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Drug sensitivity and genomic characterization of non-O1/non-O139 Vibrio cholerae of human isolates from Hunan province, China, 2018−2021
Qin Di, Chen Jialiang, He Zixiang, Dai Zhihui, Xia Xin, Zhou Haijian, Zhang Hong, Pang Bo, Zhan Zhifei
, DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202206210282
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  Objective  To investigate the drug sensitivity and genomic characteristics of non-O1/non-O139 Vibrio cholerae isolated from patients in Hunan Province during 2018−2021.  Methods  Four non-O1/non-O139 V. cholerae isolated from intestinal samples of diarrhea cases and three non-O1/non-O139 V. cholerae isolated from blood samples of non-diarrhea cases in Hunan province from 2018 to 2021 were selected for drug sensitivity test and genome sequencing to analyze their drug sensitivity and genomic characteristics.  Results  Three strains isolated from blood samples were sensitive to ampicillin, norfloxacin, ceftriaxone, meropenem, minocycline, compound sulfamethoxazole, gentamicin, cefotaxime, nalidixicacid and ciprofloxacin, one strain was intermediate to tetracycline, and one strain was resistant to chloramphenicol. The 4 strains isolated from stool samples were sensitive to norfloxacin, ceftriaxone, meropenem, minocycline, compound sulfamethoxazole, gentamicin and cefotaxime. One strain was intermediate to tetracycline and chloramphenicol, one strain was resistant to chloramphenicol, and two strains were resistant to ampicillin, ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid; among which 1 strain was resistant to ampicillin, nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin; and 1 strain was resistant to ampicillin, Nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin and chloramphenicol. The genome sequences of 7 non-O1/non-O139 V. cholerae strains showed significant diversity, but some strains were highly similar in core and pangenome. No ctxAB gene,VPI-1 and VSPII genome islands were detected in the genome sequences. Strains isolated from stool carried 4 to 8 resistance genes, while strains isolated from blood carried 1 to 2 resistance genes.  Conclusion  The genome of non-O1/non-O139 V. cholerae in Hunan province showed obvious diversity, and the strains were resistant to a variety of antimicrobial agents. It is necessary to strengthen the monitoring of genome variation and drug sensitivity of non-O1/non-O139 V. cholerae in diarrhea cases, food and environmental water.
Risk assessment of global COVID-19 pandemic in October 2022
Fang Yuansheng, Ji Hanran, Wu Jiewen, Pang Mingfan, Zhao Qing, Xue Xiuli, Li Jie, Yang Xinping, Qi Xiaopeng
, DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202211180507
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  Objective   To assess the global epidemic of Coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) in October 2022 and the risk of importation.   Methods   According to the daily COVID-19 data publicly released by Johns Hopkins University, combined with the policy stringency index published by the University of Oxford, an epidemiological description method was used to provide a comprehensive and timely assessment of the global epidemic risk through a general overview, a comprehensive assessment of the epidemic trends in WHO regions and key countries, as well as a comprehensive analysis of the epidemic and prevention and control policies in 14 neighboring countries. The assessment results for each country are expressed as “countries of global concern”, “countries of the general concern in each WHO sub-region” and “neighboring countries of special concern”.   Results  Compared with September 2022, the global monthly new confirmed cases decreased by 13.5%, and the global monthly new deaths decreased by 12.6%. In October, the largest decrease in the number of new confirmed cases was recorded in the South-East Asia region (49.6%) and the American region (North) (42.7%). Besides the Europe region increased by 11.1%, other regions with a decrease of between 7.6% and 49.6%. Except for the Europe region (9.2%), the number of new deaths in the remaining regions decreased to varying degrees (between 13.9% and 62.5%). The biggest decline was in the eastern Mediterranean. Germany, France, Italy, Austria, the United Kingdom and Greece are countries of global concern, while South Africa is country of general concern in the African region.   Conclusion  The global daily newly confirmed cases and deaths showed a downward trend in October, but the newly confirmed cases and deaths showed an upward trend in Europe region, which should be paid special attention to, timely communicate and adjusted measures.
Epidemiological characteristics and control strategy of human brucellosis in Fujian, 2016−2020
Han Tengwei, Liu Jing, Liu Weijun, Zeng Zhiwei, He Fangqing, Xiao Fangzhen, Deng Yanqin
, DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202202070026
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  Objective  To explore the epidemiological characteristics of human brucellosis in Fujian province during 2016−2020, and provide scientific evidence for the development of effective brucellosis control and prevention strategy.   Methods  The incidence data and serological and etiological surveillance results of human brucellosis in Fujian from 2016 to 2020 were collected from China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention for a descriptive epidemiological analysis.   Results  A total of 515 human brucellosis cases were reported in Fujian during this period. The annual incidence was 0.26/100 000 and the incidence of human brucellosis increased year by year (χ2=12.88, P<0.05). The cases were distributed sporadically in 77 counties (87.50%) in the province. The incidence was 0.64/100 000 in Nanping and 0.52/100 000 in Longyan, which were higher than in other areas. The number of affected counties (district) increased from 28 in 2016 to 49 in 2020, showing a significant increase (χ2=9.29, P<0.05). The incidence peak of human brucellosis occurred during April-August. In the reported cases, 321 (62.33%) were aged 40–64 years; the highest incidence rate was at age group 60–64 years old (0.69/100 000). The male to female ratio of the cases was 1.89∶1 (χ2=44.77, P<0.05). The cases in farmers and herdsmen accounted for 42.33% (218 cases). In the surveillance in key populations with occupational exposure, 84 persons were serological positive (1.70%, 84/4 934). With classical biotyping and molecular biological methods,two species (B. melitensis and B.suis) and two biovars (B. melitensis biovar 3, n=37; and B.suis biovar 3, n=1) were identified in the 38 Brucella isolates, and B.melitensis was the major pathogen causing human brucellosis in Fujian (97.37%).   Conclusion  Our study indicated that the incidence intensity of human brucellosis in Fujian increased yearly. It is necessary to strengthen brucellosis surveillance and infection source management and control, and take corresponding measures in high-risk population for the better prevention and control of human brucellosis.
2022年美国免疫实践咨询委员会(ACIP)更新了19~59岁成人普及乙肝疫苗接种建议
Gong Zhenyu, Gong Xunliang
, DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202204190152
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Effect of antiviral therapy on physical growth and development of infants mothered by women infected with hepatitis B virus
Hu Fang, Lu Jianjun, Zhang Shuhao, Yuan Xiaolan
, DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.2021.000
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  Objective   To explore the effect of antiviral therapy during pregnancy on the physical growth and development of infants mothered by women infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) in Guangzhou.   Methods   A prospective cohort study was conducted for a follow up in the infants mothered by HBsAg-positive women recruited from May 2018 to August 2021. Children mothered by HBV-infected women who received antiviral therapy during pregnancy were classified as exposure group, while children mothered by HBV-infected mothers who received no antiviral therapy during pregnancy were classified as control group. Generalized estimating equation was used to analyze the effects of antiviral treatment during pregnancy on infant weight and length development.   Results  A total of 663 infants mothered by HBV-infected women were included in this study, of whom 115 (17.35%) were divided into the exposure group and 548 (82.65%) were divided into the control group. There were no significant differences in incidences of underweight, stunting and wasting n between exposure group and control group at age 1, 3, 6 and 12 months(P>0.05). There were no significant differences between the two groups in Z-score for age/weight, Z-score for age/length, and Z-score for length/weight. And the difference with the WHO reference standard was not statistically significant. The age/length Z-score was 0.585 times higher in the infants in exposure group than in the infants in control group (P=0.021).   Conclusion  The antiviral treatment during pregnancy of HBV-infected women had no effect on the body weight and length of their babies in infancy.
