Manuscript , DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.09.002
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Study on change trend of blood pressure and related factors in 40 819 pregnant women in Zhoushan, Zhejiang
Liuyan Pu, Jinhua Wu, Manxian Huang, Yingying Shao, Minchao Li, Minjia Mo, Shuying Jiang, Muyiduli Xiamusiye, Bule Shao, Shuojia Wang, Yunxian Yu
Accepted Manuscript , DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.09.016
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Objective To describe and analyze the change trend of blood pressure and related factors in 40 819 pregnant women in Zhoushan of Zhejiang province. Methods The change trend of blood pressure in 40 819 pregnant women who had perinatal health care and delivery in Zhoushan Maternal and Child Health Care Center from January 2001 to December 2016 were described. The influence factors were analyzed by using multi factor generalized estimation equation. Results The average systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of pregnant women increased with gestational age. The higher the age of pregnant women and their body mass index (BMI) before pregnancy were, the higher the level of blood pressure during pregnancy was. The higher the pregnant women’s educational levels were, the higher the DBP of pregnant women were during pregnancy, but the effect on SBP was not significant. The birth history of pregnant women and the sex of the fetus had no significant influence on pregnant women’s blood pressure. The results of multivariate analysis showed that pre pregnancy BMI, maternal age, gestational age and educational level were related to SBP and DBP during pregnancy. Conclusion The age, BMI before pregnancy, gestational age and educational level of pregnant women were the main factors influencing the rise of blood pressure during pregnancy. Therefore, the monitoring and management of pregnant women’s blood pressure should be carried out throughout the pregnancy. For the weight management, special attention should be paid to the management of blood pressure in pregnant women who are overweight or obese before pregnancy and in older pregnant women.
Epidemiological characteristics of tuberculosis in Nanshan district of Shenzhen, 2005–2016
Tao Zhong, Shengyuan Liu, Guangxing Zhan, Guiyuan Han, Yao Huang, Juan He, Yuzheng Fan, Yarui Yang, Lijuan Wu
Accepted Manuscript , DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.09.006
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Objective To understand the epidemiological characteristics of tuberculosis(TB) in Nanshan district of Shenzhen from 2005 to 2016. Methods Descriptive epidemiological analysis was conducted on the distribution of TB in local residents in Nanshan district during this period. The reported incidence rate of TB was analyzed by using software SPSS 13.0 and the incidence rate was compared with χ2 test. Results The annual average reported incidence rate of TB was 85.72/100 000 in Nanshan district during this period. The annual average reported incidence rate of TB was 101.19/100 000 in males and 67.57/100 000 in females (χ2=423.111, P=0.000). Patients were mainly young adults, and the incidence showed an increase in those aged >45 years. The TB cases were mainly distributed in workers, the jobless/unemployed and staff. The incidence in workers was in decline, but the incidence in staff was in increase. The seasonality of TB epidemic was obvious, the annual cases were mainly reported during March - May and in September. Conclusion After taking a variety of prevention and control measures, the reported incidence rate of TB showed a decline trend in Nanshan district from 2005 to 2016, and it declined to 52.86/100 000 in 2016. The TB epidemic was effectively controlled.
Surveillance for measles antibody level in healthy population in Changping district of Beijing, 2017
Tao Wang, Haihong Wang, Wenjuan Yi, Xinhai Yuan, Zonglong Zhu, Junying Yang
Accepted Manuscript , DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.09.007
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Objective To understand the measles antibody level in healthy population in Changping district of Beijing, discover the susceptible population and disease spread risk, and provide scientific evidence for measles elimination strategies. Methods Blood samples were collected from 300 healthy persons selected through simple random sampling in Changping for the detection of serum IgG against measles virus with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results The measles antibody positive rate was 82.22% in healthy population in Changping, and the geometric mean concentration (GMC) of the antibody was 1 109.59 mIU/ml. The difference in GMC was not significant between age group 1–4 years and age group 5–9 years (F=0.734, P>0.05). The differences in measles antibody positive rate and GMC between males and females and among the people with different household registration status and doses of measles vaccination had no significance. After the immunization of measles-containing vaccine (MCV), the differences in measles antibody positive rate and GMC among age groups <1 year, 1–4 years and 5–8 years were not significant. Conclusion The positive rate of measles antibody was at high level in healthy population in Changping, but it is still necessary to strengthen the MCV immunization in adults and other age groups at risk, especially in college students.