Enlightenment to the prevention and control of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in field training soldiers by analyzing spatial and temporal distribution in China from 2011 to 2020
Liu Congmin, Yuan Yang, Tao Weiguang, Lv Ying, Gao Qiuju
, DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202201220013
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  Objective  To analyze the spatial and temporal distribution of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in China from 2011 to 2020, in order to provide the evidence for the prevention and control measures of HFRS.   Methods  The data of HFRS was downloaded from the website of the Chinese Center for Disease Prevention and Control. The number of case was collected monthly every year. The season data was split according to spring and summer, autumn and winter. The circle distribution method was used to analyze the peak day and peak period of the HFRS, and the Join-point regression analysis method was used to evaluate the long-term trend and percentage change of the annual incidence of the disease (APC, 95%CI).The spatial distribution characteristics were analyzed in five directions, namely east, south, west, north and central, as well as the provinces under their jurisdiction.   Results  The average incidence rate of HFRS in China from 2011 to 2020 was 0.831/100 000, and the average fatality rate was 0.695%. The trend of change in 10-year was not obvious.The APC (95%CI) for 2011−2017 and 2018−2020 is −1.47 ( −7.4− 4.8), −13.04 (−48.1−45.8) (P>0.05). The incidence of HFRS showed the bimodal seasonal distribution, and there were obvious peak days and peak periods (P<0.01). The peak days of incidence in each year were different or not all the same (Fspring and summer =62.26, P<0.01; Fautumn and winter =30.49, P<0.01). The peak incidence in spring and summer was 11th June, and the peak period was 10th April-12th August, and the peak of incidence in autumn and winter was 16th December, and the peak period was 6th November-26th January. The largest number of cases in the five directions was the north, followed by the central, eastern, southern, and the least was the west. The number of HFRS cases in Shanxi province (14 766 cases) was the highest in the central direction, followed by Heilongjiang province (12 022 cases), Shandong province (10 585 cases) and Liaoning province (8 752 cases) in the northern direction.   Conclusion  The incidence of HFRS in China existed northern and central high-incidence areas. Double-peak distribution characteristics was small peaks in spring and summer on 11th June (April to August) and obvious peaks in autumn and winter on 16th December (November to January), and the troops should pay attention to the high-incidence areas and done a good job in the prevention and control of HFRS around the peak periods.
Application and prospect of risk assessment in the prevention and control of imported infectious diseases at border ports in Chinese Mainland
Han Hui, Wu Bo, Wu Hailei, Song Yueqian
, DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202210160445
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With the process of globalization, international exchanges of personnel and trade have become increasingly frequent, and the risk of cross-border transmission of infectious diseases has increased significantly. Border ports are the first line of defense to prevent and control the import of infectious diseases. At present, assessing the risk of infectious diseases importation has become an important task and key link in the health quarantine, which could provide a basis for the prevention and control of emerging infectious diseases abroad and public health risk at border ports during large-scale international activities, and has achieved significant results. At the same time, methods such as statistical and probabilistic models, big data technology, artificial intelligence, and geographic information system have been gradually applied to infectious disease risk assessment. In the face of severe the complex epidemic situation of infectious diseases, the combination of new technologies and multi-source data with risk assessment work could play an important role in the prevention and control of infectious diseases at border ports.
Summary of global surveillance data of infectious diseases in October 2022
Han Hui, Wu Bo, Qiu Wenyi, Song Yueqian
, DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202211200510
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In October 2022, a total of 67 infectious diseases were reported globally, affecting 235 countries and regions. Except for influenza,the top five infectious diseases affecting greatest number of countries and regions were COVID-19 (235), monkeypox (109), dengue fever (30), measles (27) andcholera (14). The top fiveinfectious diseases with highest case fatality rates were Rift Valley fever (48.9%), Ebola virus disease (38.7%), Crimean-Congo haemorrhagicfever (27.3%), Lassa fever (18.2%) and West Nile fever (7.1%). The top five infectious diseases with greatest number of deaths were COVID-19, malaria, cholera, measles anddengue fever. The prevalent infectious diseases in Asia were COVID-19 anddengue fever,the prevalent infectious diseases in Africa were COVID-19, Ebola virus disease, cholera, yellow fever, Lassa fever, malaria and monkeypox, the prevalent infectious diseases in America were COVID-19, cholera, dengue fever and monkeypox, the prevalent infectious disease in Europe were COVID-19, monkeypox and West Nile fever.
Risk assessment of public health emergencies concerned in the mainland of China, November 2022
Xu Shiyao, Tu Wenxiao, Jin Miao, Feng Yenan, Xie Yiran, Tang Lin, Shi Guoqing, Xiang Nijuan
, DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202211110489
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  Objective   To assess the risk of public health emergencies, both the indigenous ones and the imported ones, which might occur in the mainland of China in November 2022.   Methods   An internet based expert counsel was conducted to analyze the surveillance data of public health emergencies and priority communicable diseases in China reported through different channels, and the experts in all provincial centers for disease control and prevention attended this video conference.   Results   It is expected that the incidence of public health emergencies reported in November would increase compared with that in October. There is still risk of the import and spread of COVID-19. It is expected that the southern and northern provinces of China will still have a high incidence of seasonal flu this winter and next spring with multiple types and subtypes. The number of outbreaks of enteritis due to norovirus in November may rise significantly.   Conclusion   Special attention should be paid to COVID-19. General attentions should be paid to seasonal flu and enteritis due to norovirus.
Molecular types and drug resistant characteristics of Salmonella typhimurium from outpatientswith diarrhea in Wuxi city
Xie Jie, Yuan Min, Wang Yajing, Sha Dan, Guan Hongxia
, DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202205020188
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  Objective  To understand the molecular types and drug resistance characteristics of Salmonella typhimurium isolated from diarrhea cases in Wuxi city.   Methods  The antimicrobial susceptibility of 26 Salmonella typhimurium strains isolated from sentinel hospitals in Wuxi city from 2016 to 2017 was determined by broth microdilution methodto 14 antibiotics. Two multidrug-resistant strains (SM699: resistant to 7 types of antibiotic; SM912: resistant to 4 types of antibiotic) were selected for whole-genome sequencing, and the genetic basis of drug resistance and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were studied by bioinformatics methods. The homology of strain was analyzed by pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE).   Results  26 Salmonella typhimurium strains were sensitive to imipenem and showed different degrees of resistance (3.8%−65.4%) to 13 other antibiotics. The drug resistance rates oftetracycline (65.4%, 17/26), ampicillin (61.5%, 16/26) and nalidixicacid (42.3%, 11/26) occupied the top three. Twenty strains (76.9%, 20/26) were resistant to at least one class of antibiotics, with a total of 15 drug-resistant phenotypes, and 14 strains (53.8%, 14/26) were multi-drugresistant strains. The second generation sequencing results showed that SM699 and SM912 carried 23 and 9 resistance genes, respectively, which mediated drug resistance to the corresponding antibiotics. The resistance genes and drug resistance phenotypes were basically consistent. In addition, onepointmutationingyrAof SM699 was found to mediate quinolone resistance. Both strains were ST34 and belonged to the same clone. PFGE showed that 26 strains weredividedinto 23 bands, with the similarity between 58.6%−100.0%.   Conclusion  The drug resistance of Salmonella typhimurium in Wuxi wasserious. In order to provide a basis for better prevention strategies, weshould continuously strengthen the monitoring of drug resistance, and further study was needed to clarify the mechanism of drug resistance gene acquisition.
Epidemiological characteristics of a local COVID-19 outbreak caused by Omicron variant (BA.2) in Qinzhou, Guangxi
Luo Xiaojuan, Wang Jing, Huang Xiaoxia, Lv Caifang, Chen Minmei, Tang Meirong, He Weitao, Lu Haoquan, Liao Min, Li Sha, Lin Mei, Zhong Ge
, DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202206220292
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  Objective  To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of a local COVID-19 outbreak in Qinzhou, Guangxi Zhuang autonomous region, and provide reference for the prevention and control of COVID-19 in the future.   Methods  The epidemiological and clinical information, analysis reports and laboratory test results of the COVID-19 cases were collected for a descriptive epidemiological analysis.   Results  A total of 97 COVID-19 cases, including 79 asymptomatic cases and 18 confirmed cases, were reported in Qinzhou during 12−24 March, 2022. Forty nine cases were males and 48 cases were females. The median of age of the cases was 32 (17.0, 44.5) years. The median of incubation period was 3 days. The median of latent period was 2 days. A total of 3841 close contacts were screened, in whom 61 were infected. The secondary attack rates in 3841 close contacts was 1.59%. The secondary attack rate in household contacts was 65% in 8 family clustering (95% CL: 20%−100%).Three mass gathering were identified in a local recreation center box, a wedding ceremony and a family feast for new home, in which the attack rates were 63.64%, 9.38% and 12.16%, respectively. Transmission firstly occurred in the people attending the activity in the recreation center box. At least 5 generations of transmission were identified in the outbreak. The results of genome second generation sequencing of the isolates from 20 infection cases revealed that the pathogen of the outbreak was SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant (BA.2).   Conclusion  Analysis on the cases caused by Omicron variant (BA.2) indicated early prevention measures are important for the control of further spread of COVID-19.