2018年8月中国甲乙丙类传染病疫情动态简介National Data of Class A, B and C Communicable Disease in August 2018
Accepted Manuscript , DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.09.001
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Cost estimation of hepatitis B vaccine immunization in obstetrics departments of hospitals in Beijing
Pei Gao, Dan Wang, Shiwen Shi, Min Lyu, Xuefeng Shi, Jiang Wu, Yiwei Guo, Xi Wang
Accepted Manuscript , DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.09.000
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Objective To estimate the cost of hepatitis B vaccine (HBV) immunization and its change pattern in the obstetrics departments of hospitals in Beijing, and provide data support for policy-making and evaluation of HBV immunization efficiency. Methods Data collection was conducted through field investigation and questionnaire survey. Database was established with ACCESS, and data were entered twice. Data analysis was performed with software SAS 9.4 and Excel 2016. Results From 1992 to 2013, the overall cost HBV immunization in obstetrics departments of hospitals in Beijing increased from 410 011.42 yuan to 4 344 244.00 yuan, with an annual growth rate of 11.90%; and the unit cost increased by 7 times, from 5.38 yuan to 37.25 yuan, with an annual growth rate of 9.65%. The cost of HBV immunization mainly originates from labor cost. Therefore, to some extent, the growth of overall cost of HBV immunization in hospitals is due to the increase of labor cost. Conclusion In the obstetrics departments of hospitals in Beijing, both the overall cost and the unit cost of HBV immunization showed an obvious increasing trend. The growth rate of unit cost was lower than that of total cost, and the growth of total cost mainly attributed to the increase of labor cost.
An investigation of foodborne disease caused by eating moringa oleifera seed in school
Jian Sun, Jinshui Zeng, Zhengxing Hu, Lijie Zhang, Xindong Zhang, Jialin Yu, Hao Li, Hua Jiang, Langwen Li, Yi Qiu
Accepted Manuscript , DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.09.000
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A foodborne disease outbreak occurred in Shuitian Experimental School in Baoan District of Shenzhen in May 2017. The investigation found that Moringa oleifera seed, which was bought through the Internet, was the pathogenic food for this outbreak. It is important to strengthen the management of food safety in schools, and on the other hand, the management of online food sale should be strengthened too.
Epidemiological characteristics of public health emergencies in Guangzhou, 2007–2016
Xiaowei Ma, Jing Feng, Ruonan Zhen, Zhiwei Wang, Chaojun Xie, Jiandong Chen, Yongguang Li, Xinlong Liao, Xincai Xiao
Accepted Manuscript , DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.09.000
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Objective To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of public health emergencies in Guangzhou, Guangdong province, and provide scientific evidence for the effective prevention and control of public health emergencies. Methods The incidence data of public health emergencies in Guangzhou from 2007 to 2016 were collected from " China Disease Reporting Information System” for a descriptive epidemiological analysis. Results A total of 920 public health emergencies were reported in Guangzhou during this period, involving 62 562 disease cases and 65 deaths. Unclassified events and communicable disease epidemics accounted for 83.04% and 93.04%, respectively. There was positive correlation between number of public health emergencies and local population density with the Spearman correlation coefficient of 0.198 (P<0.05). Most public health emergencies occurred in schools, accounting for 74.41%. The median duration of epidemic was 11.08 d (ranging from 0 to 168.41 d), while the median interval between the onset of index case and online reporting was 6.32 d (ranging from 0 to 86.72 d). The correlation was positive with the Spearman correlation coefficient of 0.433 (P<0.001). Conclusion The public health emergencies were mainly communicable disease epidemics in Guangzhou from 2007 to 2016, which mainly occurred in schools. The sooner report the epidemic, the shorter the epidemic duration was. Therefore, it is necessary to strengthen the surveillance for public health emergencies for the early reporting and early response to reduce the spread of related diseases.
Characteristics of vaccine-associated proteins of Neisseria meningitidis B and coverage of fHbp and NHBA candidate vaccines in Shanghai
Mingliang Chen, Genpeng Wu, Ping Yuan, Chi Zhang, Xi Zhang, Guoying Huang, Min Chen, Wei Zhu
Corrected proof , DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.08.00x
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Objective To characterize vaccine-associated proteins of Neisseria meningitidis B in Shanghai and provide evidence for the development of vaccine against N. meningitidis B. Methods During 2006–2013,N. meningitidis B isolates were collected in Shanghai. Recombinant proteins of fHbp and NHBA were constructed and expressed to prepare immunization sera for bactericidal antibody test. Results During 2006–2013, a total of 31N. meningitidis B isolates were collected, which showed 28 sequence types and 31 PFGE types. The fHbp sub-family B (63.64%, 7/11) was predominant in invasive isolates, while sub-family A (90.00%, 18/20) was predominant in healthy carriage isolates. Except the predominance of NadA-3 in NadA protein, no predominant variants of NHBA or PorA were found in N. meningitidis B isolates. ST-4821 complex (CC4821) was predominant in N. meningitidis B isolates, mainly including fHbp sub-family A variant 2.16 (54.55%, 6/11). In serum bactericidal assay, the antisera of fHbp sub-family A and B showed bactericidal activity to 60% and 100% of isolates with the same sub-family fHbp protein as the recombinant protein, respectively, while 20% of isolates with other sub-family fHbp protein. The antiserum of NHBA protein showed bactericidal activity to all the tested isolates. Conclusion CC4821 has become the predominant clonal complex in N. meningitidis B isolates from Shanghai. Varied vaccine-associated proteins in N. meningitidis isolates poses challenge to the development of vaccine against N. meningitidis B in China.