Surveillance for avian influenza virus in poultry related environment in Guangdong, 2016−2020
Zou Lirong, Zhang Yunqiang, Guo Qianfang, Yu Jianxiang, Wu Jie
, DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202108090437
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  Objective  To investigate the distribution characteristics of avian influenza virus in poultry related sites in Guangdong province and provide evidence for the prevention and control of human infection with avian influenza virus.   Methods  From 2016 to 2020, environmental samples were collected from 5 types of poultry related sites in 21 prefectures of Guangdong. The detection of influenza A virus was conducted by fluorescence quantitative PCR, and the positive samples were identified for subtype H5, H7 and H9 viruses. The epidemiological characteristics of avian influenza virus in environment of poultry related sites in Guangdong were described, and the results were analyzed by χ2 test.   Results  A total of 78013 poultry related environmental samples were collected in Guangdong from 2016 to 2020. In which 16303 were positive for avian influenza virus (20.90%), 2307 were positive for subtype H5 virus (2.96%), 1230 were positive for subtype H7 virus (1.58%) and 11285 were positive for subtype H9 virus (14.47%). The positive rate of avian influenza virus in environment peaked in winter and spring, especially in 2019 and 2020, and the positive rate of subtype H7 virus peaked during 2016−2017, which was positively correlated with the number of human H7N9 virus infection cases (Spearman, R=0.828, P<0.01). Among all kinds of places and samples, the positive rates were high in poultry slaughter houses (29.75%), chopping block swabs (27.72%), and poultry cleaning swage samples (21.83%).   Conclusion  Avian influenza virus contamination exists in all parts of Guangdong, and the incidence of the human infection with avian influenza virus is high in winter and spring every year. People engaged in poultry slaughtering and trade are at high risk for avian influenza virus infection. It is necessary to strengthen the surveillance for avian influenza virus in poultry related environment in winter and spring, strengthen environmental disinfection in all kinds of poultry related sites, and people with occupation exposure should pay attention to personal protection.
Evaluation of immunoprotective effect of NFA47650 protein from Nocardia farcinica
Han Lichao, Fan Shihong, Ji Xingzhao, Xu Shuai, Qiu Xiaotong, Li Fang, Sun Lina, Li Zhenjun
, DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202204080134
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  Objective  To access the capacity of NFA47650 protein from Nocardia farcinica in activating innate immune response and evaluate its immunoprotective effect.   Methods  The sequence characteristics of nfa47650 were analyzed by bioinformatics, and its conservation in N. farcinica was analyzed by Blast. RAW264.7 cells were stimulated with purified NFA47650 protein, the level of MAPK signaling pathway activation was detected by Western Blot, and the concentration of cytokines in the supernatant were measured by ELISA. C57BL/6 mice were divided into two groups to be immunized with PBS or NFA47650 protein for three times, respectively. After serum titer was detected, the changes of body temperature, body weight, serum IgG level, protein and LDH level in alveolar lavage fluid, pulmonary bacterial loads and cytokine levels were detected at 24 hours after infection.   Results  NFA47650 protein can stimulate RAW264.7 cells to upregulate the phosphorylation levels of ERK, JNK, P38 and induces the production of various cytokines such as IL-10, IL-12, TNF-α, IFN-γ. In addition, immunized mice produced high-titer antisera, resulting in less damage and bacterial loads in lung tissues.   Conclusion  NFA47650 protein is an immunodominant protein with immunoprotective effects that stimulates the host to produce antibodies and induces an immune response in mice during N. farcinica infection.
Epidemiological characteristics and incidence trend of influenza like illness in Hebei, 2010−2020
Zhang Ranran, Jiang Caixiao, Li Yan, Liu Yanfang, Liu Lanfen, Han Guangyue, Han Xu, Li Qi
, DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.20205070198
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  Objective  To understand the epidemiological characteristics and incidence trend of influenza like illness (ILI) in Hebei province from 2010 to 2020 and provide evidence for the development of influenza prevention and control strategies.   Methods  The 2010−2020 ILI surveillance data in Hebei were collected for a descriptive analysis. Software joinpoint was used to construct a piecewise point linear regression model with the surveillance year as the independent variable and the proportion of ILI cases as the dependent variable to explore the incidence trends of ILI in different age groups and areas.   Results  The proportion of ILI cases in Hebei from 2010 to 2020 was 1.84%, and the incidence of ILI and the proportion of ILI cases mainly peaked during winter-spring; the cases in children under age of 15 years accounted for the highest proportion (about 67.3%); The incidences in Langfang, Baoding, Chengde, Shijiazhuang and Handan were high. The proportion of ILI cases in Hebei began to change during 2016−2017, showing a trend of “decrease-rapid increase” (APC=−3.34 and 18.62); the proportion of ILI cases in 0-year-old group and the 5-year-old group showed a trend of “decrease-rapid increase”, the proportion of ILI cases in 25-year-old group and the 60-year-old group showed a slow increase trend (APC=0.03 and 0.01). Except Handan, Chengde, and Shijiazhuang, the proportion of ILI cases other prefectures showed an overall increase, and the linear structure of regression varied.   Conclusion  The incidence of ILI in Hebei showed a peak in winter and spring. The proportion of ILI cases in Hebei showed a “decline-rapid increase” during 2010 to 2020. The change trends of ILI case proportion in each age group under 15 years old were similar to the overall trend; except Baoding, Xingtai, Zhangjiakou, the trend of the proportions of ILI cases in other areas were partially or completely consistent with the overall trend. Joinpoint regression model can reveal the incidence trend of ILI in different populations, and provide a basis for better targeted influenza prevention and control of ILI.
Strain-level bacterial analysis from shotgun metagenomics: a review
Qian Xiuwei, Wu Yarong, Hao Tongyu, Fan Hang, Cui Yujun
, DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202206100264
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Identifying bacterial strains and characterizing their population, genetic variety and functional gene sets is essential for bacterial pathogen discovery, epidemiology, and infection control. With the development of high throughput sequencing and bioinformatics tools, we can characterize the individual bacterial strains in the context of complex community. In this review, we present the current works of strain-level bacterial analysis from metagenomics in three aspects: genetic diversity, outbreak tracing and functional gene profile. The work provides related references for the applications of bacterial analysis from metagenomics in clinical and environmental microbiology, and public health.
Pathogenic analysis on a foodborne disease outbreak caused by Salmonella Enteritidis in Wuhan, 2021
Fei Xiaoyuan, Wang Huawei, Qi Li, Zhou Junbo, Zhao Ying, Huang Liehong, Long Yibing
, DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202204140149
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  Objective  To identify the cause of a foodborne disease outbreak in Wuhan in 2021.   Methods  The pathogen was isolated and cultured from the food samples, cases’ anal swabs and stool samples in this foodborne disease. VITEK 2 Compact automatic microbial identification system was used for the identification of isolated strains, and serological typing test and drug resistance sensitivity test were carried for these strains. The nucleic acid of the pathogenic bacteria and the strains with same type isolated sporadically in this area in the past two years were extracted for pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and whole genome sequencing, and the virulence genes and drug resistance genes of the strains were analyzed by gene annotation and sequence alignment, combined with multi-locus sequence typing. Phylogenetic tree was constructed based on single nucleotide polymorphism, and homology analysis was performed to trace the origin of pathogenic bacteria.   Results  A total of 5 strains of Salmonella Enteritidis were isolated, of which 2 were from food samples and 3 were from anal swabs of the cases. The 5 strains had same PFGE pattern and showed resistantance to amikacin, gentamicin, tobramycin, cefazolin, cefoxitin, sulfamethoxazole and cefuroxime. The isolated strains belong to ST11 type, carrying same resistance genes and virulence factors. Only one mutation site was detected in the sequences of the strains isolated in this outbreak. The whole genome sequence of the strains in this outbreak was highly similar to the sequences of the S. Enteritidis strains isolated from local cases.   Conclusion  This foodborne disease outbreak in Wuhan was caused by S. Enteritidis circulating in this area. Whole genome sequencing can be used as a supplement to pulsed field gel electrophoresis for epidemiological investigation of disease outbreak.
Genetic diversity of pre-CTXφ phages in Vibrio cholerae
Hao Tongyu, Ma Jiajia, Wu Yarong, Qian Xiuwei, Zhang Xianglilan, Cui Yujun
, DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202206120256
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pre-CTXφ phage is the precursor of phage CTXφ. Unlike CTXφ, pre-CTXφ does not include the cholera toxin coding genes, ctxAB, which are the most important virulence genes in Vibrio cholerae toxigenic strains. However, pre-CTXφ carries zot and ace genes. After pre-CTXφ integrates into non-toxigenic strains, the zot and ace genes can cause cholera-like diarrhea in humans and lead to potential public health risks. In this study, we collected 1649 publicly available draft genomes and 43 complete genomes of V. cholerae, and performed a comprehensive analysis of the genetic diversity of pre-CTXφ in V. cholerae genomes based on comparative genomics and population genetics. The results revealed that the copy numbers of pre-CTXφ vary among different phylogenetic lineages. Especially in L3b.4 lineage, the copy numbers of pre-CTXφ in strains showed an increasing trend over isolation years. We also found that co-integration of pre-CTXφ and CTXφ exists in strains from L2, L4, L7 and L3b lineages. Meanwhile, the phylogenetic tree of pre-CTXφ/CTXφ gene family showed that pre-CTXφ was located at the ancestral position. These findings enrich our knowledge about the integration and evolution of the pre-CTXφ phages in V. cholerae genomes, helping for the detection and infection control of Vibrio cholerae carrying pre-CTXφ.