Epidemiological investigation of the first imported Chikungunya fever in Wenzhou, Zhejiang
Xianchuan Zhang, Chaorong Ni, Xiaoming Zhang, Qiongjiao Pan, Ling Li
Corrected proof , DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003–9961.2018.07.000
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On September 9, 2017, a businessman from Bangladesh was confirmed to be infected with Chikungunya fever virus by the Baiyun airport port inspection department of Guangzhou Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau. On the same day, the businessman arrived in Wenzhou and checked in a local hotel. It was the first confirmed Chikungunya fever case in Wenzhou. A series of prevention and control measures were taken timely by Wenzhou center for disease control and prevention to prevent the secondary ceases. It is necessary to strengthen disease surveillance capability and improve public health emergency response to prevent the possible outbreak of diseases.
National Data of Class A, B and C Communicable Diseases in July 2018
2018, 33(8): 621-621. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.08.001
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Risk assessment of public health emergencies concerned in the mainland of China, August 2018
2018, 33(8): 622-622. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.08.002
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Risk assessment of public health emergencies concerned in the mainland of China, August 2018
Zhiheng Hong, Hong Yang, Di Mu, Jinghuan Ren, Xiaoye Wang, Ling Meng, Wenxiao Tu, Nijuan Xiang, Guoqing Shi
2018, 33(8): 623-626. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.08.003
[Abstract](228) [FullText HTML](100) [PDF 2311KB](12) peer reviewing opinions Related References Cited By (0) Share
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Objective To assess the risk of public health emergencies, both the indigenous ones and the imported ones, which might occur in the mainland of China in August 2018. Methods An internet based expert counsel was conducted to analyze the surveillance data of public health emergencies and priority communicable diseases in China reported through different channels, and the experts in all provincial centers for disease control and prevention attended this video conference. Results Generally speaking, it is predicted that the epidemics of chicken pox and mumps would decrease in August, but more epidemics of dengue fever, hand foot and mouth disease and cholera might occur. The risk of imported and indigenous dengue fever cases would keep increasing. It is still the high incidence season of food poisoning, especially poisonous mushroom poisoning, and heatstroke. Disaster affected communities are at high risks of waterborne, foodborne, vector-borne diseases and other contagious communicable diseases. Conclusion Close attention should be paid to dengue fever, vaccine-derived poliovirus detected in sewage sample collected in Xinjiang, food poisoning and heatstroke, and general attention should be paid to the public health risk caused by nature disaster such as flood.
Application of real time PCR in investigation of bacteria carriage in pharyngeal of healthy population
Na Xie, Zhaoyun Chen, Tao Chen, Quan Zhou, Wenhui Fu, Jing Guan, Bingqing Zhu
2018, 33(8): 627-631. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.08.004
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Objective In order to understand the carriage rate of Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzaein healthy population on Xinjiang. Methods Oropharyngeal swabs were collected from health people for the detection of N. meningitidis, S. pneumoniae, and H. influenza with real time PCR. Results The carriage rates ofN. meningitidis, S. pneumoniae, and H. influenz were high in healthy people, which were 37.62% (193/513), 70.37% (361/513), and 77.58% (398/513), respectively. N. meningitidis B and X were predominant, the highest carriage rate was in age group 16–20 years, followed by that in age group 6–10 years. The main serogroups/types of S. pneumoniae were 19B/F, 18B/C, 5 and 6A/B, and the carriage rates of S. pneumoniae and H. influenza were highest in age group 6–10 years. Multiple carriage of two or three pathogens was common.H. influenza had synergistic effect for carriage of S. pneumoniae. Conclusion The carriages rate of N. meningitidis, S. pneumoniae, and H. influenza are high in healthy population in Xinjiang, suggesting a high potential of bacterial meningitis outbreak, we should strengthen the prevention and control in areas at high risk to prevent the outbreak of bacterial meningitis.