Development and Evaluation of the application effect of PCR assay for detection of Corynebacterium striatum
Qiu Xiaotong, Chen Dongke, Wang Xuebing, Zhou Haijian, Li Zhenjun
, DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202109220515
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  Objective  To evaluate the application effect of a rapid PCR method for detecting Corynebacterium striatum (C. striatum) in clinical isolates and clinical sputum specimens.  Methods  A single PCR method for the detection of C. striatum was established using PCR primers Cst_1-F/Cst_1-R designed for the species-specific gene ftr1. The C. striatum reference strain ATCC6940, ATCC43751, 152 clinical isolates and 30 non-C. striatum strains was used to verify the effectiveness of this method. The resultof this PCR method was compared with that of 16S rRNA gene sequencing and MALDI-TOF MS.The specificity and sensitivity of this PCR method were evaluated. Finally, this PCR method was used to detect 88 clinical sputum specimens.  Results  The result of the PCR method was 100% consistent with that of 16S rRNA sequencing and MALDI-TOF MS in the identification of 152 C. striatum clinical isolates. There was no cross reaction in 30 non-C. striatum strains.The limit of detection was 1 ng template DNA per reaction.When applied this PCR method to detect clinical sputum specimens, the consistency of this method compared with sputum smear microscopy was 86.4% (76/88).  Conclusion  As a convenient, economic and effective method, the PCR assay in this study may replace 16S rRNA gene sequencing and MALDI-TOF MS for the clinical identification of C. striatum. Also, this assay has good application effect in the detection of C. striatum in clinical sputum specimens.
Partial biological characteristics and genomic analysis of Vibrio cholerae typing phage VP2
Sun Huihui, Fan Yufeng, Li Zhenpeng, Zhao Shuo, Wang Xiaoxun, Pang Bo, Kan Biao
, DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202105190282
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  Objective  This study aimed to further understand the genetic information of VP2 by analyzing the whole genome of Vibrio cholerae typing phage VP2, and analyzing the protein of mature particles in combination with biological characteristics.  Methods  The morphology of phage VP2 was observed under electron microscope, and some of its biological characteristics were determined. Online RAST (https://rast.nmpdr.org/) was used to predict and annotate the encoding genes of the phage VP2 genome, and the proteins in the mature VP2 particles were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Phage genome average nucleotide consistency (ANI, business, nucleotide identity) was analysis by pyani (https://github.com/widdowquinn/pyani).  Results  Phage VP2 was a typical 20-hedron short-tailed phage, the optimal MOI is 0.01. One step growth curve showed that incubation period is about 60 minutes, 60 minutes to 120 minutes for the outbreak period, after 120 minutes for the stable period. Forty-nine open reading frames (ORFs) were predicted. Protein spectrum analysis of mature VP2 particles showed that 34 proteins corresponded to the predicted genes. ANI cluster analysis showed that ANI was the highest in VP2 and vibro phage CJY.  Conclusion  The morphological and genomic characteristics of typing phage VP2 were identified, which laid a foundation for the further study of homologous phage and its interaction with Vibrio cholerae.
Hot issues after marketing of COVID-19 vaccine
Ye Pengling, Wang Ming
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The pandemic of COVID-19 continues to spread worldwide, suggesting that the epidemic would continue in natural state. Although some progress has been achieved in the treatment of COVID-19, it is far from containing the spread of the epidemic. Therefore, human beings have pinned their hopes of controlling the COVID-19 epidemic on the development of vaccines. Currently, several COVID-19 vaccine products have been applied to immunize the population after completion of phase Ⅲ clinical trials. The safety, immunogenicity, efficacy, immunization procedures and response to virus mutations of different COVID-19 vaccines are the great concern of the public. The public and experts in the field are confused about the efficacy of vaccines due to the different evaluation indicators used by research and development institutions in publishing vaccine development and application information and the interpretation by media from different perspectives and calibers. This paper summarizes the published research data and discusses the hot issues in development and post-marketing application of COVID-19 vaccine.
Meeting of the WHO Strategic and Technical Advisory Group for Infectious Hazards (STAG-IH), June 2020 Conclusions and advice—Gong Zhenyu(Selective Translation), Gong Xunliang(Reviser)
Gong Zhenyu, Gong Xunliang
, DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.2021
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Summary of global surveillance data of infectious diseases in May 2021
Han Hui, Wu Bo, Wu Hailei, Zhang Jin, Jia Jiaojiao
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In May 2021, a total of 67 infectious diseases were reported globally, affecting 225 countries and regions. Except for influenza, the top five infectious diseases affecting greatest number of countries and regions were corona virus disease 2019(COVID-19, 225), dengue fever (30), measles (29), poliomyelitis (15) and malaria (9). The top five infectious diseases with highest case fatality rates were Ebola virus disease (52.2%), Middle East respiratory syndrome (34.4%), lassa fever (20.3%), plague (6.0%) and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (5.3%). The top five infectious diseases with greatest number of deaths were COVID-19, malaria, measles, dengue fever and cholera. The prevalent infectious diseases in Asia were COVID-19 and dengue fever, the prevalent infectious diseases in Africa were COVID-19, Ebola virus disease, plague, cholera, yellow fever, lassa fever and Rift valley fever, the prevalent infectious diseases in America were COVID-19 and dengue fever, the prevalent infectious disease in Europe was COVID-19.
Chinese reference list of core health indicators
, DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202011300402
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The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices’ Updated Interim Recommendation for Allocation of COVID-19 Vaccine — United States, December 2020
Gong Zhenyu, Gong Xunliang
, DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202012270443
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《疾病监测》杂志稿约
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cover
cover
2022, 37(10).
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2022 年 10 期目录
2022, 37(10): 1-3.
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导 读
2022, 37(10): 1285-1285. DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202210250470
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Epidemic Bulletin
2022年9月中国甲乙丙类传染病疫情动态简介National Data of Class A, B and C Communicable Diseases in September 2022
2022, 37(10): 1263-1263. DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202210200455
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2022年9月中国甲乙丙类传染病疫情动态概要Summary of National Data of Class A, B and C Communicable Diseases in China, September 2022
2022, 37(10): 1264-1265. DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202210200456
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2022年9月全球传染病疫情概要Summary of global surveillance data of infectious diseases in September 2022
Han Hui, Wu Bo, Jia Jiaojiao, Song Yueqian
2022, 37(10): 1266-1268. DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202210200457
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In September 2022, a total of 67 infectious diseases were reported globally, affecting 235 countries and regions. Except for influenza, the top five infectious diseases affecting greatest number of countries and regions were COVID-19 (235), monkeypox (106), dengue fever (32), measles (25) and cholera (15). The top five infectious diseases with highest case fatality rates were Rift Valley fever (69.2%), Marburg virus disease (66.7%), Ebola virus disease (63.9%), Lassa fever (18.5%) and West Nile fever (6.3%). The top five infectious diseases with greatest number of deaths were COVID-19, malaria, dengue fever, measles and cholera. The prevalent infectious diseases in Asia were COVID-19, cholera and dengue fever, the prevalent infectious diseases in Africa were COVID-19, Ebola virus disease, cholera, plague, yellow fever, Lassa fever, malaria and monkeypox, the prevalent infectious diseases in America were COVID-19, dengue fever, chikungunya fever, Zika virus disease and monkeypox, the prevalent infectious disease in Europe were COVID-19, monkeypox and West Nile fever.

Risk Assessment
Risk assessment of public health emergencies concerned in the mainland of China, October 2022
Zhang Shen, Huang Lifang, Tu Wenxiao, Feng Yenan, Li Wei, Meng Ling, Ma Yongsheng, Shi Guoqing, Xiang Nijuan
2022, 37(10): 1269-1271. DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202210190454
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  Objective   To assess the risk of public health emergencies, both the indigenous ones and the imported ones, which might occur in the mainland of China in October 2022.   Methods   An internet based expert counsel was conducted to analyze the surveillance data of public health emergencies and priority communicable diseases in China reported through different channels, and the experts in all provincial centers for disease control and prevention attended this video conference.   Results   It is expected that the number of public health emergencies reported in October may increase compared with that in September. The national COVID-19 epidemic has shown a continuous rebound trend, with a popular trend of multiple points, wide coverage, frequent occurrence and long chains. There is a risk of local clusters (community spread in some areas) and spillover to other areas. The situation is grim and complex in epidemic prevention and control. Effective coordination of COVID-19 prevention and control with economic and social development should be further consolidated in all provinces in accordance with the overall national requirements. Two deaths of plague were reported in Xizang, suggesting that surveillance and risk management of animal plague should be continued in the epidemic focus.   Conclusion   Special attention should be paid to COVID-19. General attentions should be paid to plague.
Risk assessment of global COVID-19 pandemic in September 2022
Xue Xiuli, Ji Hanran, Wu Jiewen, Pang Mingfan, Yang Xinping, Fang Yuansheng, Zhao Qing, Li Jie, Qi Xiaopeng
2022, 37(10): 1272-1276. DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202210190453
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  Objectives   To assess the global epidemic of Coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) in September 2022 and the risk of importation.   Methods   According to the daily COVID-19 data publicly released by Johns Hopkins University, combined with the policy stringency index published by the University of Oxford, an epidemiological description method was used to provide a comprehensive and timely assessment of the global epidemic risk through a general overview, a comprehensive assessment of the epidemic trends in WHO regions and key countries, as well as a comprehensive analysis of the epidemic and prevention and control policies in 14 neighboring countries. The assessment results for each country are expressed as “countries of global concern”, “countries of the general concern in each WHO sub-region” and “neighboring countries of special concern”.   Results  Compared with August 2022, the global monthly new confirmed cases decreased by 42.6%, and the global monthly new deaths decreased by 32.7%. In September,the largest decrease in the number of new confirmed cases was recorded in the Eastern Mediterranean region (70.6%) and the American region (South) (65.3%), with a decrease of between 8.8% and 70.6% in the remaining regions. Except for the African region (0.9%), the number of new deaths in the remaining regions decreased to varying degrees (between 6.8% and 67.0%). The biggest decline was in the eastern Mediterranean. Among them, Russia is a country with global focus, and Myanmar, Russia and India are neighboring countries of special concern in September.   Conclusion  The global daily newly confirmed cases and deaths showed a downward trend in September, but the epidemic situation in Europe, Russia, France and other countries increased, and the newly confirmed cases showed an upward trend, which should be paid special attention to, timely communicate and adjusted measures.
Everything for the People's Health——We This Decade
我国人朊病毒病病例特征分析及朊病毒病发病机制的研究进展
Shi Qi, Xiao Kang, Chen Cao, Han Jun, Zhou Wei, Chen Dongdong, Gao Liping, Gao Chen, Dong Xiaoping
2022, 37(10): 1277-1284. DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202209130398
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Measles Surveillance Subject
Performance of measles and rubella laboratory network in Beijing, 2014−2021
Wang Bin, Chen Meng, Yu Xiali, Zhao Dan, Pan Jingbin, Huang Fang, Wu Jiang
2022, 37(10): 1286-1289. DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202206290303
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  Objective  To evaluate the performance of measles and rubella laboratory network in Beijing from 2014 to 2021.   Methods  The data about the performance of measles and rubella laboratory network in Beijing from 2014 to 2021, including case diagnosis, etiological analysis, virus genotype, assessment results, were collected for a statistical analysis.   Results  The network consisted of 21 laboratories, including 1 in municipal CDC, 16 in district CDCs and 4 in medical institutions. The laboratories at all levels were classified according to their responsibilities and testing time limits. From 2014 to 2021, a total of 12 229 serum samples of measles and rubella cases were detected by the laboratory network, the measles-positive rate was 19.32% and the rubella-positive rate was 7.10%. From 2014 to 2021, a total of 8 100 nucleic acid samples were detected by the laboratory network, the measles-positive rate was 23.72% and the rubella-positive rate was 8.63%. The genotypes of 1705 measles virus strains were sequenced, and the results showed that 1687 strains belonged to genotype H1a, 11 strains belonged to genotype D8, 2 strains belonged to genotype B3, and 5 were vaccine strains. A total of 37 rubella virus strains were genotyped, and the results showed that there were 13 strains of genotype 1E and 24 strains of genotype 2B. Quality control and technical training were carried out every year for the laboratory network, and the assessment results of all laboratories were good.   Conclusion  The performance of measles and rubella laboratory network in Beijing was well, and the sensitivity of diagnosis and surveillance capability of laboratories have been improved continuously by updating of detection techniques. The accuracy and efficiency of laboratory data are ensured by strict quality control, providing strong technical support for measles elimination and rubella prevention and control in Beijing.
Serological analysis on antibody levels to measles, rubella and mumps in healthy people in different age groups in Liaoning, 2020
Wang Wensi, An Xiaohui, Zhu Lijun, Zhao Ling, Han Lixin, Fang Xing, Wang Yan
2022, 37(10): 1290-1293. DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202203210110
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  Objective   To investigate the IgG antibody levels to measles, rubella and mumps in healthy people in different age groups ten years after the implementation of the Expanded Immunization Program in Liaoning province, and provide Evidence for the timely detection of immune vulnerable groups and targeted immunization measures.   Methods  A total of 498 healthy people’s blood samples were collected from monitoring sites in 6 counties of 3 cities in Liaoning by random sampling method. Serum IgG antibodies were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for measles, rubella and mumps, and the positive rate and geometric mean concentration (GMC) of antibodies were analyzed.   Results  The positive rate of measles antibody was 94.78%, and the GMC was 851.10 mIU/mL; the positive rate of rubella antibody was 87.15%, and the GMC was 40.90 IU/mL; the positive rate of mumps antibody was 90.16%, and the GMC was 330.93 U/mL. The differences in positive rates and GMC levels of measles, rubella and mumps were significant among different areas (P<0.01). The differences in GMC level of measles, the positive rate of rubella and mumps IgG antibody and GMC level were significant among different age groups (P<0.01), but there was no significant difference in the positive rate of measles IgG antibody (P>0.05), and there were no gender specific statistical differences in the positive rate of measles, rubella and mumps IgG antibody and GMC levels (P>0.05).   Conclusion  The levels of IgG antibody to measles and mumps were high in Liaoning, but the level of IgG antibody to rubella was low. Antibody levels in children and adolescents decreased over time after vaccination, and so the targeted immunization strategies should be strengthened in adolescents.
IgG antibody level to measles in healthy population in Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 2016−2020
Liu Yan, Wang Fuliang, Xu Yuyang, Zhang Xiaofeng, Zhu Feifei, Chen Jun, Zhao Jun, Yu Xinfen, Zhang Xuechao, Zhang Xiaoping, Wang Xiaozhen
2022, 37(10): 1294-1298. DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202204070133
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  Objective  To evaluate the IgG antibody level to measles in healthy population in Hangzhou, Zhejiang province, during 2016−2020.   Methods  Stratified random sampling was conducted to select 11 age groups in healthy population in Hangzhou. Enzyme linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect serum measles IgG antibody, and the positive rate of antibody and geometric mean concentration (GMC) were analyzed.   Results  The positive rate of measles IgG antibody was 89.48% (1488/1663) and measles IgG GMC was 851.94 mIU/mL in healthy population in Hangzhou. The positive rate of measles IgG antibody in all age groups ranged from 58.28% (<1 year old group) to 98.01% (3− year old group) (χ2=198.70, P<0.01), the GMC was between 573.44 mIU/mL (<1 year old group) and 1682.98 mIU/mL (1- year old group) (F=23.12, P<0.01). The positivity rates and the GMCs in subjects who received 0, 1, ≥2 and unknown doses of measles containing vaccine (MCV) were 55.26%, 89.19%, 93.32%, 91.00% (χ2=155.21, P<0.001) and 418.20 mIU/mL, 1536.88 mIU/mL, 966.59 mIU/mL, 735.17 mIU/mL (F=21.68, P<0.001), respectively. The positive rate of measles IgG antibody and the GMC decreased from 91.59%, 1644.70 mIU/mL (<1 year after immunization) to 87.65%, 649.03 mIU/mL (≥10 years after immunization) in people with history of MCV.   Conclusion  The overall measles IgG antibody level in healthy population in Hangzhou was high, the population immunization level was associated with area, age and immunization history and decreased over time after MCV immunization. It is necessary to make some discussion about the measles immunization strategy in adults.