Molecular characteristics of invasive Neisseria meningitidis isolated in Beijing, 2005–2016
Mei Dong, Jun Chen, Weixin Chen, Fang Huang
2018, 33(8): 632-635. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.08.005
[Abstract](210) [FullText HTML](78) [PDF 1956KB](8) peer reviewing opinions Related References Cited By (0) Share
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Objective To understand the molecular characteristics of invasive Neisseria meningitidis strains isolated from patients in Beijing from 2005 to 2016. Methods After biochemical identification, the serogroups of 24 N. meningitidis strains from the patients in Beijing, 2005–2016, were detected with slide agglutination test. Real time fluorescence quantitative PCR was conducted to identify the genogroups of all theN. meningitidis strains and 4 nucleic acid positive samples. Multi locus-sequence typing (MLST) was done for the sequence typing of the 28 N. meningitidis samples, and porA and fetA typing were conducted too. Results N. meningitidis A, B and C were predominant during the past 12 years. All the 16 samples detected before 2009 were N. meningitidis A and C positive, all the 12 samples detected after 2009 wereC and B positive. The sequence type of all N. meningitidis A strains belonged to ST-5 clonal complex, porA P1.20, 9 was only found in ST-7 and the fetA types of all N. meningitidis A strains were F3-1. ST-4821 clonal complex was predominant in N. meningitidis C strains, which had P1.12-1, 16-8, P1.7-2, 14, P1.20, 23-7 and the fetA types of all N. meningitidis C strains were F3-3. The sequence types of N. meningitides B were complex and dispersed. Conclusion The predominant invasive N. meningitidis in Beijing characterizes by A: P1.20, 9, F3-1:ST-5 (ST-5 clonal complex) and C:P.12-1, F3-3:ST-4821 (ST-4821 clonal complex). The trend of obvious decrease ofN. meningitidis A and increase of N. meningitidis B is observed, suggesting that the predominant invasive N. meningitidishas changed over time. It is necessary to strengthen the molecular epidemiological surveillance for N. meningitidis, especially N. meningitidis B to which no vaccine is available.
Epidemiological characteristics of meningococcal meningitis and changing trend of serogroup of Neisseria meningitidis in Anhui, 2004–2017
Leijing Mao, Xianwei Luo, Xia Chen, Binbing Wang, Jihai Tang
2018, 33(8): 636-639. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.08.006
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Objective To understand the epidemiological characteristics of meningococcal meningitis and analyze the changing trend of serogroups of Neisseria meningitidis in Anhui province. Methods Descriptive epidemiological method was conducted by using the data from China information system for disease control and prevention and laboratory during 2004–2017. Results From 2004 to 2017, a total of 1 467 meningococcal meningitis cases were reported in Anhui. The average annual incidence rate was 0.17/100 000. The cases were mainly school students, and the cases in age group 15–19 years accounted for 28.43% of the total. The incidence of meningococcal meningitis was high during winter-spring. The case number and annual incidence rate of Hefei were highest. Most cluster cases occurred in schools, accounting for 65.63%. The isolates from the cases and close contacts were mainlyN. meningitidis C, accounting for 86.14% and 70.08%, respectively. Conclusion The incidence of meningococcal meningitis declined from the peak and remained at a low and sporadic level in recent years in Anhui. N. meningitidis C has replaced N. meningitidis A as the predominant pathogen. The cases caused by N. meningitidis W135 were detected. As the cases caused by N. meningitidis W135 and B increased, the prevention and control of meningococcal meningitis is facing new challenge.
Analysis on molecular epidemiological characteristics of Neisseria meningitidis in Suzhou, Jiangsu, 2011–2016
Yahui Zhan, Lin Luan, Menghan Zhang
2018, 33(8): 640-643. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.08.007
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Objective To understand the serogroup and molecular epidemiological characteristics of Neisseria meningitidis isolated from patients, close contacts and healthy carriers in Suzhou during 2011–2013. Methods Latex agglutination test and multi locus sequence typing (MLST) were conducted to identify the serogroups and sequences of 7 housekeeping genes of 33 strains of N. meningitidis isolated in Suzhou during 2011–2013. The sequence alignment was conducted by using PubMLST database and the allelic profile and sequence types were determined. Software Cluster 3.0 was used in analyzing genetic evolution of the strains. Results Among the N. meningitidis strains isolated, 22 were serogroup B strains (66.67%), 8 were serogroup W135 strains (24.24%), 1 was serogroup C strain (3.03%) 1 was serogroup Y strains (3.03%) and 1 was unspecified (3.03%). Three serogroup W135 strains isolated in 2011 belonged to highly pathogenic ST-11 complex/ET-37 complex and 5 serogroup B strains isolated during 2012–2013 belonged to highly pathogenic ST-4821complex. Conclusion N. meningitidis B was predominant, followed by N. meningitidis W135, in Suzhou during 2011–2016. Multiple clonal complexes existed. Highly pathogenic serogroup W135 strains belonging to ST-11 complex/ET-37 complex and serogroup B strains belonging to ST-4821 complex have appeared in Suzhou, suggesting the importance of strengthening the surveillance to prevent and control the outbreak of meningococcal meningitis.