Analysis on measles antibody level in healthy population in Jiangsu, 2018−2020
Hu Ying, Lu Peishan, Deng Xiuying, Guo Hongxiong
2022, 37(10): 1299-1303. DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202205260241
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  Objective  To understand the measles immunization status of healthy population in different age groups in Jiangsu province, monitor the antibody level to measles, analyze the incidence of measles, and provide evidence for the elimination of measles.   Methods  From 2018 to 2020, the healthy population in seven cities of Jiangsu was selected and divided into six groups, 0−7 month, 8 months−4 years, 5−14 years, 15−24 years, 25−39 years, 40−60 years. Measles IgG was detected by ELISA. The antibody positive rate, high concentration antibody rate and geometric mean concentration (GMC) of measles IgG were calculated.   Results  A total of 3 132 samples were detected. The overall measles positive rate was 79.25%, the overall GMC was 491.02 mIU/mL and 1 267 samples (40.45%) had high concentration of antibody. The positive rate of IgG and GMC were 90.34% and 741.31 mIU/mL in the population with 1−4 doses of measles containing vaccine immunization. There were statistical significant differences in antibody positive rate and GMC among age groups (χ2=687.192, P<0.001; F=174.734, P<0.001). There were statistical significant difference in measles antibody and GMC among different areas (χ2=72.545, P<0.001; F=19.946, P<0.001).   Conclusion  The positive rate of measles in healthy population in Jiangsu is high, and the risk for large-scale measles epidemic is low. But the positive rates in some age groups in some areas are low. So the measles immunization should be strengthened. There is no need to adjust existing immune strategies.
Carboxyl terminal gene of measles virus N gene in Anhui, 2017−2021
Zhou Shujie, Cheng Xiaodong, Chai Yu, Zhang Ning, Chen Xia, Su Ying, Wang Huiling
2022, 37(10): 1304-1309. DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202205230233
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  Objective  To understand the characteristics of the carboxyl terminal gene of measles virus N gene in Anhui Province from 2017 to 2021.   Methods  RT-PCR was used to amplify the 450bp fragment of nucleotide in N gene of measles virus. The nucleotide sequence and gene characteristics of the amplified products were analyzed.   Results  From 2017 to 2021, 47 measles virus strains of H1 genotype, 2 measles virus strains of D8 genotype, 1 measles virus strain of B3 genotype and 15 measles virus strains of A genotype were detected in Anhui.   Conclusion  From 2017 to 2018, H1 genotype was predominant in measles virus strains in Anhui. After 2018, no H1 genotype strain was detected. Imported measles cases caused no epidemics. It is necessary to further strengthen the identification of measles pathogens in Anhui for the timely detection of imported measles cases and stop virus transmission.
Infectious Disease Surveillance
Epidemiological and genetic characteristics of influenza B virus Victoria lineage in Hubei, 2016−2021
Yu Tiantian, Yu Xiao, Han Shi, Liu Linlin, Chen Dan
2022, 37(10): 1310-1317. DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202205070174
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  Objective   To analyze the epidemiological and genetic characteristics of influenza B virus in Hubei province from 2016 to 2021.  Methods  Based on the reported incidence data of influenza-like illness (ILI) and the etiological surveillance results in Hubei during 2016−2021, 69 strains of influenza B virus were selected to perform whole genome sequencing and bioinformatics software was used to analyze the evolutionary variation characteristics.   Results  During 2016−2021, a small proportion of influenza B virus Victoria lineage strains in Hubei belonged to the Victoria 1A branch, most strains belonged to the Victoria 1A. 3 branch, which is characterized by deletion of amino acid sites 162–164. Compared with the reference strain, the circulating strain showed multiple amino acid site changes in the key antigenic determinant clusters of the HA protein at the 120 loop, 150 loop, 160 loop and 190 helix, but no neuraminidase inhibitor resistance site variants were found on the NA protein. Only 1 reassortment strain was found in this study.  Conclusion  Influenza B is mostly seasonal in Hubei province during 2016 to 2021, there were multiple antigenic site mutations in epidemic strains of the Victoria B lineage, however, no mutations in the drug resistance sites were found and need to strengthen influenza surveillance.
Spatiotemporal pattern of pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Guiyang based on spatial statistics
Yang Shengxiong, Li Jun, Wang Junhua, Feng Jun, Yang Jun, Huang Yan, Zhang Binbing, Mao Yongjia, Liang Zuhua, Pan Chunliu
2022, 37(10): 1318-1323. DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202205070200
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  Objective  To analyzes the spatiotemporal distribution model of registered pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) cases at the township/street level in Guiyang, Guizhou province, from 2010 to 2020, and provide evidence for the improvement of local pulmonary TB prevention and control measures.   Methods  Using the method of spatial statistics, the three-dimensional spatial trend surface analysis, global autocorrelation analysis, clustering and abnormal value, the analysis on the prevalence of pulmonary TB in Guiyang were carried out by software ArcGIS 10.8, and the spatiotemporal distribution of pulmonary TB cases were analyzed by software SaTScan v10.0.2.   Results  From 2010 to 2020, the annual registration rate of pulmonary TB was low in the south and high in the north, and showed an “U” from east to west in Guiyang. The annual global Moran's I coefficient was between 0.26 and 0.75 (P<0.001), showing spatial clustering. The areas with “high-high” and abnormal “low-high” clustering were mainly distributed in Kaiyang, Xifeng, Xiuwen and Qingzhen, and the areas with abnormal “high-low” and “low-low” clustering were mainly distributed in urban area. The results of spatiotemporal scanning analysis showed that eight spatiotemporal clustering areas were found (P<0.05).   Conclusion  There were significant spatiotemporal distribution characteristics of pulmonary TB cases at the township/street level in Guiyang. The hot spots of pulmonary TB gradually changed from Kaiyang, Xifeng, Xiuwen and Qingzhen to urban area during 2010−2020. Targeted measures should be taken to strengthen supervision and management of pulmonary TB cases in different areas for the effective control of pulmonary TB.
Spectrum of notifiable infectious diseases and its change pattern in Qinghai, 1961−2020
Cao Hailan, You Xiaohui, Zhao Jinhua, Zhang Huayi, Ma Binzhong, Chen Lu, Ding Xiaojin, Hu Yufen
2022, 37(10): 1324-1328. DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202203100089
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  Objective   To analyze the incidence of notifiable infectious diseases in Qinghai province from 1961 to 2020, understand the spectrum of the infectious diseases and its change pattern, and provide evidence for the development of infectious disease prevention and control strategies.   Methods  The incidence data of notifiable infectious diseases in Qinghai from 1961 to 2020 were collected through the Qinghai Province Epidemic Information Compilation and the Infectious Disease Information Report Management System for a descriptive epidemiological analysis.   Results  From 1961 to 2020, a total of 3 951 350 cases of 35 types of notifiable infectious diseases were reported in Qinghai with an average annual incidence rate of 1530.66/100 000. The incidence of the infectious diseases was highest during 1971−1980 (5011.44/100 000) and lowest during 1991−2000 (357.64/100 000). Compared with 1961−1970, the incidences of respiratory infectious diseases, intestinal infectious diseases, insect-borne diseases/natural foci-borne diseases decreased significantly by 93.33%, 95.92% and 89.93% respectively, during 2011−2020. And the incidence of blood borne and sexually transmitted diseases increased significantly during 2011−2020 compared with 1981−1990. The disease spectrum has changed from acute infectious diseases (mainly influenza and measles) to chronic infectious diseases (hepatitis B, tuberculosis) and emerging infectious diseases (influenza A pdm09 and COVID-19).   Conclusion  The overall incidence of notifiable infectious diseases in Qinghai Province showed a downward trend in the past 60 years. The spectrum of the infectious diseases gradually shifted from acute infectious diseases (influenza, measles) to chronic infectious diseases (hepatitis B, tuberculosis) and emerging infectious diseases. It is necessary to take targeted measures for the prevention and control of the infectious diseases in different period. At present, the main focus of the disease prevention and control should be on blood-borne and sexually transmitted diseases, and tuberculosis. At the same time, it is necessary to strengthen the prevention and control of emerging and imported infectious diseases. The surveillance for insect-borne infectious disease needs to be continued.