Epidemiological investigation of a death case of meningococcal meningitis in Guangdong
Meizhen Liu, Bosheng Li, Jiemin Lin, Hailing Tan, Xin Xu, Bixia Ke, Dongmei He
2018, 33(8): 644-645. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.08.008
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In November 2017, one suspected death case of Neisseria meningitidis infection was reported in Shantou, Guangdong province. The clinical symptoms of the case included high fever and emesis. Hemophilus influenzae type b was detected from the cerebrospinal fluid sample of the case. Neisseria meninggitidis was not detected. The case was identified to die from the infection of Hemophilus influenzae type b.
Pathogenic characteristics of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli detected in diarrhea patients in Yantai, 2014–2017
Wenjuan Liu, Yingchun Xu, Yan Song, Haiyan Wu, Hongqing Zhao, Yufang Xing, Yanqing Wang, Xiaonan Zou
2018, 33(8): 646-648. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.08.009
[Abstract](201) [FullText HTML](83) [PDF 1960KB](8) peer reviewing opinions Related References Cited By (0) Share
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Objective To investigate the distribution characteristics of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli in the foodborne diseases of Yantai, and provide evidence for the prevention and control of this treatment. Methods The suspected diarrheagenic E. coli strains were confirmed by Polymerase Chain Reaction, and the pathogenic types of the diarrheagenic E. coli strains were identified according to the results of virulence genes detection. Results A total of 25 strains of diarrheagenic E. coli were detected from the stool samples of 1 174 patients with diarrhea, including 15 strains of enteroaggregative E. coli, 8 strains of enterotoxigenic E. coli, 2 strains of enteropathogenic E. coli, no enterohemorrhagic E. coli and enteroinvasive E. coli strains were detected. The patients infected with diarrheagenic E. coli accounted for 2.13% of the total diarrhea patients. The main pathogenic gene was the pic, accounting for 53.33%. The detection rate in age group 20–24 years was highest (64.00%). The detection rate during June–October was 84.00%. Conclusion Enteroaggregative E. coli carrying virulence gene pic was the major pathogen causing diarrhea in Yantai. The disease mainly affected age group 20–44 years. The detection rate of the pathogens was highest in summer and autumn.
Epidemiology of varicella in Fenghua district, Ningbo, 2013–2016
Shoujun Li, Yingping Xia, Weibo Dong, Jing Sun, Chuan Zhang, Yi Liu
2018, 33(8): 649-652. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.08.010
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Objective To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of varicella in Fenghua district of Ningbo, Zhejiang province, from 2013 to 2016, and identify the factors influencing the epidemic of varicella. Methods Descriptive epidemiological analysis was conducted in the incidence of varicella in Fenghua during 2013–2016. The incidence trend of varicella before and after 2 dose live attenuated varicella vaccine immunization program were compared. Results A total of 1 198 varicella cases were reported with an average annual incidence of 60.17/100 000 during 2013–2016. The incidence declined from 78.98/100 000 in 2013 to 41.91/100 000 in 2016. Compared with 2013–2014, the incidences in age group 5–9 years, 1–4 years and 15–19 years declined by 67.76%, 55.76% and 35.27%, respectively, after the implementation of 2 dose immunization program during 2015–2016, but the incidences in age group < 1 years, 10–14 years and ≥20 years showed no decrease. The median age of cases increased from 9 years during 2013–2014 to 12 years during 2015–2016. The incidence of varicella in urban area was 101.92/100 000, higher than that in rural area (43.78/100 000), with statistical significance (χ2=226.557, P=0.000). Conclusion The incidence of varicella in Fenghua showed a downward trend, and the median age of varicella cases has become older.
Spatial-temporal distribution of hand, foot and mouth disease in Hubei, 2016
Tian Liu, Hongying Chen, Menglei Yao, Shuqiong Huang, Jigui Huang, Anlu Mao, Wenwen Yang
2018, 33(8): 653-658. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.08.011
[Abstract](121) [FullText HTML](58) [PDF 5475KB](16) peer reviewing opinions Related References Cited By (0) Share
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Objective To explore the spatial distribution and spatial-temporal clustering of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in Hubei province in 2016. Methods Trend surface analysis, spatial autocorrelation and spatial-temporal scanning analysis were conducted to understand the spatial-temporal distribution of HFMD at county/district level in Hubei. Results Trend analysis showed that an U-type curve could be used to describe the HFMD distribution from the south to the north and from the west to the east in Hubei. A positive autocorrelation of HFMD spatial distribution was observed in 2016 (Moran′sI=0.278, P=0.001). Local spatial autocorrelation analysis showed that the highly clustered and hot spot areas were in southeastern Hubei, including Daye, Huangzhou, Tieshan, Xialu, Huangshigang, Echeng, Liangzihu and Huarong. Two statistically significant HFMD clusters, which occurred in southeastern and northwestern Hubei from April to July, were identified by spatial-temporal scan statistics. Conclusion Obvious spatial-temporal clustering of HFMD was found in Hubei. It is necessary to conduct targeted HFMD prevention and control in the key areas identified and improve the allocation of public health resources.
Field evaluation on protection efficiency of mumps containing vaccine in mumps outbreaks in schools in Lu′an
Wei Qin, Yan Liu, Lijie Zhang, Tao Yang, Yao Wang, Xiaokang Xu, Xiangmei Meng, Changjun Zhao, Shaoyi Li, Shaoyu Xie, Kaichun Li, Yong Lyu
2018, 33(8): 659-663. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.08.012
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Objective To evaluate the protection efficiency of mumps containing vaccine (MuCV) and provide evidence for the improvement of mump immunization strategy. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted among all school students during the mumps outbreaks occurred in Lu'an from 2015 to 2016. Results The protection efficiency of 2 dose MuCV was better than that of 1 dose, the protection efficiency of 1 dose, 2 dose and 3 dose MuCV were 49.35% (95% CI: 36.03%–59.89%), 66.04% (95%CI: 45.54%–78.83%) and 85.96% (95%CI: 1.80%–97.99%), respectively. This data showed the 2 dose MuCV vaccination had highest protection efficiency of 78.68% at an interval of 3–4 years between the 1st dose and the 2nd dose (95% CI: 34.30%– 93.08%). The protection efficiency of 1 dose MuCV decreased with time, which was 72.78% within 4 years (95%CI: 39.29%–87.29%), 52.73% during 4–6 years (95%CI: 38.31%–63.79%) and 27.67% after more than 10 years (95%CI: –24.15%–57.86%). Vaccination with 1 dose of measles-mumps-rubella(MMR),measles and mumps combined vaccine(MM) or monovalent mumps vaccine (MuV) could provide better protection within 4 years. However, the cumulative risk of mumps was higher in MMR vaccination group than those in MM or MuV vaccination groups. Conclusion The protection efficiency of MuCV decreased with time, and the protection efficiency was best within 4 years after vaccination. The protection efficiency of 2 dose MuCV was better than that of 1 dose, and the highest protection efficiency could be achieved at an interval of 3–4 years. It is suggested to implement 2 dose MuCV immunization strategy as soon as possible.
Analysis on cases reporting and serological test results of hepatitis B in hospitals at different levels in Baoshan, Yunnan
Honglyu Xu, Mingqiang Yang, Dongsheng Huang, Zhengcui Xu, Xianya Dong, Zhengxu Li
2018, 33(8): 664-669. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.08.013
[Abstract](110) [FullText HTML](44) [PDF 2136KB](1) peer reviewing opinions Related References Cited By (0) Share
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Objective To analyze the case reporting and serological test results of hepatitis B in hospitals at different levels in Baoshan, Yunnan province, and explore the possible problems in the case reporting. Methods The data of hepatitis B cases reported in Baoshan in 2016 were downloaded from China disease prevention and control information system, including cases reported in other areas but now living in Baoshan. The data included demographic data, case reporting data, and serological test results, such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), hepatitis B core antibody-IgM (HBcAb-IgM). Database was established by Excel, and software SPSS 19.0 was used for data process and analysis. Results The number of cases of HBsAg carriers, unclassified, abnormal ALT, ALT>P75, and undetected HBcAb-IgM reported by class I hospitals and class II hospitals were higher than those reported by hospitals at other level, the differences were statistically significant (χ2=884.623, 885.244, 489.321, 560.361, 1 124.17, respectively, P<0.01). Similarly, for each of the above indicators, the number of cases reported by health center and general hospitals was higher than that reported by other type hospitals, the difference was statistically significant (χ2=316.875, 309.754, 359.044, 473.882, 332.055, respectively, P<0.01). Conclusion More cases of hepatitis B were reported by class II hospitals and class I hospitals, but more cases were misreported. It is necessary to strengthen the case verification in county-level general hospitals and health centers.
Genetic characteristics of phlebovirus carried by ticks in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region
Kaili Song, Yanwen Xiong, Xiunian Diao, Yujiang Guo, Yanjun Kang, Xincheng Qin, Xingwang Li
2018, 33(8): 670-673. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.08.014
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Objective To understand genetic characteristics of Phlebovirus carried by ticks in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China. Methods Total RNA was extracted from tick homogenate. The screening of phlebovirus positive samples and the amplification of complete genome of phlebovirus in tick samples were performed by using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, then the genome sequences were used for sequence and phylogenetic analyses. Results The complete L and S segment sequences of three strains (BL10, BL33 and BL79) isolated from the tick samples in Xinjiang were amplified successfully. The 3 strains shared 98.0% — 99.7% homology with Bole Tick Virus 1. Additionally, phylogenetic analysis indicated these strains had close relationship with Bole Tick Virus 1. Conclusion The three strains belonged to phlebovirus, which could be identified as Bole Tick Virus 1.