Epidemiological characteristics of hepatitis B in Nanyang, Henan, 2005−2020
Tang Cong, Zhang Xiaoli, Guo Yonghao, Yan Guoli, Zhao Yuling, Tang Chenxi, Wang Mengru, Liu Xixi, Chen Huanhuan
2022, 37(10): 1329-1333. DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202204120140
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  Objective  To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of viral hepatitis B in Nanyang, Henan province, from 2005 to 2020, and provide evidence for the improvement of hepatitis B prevention and control strategies.  Methods  The epidemiological data of hepatitis B in Nanyang from 2005 to 2020 were collected for a descriptive epidemiological analysis. The epidemiological index of hepatitis B in different areas and populations in Nanyang during this period were calculated. A random sampling survey was conducted in local residents aged 0−79 years. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect HBsAb. Statistical analysis was conducted by using χ2 test and linear regression analysis.   Results  A total of 153 361 cases of hepatitis B were reported in Nanyang from 2005 to 2020, with an annual average reported incidence rate of 100.46 per 100 000, showing an overall downward trend. The proportion of unclassified hepatitis B cases gradually decreased, while the proportion of chronic hepatitis B cases gradually increased. The incidence was high in age group 15−45 years, and the male to female ratio of the cases was 1.23∶1. Farmers were the most affected group with cases accounting for 77.19% of the total.   Conclusion  The prevalence of hepatitis B in adolescents and middle-aged adults cannot be neglected. Based on the hepatitis B immunization strategy for children, it is necessary to focus on the prevention and control of chronic hepatitis B in adults to accelerate the elimination of viral hepatitis.
Epidemiologic and etiological characteristics of influenza in Baoshan district of Shanghai, 2018−2020
Tang Xiaode, Zhang Yuejuan, Qi Jin, Dou Wenxia
2022, 37(10): 1334-1337. DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202112280659
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  Objective  To describe the epidemiological characteristics of influenza in Baoshan district of Shanghai from 2018 to 2020, and provide a strong scientific basis for the local prevention and control of influenza.   Methods  The incidence data and the etiological surveillance data of influenza-like illness (ILI) in Baoshan from 2018 to 2020 were systematically analyzed.   Results  In 2018 and 2019, the incidence of ILI was higher in winter and spring, and was stable in summer and autumn in Baoshan. Compared with 2018 and 2019, The proportion of ILI in 2020 increased significantly (χ2=1340, P<0.01), and reached the peak on January 23, 2020. The ILI proportion increased significantly in spring, summer and autumn. The highest ILI proportion was found in young and middle-aged people aged 25−59 years, followed by children aged 0−15 years. A total of 3141 samples of ILI cases were detected from 2018 to 2020, and 497 were positive for influenza virus with the positive rate of 15.82%. The positive rate was highest in 2019 (29.51%) and lowest in 2020 (5.00%) (χ2=241.18, P<0.01). Influenza A (H1N1) virus was predominant in 2018 (7.92%), influenza A (H3N2) virus was predominant in 2019 (11.77%), and influenza B virus was predominant in 2020 (3.39%).   Conclusion  The influenza activity in Baoshan was stable during 2018−2019, and the ILI proportion increased significantly in the early stage of COVID-19 outbreak in 2020, but the positive rate in the detection of ILI cases’ samples in the whole year of 2020 was very low.
Epidemiologic characteristics and prediction of incidence trend of all types of influenza based on ARIMA model
Dai Haoyun, Zhou Nan, Ren Xiang, Luo Piaoyi, Yi Shanghui, Quan Meifang, Zha Wenting, Lyu Yuan
2022, 37(10): 1338-1345. DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202204290185
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Abstract:
  Objective  To analyze the epidemiologic characteristics and distribution of influenza in China from 2010 to 2019, and predict the incidence trends of all types of influenza.   Methods  Seasonal ARIMA model was used for original series pre-process, model identification, parameters estimation and statistical modeling to predict the incidence trend of influenza.   Results  The influenza time series model constructed was ARIMA (1,2,1) (0,1,1)12, and the data information was fully extracted (Q=14.257, P>0.05), the relative error was about 10%. Influenza A prediction model was ARIMA (2,1,1) (0,2,2)12, the data information was fully extracted (Q=13.236, P>0.05). The predicted incidence of influenza A was high from December 2018 to March 2019, and the incidence decreased rapidly from April, similar to the actual situation. Relative error was controlled within 10%; The influenza B prediction model was ARIMA (1,2,1) (1,0,1)12, and the data information was fully extracted (Q=9.841, P>0.05), but the incidence of influenza B in 2019 predicted by the model was low and the relative error was high.   Conclusion  Influenza and influenza A seasonal ARIMA models had better prediction effects. The data information of influenza B prediction model was fully extracted, but the relative error was high, which might be related to the absence of obvious long-term trend of influenza B incidence.
Spatiotemporal distribution of brucellosis in Guangzhou, 2015−2021
Zhang Hao, Xu Jianmin, Xu Conghui, Chen Haiyan, Ren Wenfeng, Fan Lirui, Wei Yuehong, Chen Shouyi, Chen Kuncai, Guo Dechao
2022, 37(10): 1346-1348. DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202203290126
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Abstract:
  Objective  To analyze the spatiotemporal distribution of brucellosis in Guangzhou from 2015 to 2021 and provide evidence for the prevention and control of brucellosis.   Methods  The incidence data of brucellosis in Guangzhou from 2015 to 2021 were collected for the analysis on the prevalence of brucellosis by gender, occupation and age groups, calculation of the brucellosis incidence and description of the time and population distribution of the disease. The spatial distribution characteristics were showed in the form of a map of the incidence by ArcGIS 10.3.   Results  A total of 364 brucellosis cases were reported in Guangzhou during 2015−2021. The annual incidence rate of brucellosis was 3.71 per 1 million during this period, and 62.09% of the annual cases were reported between March and July. The cases were mainly livestock workers with occupational exposures, accounting for 43.41% of the total cases,followed by home workers/the unemployed (22.80%). The overall spatial analysis showed that the incidence rate in urban-rural continuum area was higher than that in other areas.   Conclusion  Employees engaged in livestock trading, slaughtering and sales are at high risk for brucellosis, so the surveillance should be carried out continuously and management of livestock trading market should be strengthened. In non-occupational population, infection risk still exists, so it is necessary to conduct health education to improve the awareness of brucellosis prevention and control.
Technology and Method
Application of error-trend-seasonality model based on state-space in predicting tuberculosis incidence in Henan
Hu Bin, Lu Hao, Liu Xingyan, Li Jizhen, Wang Yongbin, Xing Yingying
2022, 37(10): 1349-1355. DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202205120213
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Abstract:
  Objective  To evaluate the application of error-trend-seasonality model based on state-space (ETSBSS) in forecasting tuberculosis (TB) incidence in Henan province.   Methods  Time series decomposition method was used to analyze the trend and seasonal components of the TB incidence in Henan from 2006 to 2019. The data were divided into training set (2006−2018) and testing sets (2019), and then ETSBSS model was used for fitting and prediction, and the model’s fitting and prediction performances were compared with those of the seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model.   Results  The ETSBSS (A, MD, M) and SARIMA (1, 0, 0) (0, 1, 0)12 specifications were selected as the best models to predict the TB incidence in Henan. The mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) values from the ETSBSS model were 5.65% on the training set and 4.61% on the testing set, which were lower than those from the SARIMA model (5.71% on the training set and 6.67% on the testing set). The values of mean absolute error, root mean square error, mean error rate, and root mean square percentage error also indicated that the fitting and prediction error rates of the ETSBSS model was lower than those of the SARIMA model, especially in the prediction set.   Conclusion  ETSBSS (A, MD, M) model shows a high prediction performance for the TB incidence in Henan, and it can be used as an effective decision-making tool to predict and analyze the dynamical epidemic patterns of TB in Henan.
External Quality Assessment of Laboratory Nucleic Acid Testing
External quality assessment of nucleic acid testing in provincial or municipal CDC laboratories in the COVID-19 surveillance network in China
Lu Roujian, Huang Baoying, Zhao Li, Ye Fei, Deng Yao, Ren Jiao, Wang Wen, A Ruhan, Chen Yuda, Luo Meihui, Wang Wenling, Tan Wenjie
2022, 37(10): 1356-1362. DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202205070202
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Abstract:
  Objective  To understand the RNA detection performance of SARS-CoV-2 Variants of Concern (VOCs) in 32 provincial or municipal CDC laboratories in COVID-19 surveillance network in China through an external quality assessment (EQA), and evaluate the clinical performance of the current SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acids detection kits used and provided by the participating laboratories.   Methods  The viral RNA extractions of SARS-CoV-2 Wuhan strain, four VOCs (Alpha, Beta, Gamma, and Delta), human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43), and influenza A virus (H3N2) was conducted. The viral RNA was used to prepare EQA panel samples with high (~35) and low (~30) Ct values. The EQA panel included 10 RNA samples (two Ct sets) from three SARS-CoV-2 strains (Wuhan strain, Beta variant, and Delta variant or Wuhan strain, Alpha variant, and Gamma variant), HCoV-OC43 strain, and influenza virus strain. Each participating laboratory was given a random panel of samples for assessment. According to the feedback results, the detection coincidence rate was calculated, and the results were analyzed comprehensively. Furthermore, SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid detection kits used by the participating laboratories were collected to verify the detection limit and specificity.   Results  In the EQA, all the participating laboratories met the assessment standard and there were 72% (23/32) laboratories with excellent performance. The overall coincidence rate was 99.7% (319/320) in SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection and 89% (57/64) in HCoV-OC43 RNA detection in the EQA. Among the rRT-PCR-based SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid detection kits provided by 32 participating laboratories, 66% (33/50) of the kits met limit of detection, and 92% (11/12) of the kits met the specificity standard.   Conclusion   All the participating laboratories were capable of detecting SARS-CoV-2 RNA, including prototype Wuhan strain and VOCs of Alpha, Beta, Gamma, and Delta. Some SARS-CoV-2 detection kits provided by participating laboratories didn’t meet the limit of detection, and the specificity needs improvement.
Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury Surveillance
Function improvement of inpatients with traumatic spinal cord injury in 69 grade Ⅲ hospitals
Zhang Jiaojiao, Qi Xiao, Yao Hongyan
2022, 37(10): 1363-1366. DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202205070204
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Abstract:
  Objective   To analyze the effect of age on the recovery of neurological function of TSCI inpatients with traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI) at different severity, and provide evidence for the development of targeted treatment plans.   Methods   Based on the data of the epidemiological survey of TSCI conducted in 4404 TSCI inpatients in 69 grade Ⅲ hospitals in China, independent sample t-test, χ2 test and Wilcoxon rank sum test were used to analyze the differences in the characteristics of TSCI inpatients in different age groups. Logistic regression model was used to analyze the interaction between age and injury grade based on the criteria of American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) at hospital admission before and after adjusting for confounding factors.   Results   Among 4404 TSCI inpatients, those aged ≥65 years accounted for 20.3%. There was no significant differences in ASIA injury grade at hospital admission and gender between age group >65 years and age group <65 years (P>0.05), but there were significant differences in hospital stay, injury severity, injury etiology and interval between injury and surgical operation (P<0.05). In the hospitalized treatment, TSCI inpatients with different ASIA injury grades at hospital admission showed different treatment outcomes in different age groups. For the inpatients with ASIA grade C injury, there was significant difference in the function improvement between age group <65 years (49.5%) and age group >65 years (37.7%, P<0.05). There was no significant difference in the interaction between age and ASIA injury grade at hospital admission before and after adjustment of confounding factors (P>0.05), but the P value of ASIA B, C and age interaction was <0.1.   Conclusion   In the early stage of TSCI, age as a potential effect moderator governing the relationship between spectrum of injury severity and TSCI therapeutic effect. It is suggested that the age of patients should be comprehensively considered and a targeted treatment plan should be formulated in the treatment process.
Chronic Noncommunicable Disease Surveillance
Thyroid cancer incidence trend in Xihu district, Hangzhou, 2010−2020
Su Xing, Zheng Lin, Zhang Huami, Liu Yingna, Hu Xiaowei
2022, 37(10): 1367-1370. DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202111230601
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Abstract:
  Objective  To describe the incidence of thyroid cancer in Xihu district, Hangzhou, Zhejiang province, from 2010 to 2020, analyze the trend of thyroid cancer incidence and provide evidence for the prevention and control of thyroid cancer.   Methods  The tumor incidence data were obtained from the malignant tumor registration reporting system. After data cleaning, the incidence data of thyroid cancer with code C73 in ICD-10 and the corresponding population data were extracted. The crude incidence rate, age-specific incidence rate, Chinese standardized incidence rate and annual percent change (APC) of thyroid cancer were calculated respectively.   Results  From 2010 to 2020, a total of 4 445 cases of thyroid cancer were reported in Xihu district (standardized incidence rate: 45.05/100 000), and the results of the Joinpoint regression test showed that the incidence rate of thyroid cancer showed a rapid increase between 2010 and 2020, with the average APC of 16.7% (95% CI: 10.3–23.5). The increase included two stages, with the APC of 104.1% (95% CI: 47.7−182.2) between 2010 and 2012 and 1.5% (95% CI: −2.0−5.2) between 2013 and 2020.   Conclusion  The incidence of thyroid cancer increased rapidly and the cases tended to be younger in Xihu district of Hangzhou, to which close attention nedds to be paid.
Death Cause Surveillance
Analysis on time trends of breast cancer death and life lost in women in Huzhou, 2012−2021
Ding Jingying, Yu Meihua, Huang Zheng
2022, 37(10): 1371-1375. DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202204240172
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Abstract:
  Objective  To analyze the distribution characteristics and life lost time trend of breast cancer in women in Huzhou, Zhejiang province, from 2012 to 2021, and provide evidence for the prevention and treatment of breast cancer in women.   Methods  The data of breast cancer death surveillance in women in Huzhou from 2012 to 2021 were collected from the surveillance information management system of Zhejiang province, the crude mortality rate, standardized mortality rate, potential life lost year (PYLL) and potential work loss year (WPYLL) of breast cancer were calculated. The annual percentage (APC) was used to analyze the time trend of breast cancer death in women.   Results  The crude death rate of breast cancer in women in Huzhou increased from 5.43/100 000 in 2012 to 7.10/100 000 in 2021, and APC was 3.98%, showing an upward trend (P<0.05); the standardized mortality increased from 3.98/100 000 to 5.19/100 000, and the APC was 1.82%. The earliest death occurred at age of 18 years, and the mortality increased gradually from age of 30 years, and the sub-peak (13.08/100000) occurred in age group 55−59 years, and the peak (23.38/100000) occurred in age group 80−84 years. The mortality in age group of 70−74 years showed an upward trend with time (APC=7.57%, P=0.016). The PYLL caused by breast cancer death was 9985 years, and the PYLL rate increased from 0.66‰ in 2012 to 0.77‰ in 2021. The WPYLL was 6267 person years, and the WPYLL rate increased from 0.43‰ to 0.44‰ with no obvious change trend. The rates of PYLL and WPYLL of female breast cancer increased first and then decreased with age, reaching peaks of 1.90‰ and 1.30‰, respectively, at age of 50−54 years,.   Conclusion  During 2012−2021 the crude mortality rate of breast cancer in women in Huzhou was in increase. The earliest death of breast cancer occurred at age of 18 years. The high-risk group was women aged 50–54 years. There was no significant differences in the PYLL and WPYLL caused by female breast cancer. It is necessary to strengthen the health education about breast cancer and promote healthy lifestyle in young women, improve the early detection, early treatment and early blocking of breast cancer in middle-aged women to reduce precancerous lesions and the incidence and mortality of breast cancer.
Burden of Disease Surveillance
Disease burden and related risk factors of pancreatic cancer in Jiangsu, 1990−2019
Mi Yueping, Hu Di, Cai Bo, Xu Hong, Yu Hao
2022, 37(10): 1376-1382. DOI: 10.3784/jbjc.202202220054
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  Objective  To analyze the prevalence and the trend of disease burden of pancreatic cancer and related risk factors in Jiangsu province during 1990−2019 and provide evidence for the prevention and treatment of pancreatic cancer.   Methods  The data of 2019 Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD2019) were used to calculate the incidence rate, prevalence rate, mortality rate and disability adjusted life years (DALYs) rate of pancreatic cancer. Software Joinpoint was used to calculate the annual percent change (APC) and average annual percent change (AAPC) of the incidence rate, prevalence rate, mortality rate and DALYs rate. The effects of smoking, high fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and high body-mass index (BMI) on the burden of pancreatic cancer were also analyzed.   Results  The standardized incidence rate, prevalence rate, mortality rate and DALYs rate of pancreatic cancer increased in Jiangsu from 1990 to 2019 (AAPC=2.0%, 2.2%, 1.9%, 1.7%). The standardized DALYs rate increased by 66.09% from 118.24/100 000 in 1990 to 196.39/100 000 in 2019, the growth rate was higher in men than in women. Compared with 1990, the standardized mortality rate and standardized DALYs rate due to smoking, high FPG and high BMI increased in 2019. The disease burden in people over 65 years old increased significantly, and the disease burden was higher in men than in women.   Conclusion  In recent 30 years, the disease burden of pancreatic cancer was still heavy in Jiangsu. It is necessary to improve the prevention and control of pancreatic cancer in elderly men, especially in those with smoking history, abnormal blood sugar value and high BMI, and strengthen smoking control and promote healthy diet to reduce the death and disease burden of pancreatic cancer.

CN 11-2928/R

ISSN 1003-9961

Established in:1986 , Monthly

Responsible Institution:National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China

Sponsor: Editorial Board of Disease Surveillance,National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention,Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention

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