Density of rodents and its seasonal growth and decline in Ningbo, Zhejiang, 2006–2016
Guian Wang, Xiao Ma, Rong Xu, Guangfeng Zhu
2018, 33(8): 674-678. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.08.015
[Abstract](102) [FullText HTML](44) [PDF 1397KB](1) peer reviewing opinions Related References Cited By (0) Share
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Objective To understand the density of rodents and its seasonal growth and decline in Ningbo, Zhejiang province, and provide evidence for the prevention and control of rodent borne diseases. Methods The surveillance data of rodent density in Ningbo from 2006 to 2016 were analyzed with software SPSS 16.0 and Excel 2013. Results Rattus norvegicus and Mus musculus were predominant species in rodents captured in Ningbo, accounting for 86.28% of the total. Two peaks of annual rodent density were observed, but the second one usually lasted from June to October. The growth and decline of rodent density varied with season. The rodent density was higher in natural villages in rural area (was 0.93 per 100 rat traps) than in urban residential areas (0.40 per 100 rat traps) and special sector areas (0.47 per 100 rat traps). Conclusion The density of rodents showed a decline trend in Ningbo, but it is still important to conduct rodent density surveillance in residential areas and food service sector areas. At the same time it is necessary to establish an early warning system of rodent density based on its growth and decline trend and take comprehensive measures to reduce the rodent density for the purpose of reducing rodent borne diseases.
Analysis on mortality and burden of colorectal cancer in residents in Beijing, 2010–2015
Xiaoyong Zhou, Zaihua Wei, Jianting Su, Jing Wang, Ping Wang, Qingping Liu, Jing Du, Shengzhang Yan
2018, 33(8): 679-684. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.08.016
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Objective To analyze burden of colorectal cancer in residents in Beijing from 2010 to 2015, and provide evidence for colorectal cancer prevention and control. Methods The data of colorectal cancer deaths in permanent residents in Beijing from 2010 to 2015 were collected, and the burden of colorectal cancer was analyzed according to the mortality, standardized mortality, cause eliminated life expectancy, and years of life lost (YLL). Results The mortality rate of colorectal cancer in residents in Beijing increased from 14.40/100 000 in 2010 to 17.58/100 000 in 2015, an increase of 22.08% (28.75% in men and 14.14% in women). The standardized mortality rate of colorectal cancer increased from 9.67/100 000 in 2010 to 9.76/100 000 in 2015, an increase of 0.93% (an increase of 5.34% in men, but a decrease of 4.64% in women). The life expectancy after eliminating the death from colorectal cancer increased from 81.05 years in 2010 to 82.25 years in 2015, and the loss of life expectancy due to colorectal cancer increased from 0.24 years in 2010 to 0.30 years in 2015. The YLL per 100 000 people caused by colorectal cancer increased from 154.75 person years in 2010 to 173.06 person years in 2015, an increase of 11.83% (19.71% in men and 2.19% in women). Conclusion The mortality and standardized mortality of colorectal cancer in residents in Beijing showed an upward trend. The loss of life expectancy and the burden of disease caused by colorectal cancer increased year by year, indicating that colorectal cancer is an important disease affecting the life and health of residents in Beijing.
Assessment study of cardio-cerebrovascular disease surveillance system in Tianjin
Guohong Jiang, Xiaodan Xue, Dezheng Wang, Ying Zhang, Wei Li, Chengfeng Shen, Zhongliang Xu, Hui Zhang
2018, 33(8): 685-689. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.08.017
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Objective To introduce the cardio-cerebrovascular disease surveillance system and its data analysis, and provide reference for the stable and long term surveillance for the disease. Methods Since the establishment of the surveillance system, the capability building of staff and standardized data management have been strengthened in daily work.The incidence data of the disease are reported by hospitals and collected, sorted, verified and evaluated by centers for disease control and prevention in Tianjin. The data are analyzed and transformed with software SAS and Joinpoint. Results The underreporting rate of the surveillance system was 4.88%, and there was no significant difference between urban area and rural area. The annual case number reported increased steadily from 13 000 to over 80 000. The incidence of sudden cardiac death and intra cerebral hemorrhage showed a decline trend, while the incidence of acute myocardial infarction and cerebral infarction remained to increase, the differences were all significant (P<0.001). Joinpoint model analysis predicted that the incidence of cerebral infarction would increase to 800/100 000 by year 2020. Conclusion Standardized cardio-cerebrovascular disease surveillance is conducted in Tianjin, through which the disease trend and distribution can be found in time to support the effective prevention and control of cardio-cerebrovascular disease in Tianjin and provide references for other areas.
Epidemic and drug-resistance patterns of Salmonella choleraesuis in the world
Ming Luo, Guimin Gu, Chunmei Jing, Yunmin Xu, Pingping Zhang, Jianmin Zhang, Chuanqing Wang, Yue Liu, Mingliu Wang, Xuebin Xu
2018, 33(8): 690-699. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.08.018
[Abstract](163) [FullText HTML](78) [PDF 2956KB](9) peer reviewing opinions Related References Cited By (0) Share
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To study clinical infection and molecular epidemiological characteristics of Salmonella. Choleraesuis (S. Choleraesuis) and its drug resistance pattern were analyzed retrospectively based on big data of public health and laboratory surveillance and related literature both at home and abroad. The S. Choleraesuis is confirmed belong to a swine-adapted pathogen which can cause zoonosis among immunocompromised persons due to its highly invasive capacity. Livestock cultivation is probably the means by which S. Choleraesuis acquires drug resistance. Outbreaks or sporadic infections have been found in Thailand, Taiwan and the mainland of China over the past decades. In developed countries, the incidence and resistance rates are at very low levels, but people are susceptible to the disease and it is difficult to isolate S. Choleraesuis from stool samples, which are in consistent with the situation in Asia. It is essential for agricultural sector to take infection source control measures for the control of human and swine infections with S. Choleraesuis and drug resistance spread, and it is necessary to strengthen the capability building of laboratories at all levels to detect S. Choleraesuis. Experience on foodborne outbreaks investigation in developed countries is worth learning.
Surveillance for dog infection with Echinococcus granulosus in Tianzhu, Gansu, 2011–2016
Peng Zhang, Kaihui Cai
2018, 33(8): 700-702. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.08.019
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Objective To understand the prevalence ofEchinococcus granulosusinfection in domestic and herding dogs before and after dog registration management and implementation of praziquantel deworming in Tainzhu county of Gansu province, and provide scientific basis for the further development of the prevention and control measures of echinococcosis Methods Stool samples of domestic and herding dogs were collected from 2011 to 2016 for E. granulosu antigen detection, the infection rates before and after intervention were calculated and compared. Results The infection rate of E. granulosu in domestic and herding dogs decreased consecutively from 7.38% in 2011 to 3.04% in 2016, a decline of 55.64%. The difference in infection rate between 2011 and 2016 was significant. Conclusion In Tianzhu, the infection rate of E. granulosu in domestic and herding dogs decreased year by year through dog registration management and praziquantel deworming. As the main infection source of human echinococcosis, dogs infected with E. granulosu pose serious threat to human health. It is suggested that relevant departments should strengthen the management of infected dogs and further implement praziquantel deworming in dogs.
An outbreak of pharyngoconjunctival fever caused by swimming
Fengling Chen, Hui Liu, Xuemei Pan, Guihong Zhong, Xincai Xiao
2018, 33(8): 703-706. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.08.020
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Objective To investigate the pathogenic and epidemiologic factors of an outbreak of pharyngoconjunctival fever occurred in adolescents in Conghua, Guangdong province, in August 2013. Methods The established standardized case definition and unified epidemiologic questionnaires were used to investigate the cases and describe the epidemiologic characteristics. A case control study was conducted, PCR was performed to detect the pharyngeal and eye swabs collected from the cases. Results A total of 89 cases of pharyngoconjunctival fever were reported in Conghua, and 58 cases (65.17%)occurred in Jiekou town. The attack rate was 5.82‰. Up to 66.29% of the cases (59/89) were aged 6–10 years . Most cases (94.38%, 84/89) occurred from 10 August to 17 August. The clinical characteristics were fever accompanied by pharyngalgia, tonsillitis or conjunctivitis. The prognosis was good and no death was reported. Up to 86.52% (77/89) of the patients had the history of swimming. The case control study showed that the risk factors included choking water in swimming pool (OR=3.49, 95% CI: 2.07–11.49).Among 41 clinical samples, 17 were positive for adenovirus nucleic acid, the positive rate was 41.46%. The sequencing results of PCR products indicated that the pathogen was adenovirus type 4. Conclusion It was confirmed that the pathogen causing the pharyngoconjunctival fever outbreak in Conghua was adenovirus, and swimming in unqualified natatorium was the main route of transmission.
Trends in reported vectorborne disease cases -United States and Territories, 2004–2016
2018, 33(8): 707-708. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2018.08.021
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CN 11-2928/R

ISSN 1003-9961

Established in:1986 , Monthly

Responsible Institution:National Health and Family Planning Commission of the People's Republic of China

Sponsor: Editorial Board of Disease Surveillance,National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention,Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention

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