目的 监测重症监护病房（ICU）金黄色葡萄球菌（SA）的流行情况及对常用抗菌药物的耐药性，指导预防控制和临床治疗。 方法 对某医院ICU 2005-2007年中所分离的SA的流行病学及耐药性进行回顾性分析。结果 3年来共分离SA 378株，分别占ICU所有检出菌株的7.5%（83/1113），8.9%（122/1366），16.9%（173/1023）。体外药敏试验显示SA对万古霉素和替考拉宁的敏感率均是100.0%， 对呋喃妥因的耐药率较低为4.8%～9.1%， 对复方新诺明的耐药率为33.9%～30.3%，对氨苄西林/舒巴坦、苯唑西林、头孢唑啉、环丙沙星、左氧氟沙星、庆大霉素、克林霉素、红霉素、四环素、利福平的耐药率均大于50.0%，其中对青霉素的耐药率为97.6%～100.0%。结论 ICU内分离SA菌株数逐年增加，但耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌（MRSA）所占比例无明显增加。未发现耐万古霉素及替考拉宁的MRSA，呋喃妥因及复方新诺明耐药率稍低，其他药物耐药率高。重视病原学检查及药敏检测，有助于SA预防控制及临床合理使用抗菌药物。
Objective The study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and the resistance to commonly used antibiotics in the intensive care unit (ICU), provide the evidence for the prevention, control and clinical treatment. Methods Retrospective analysis was performed to evaluate the epidemiological characteristics and drug resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolated in the ICU of a hospital from 2005 to 2007. Results A total of 378 strains of Staphylococcus aureus were isolated in the three years, accounting for 7.5% (83/1113), 8.9% (122/1366) and 16.9% (173/1023) of all strains isolated in ICU. In vitro susceptibility tests, the sensitive rate of Staphylococcus aureus to vancomycin and teicoplanin were 100.0%, the resistant rate to nitrofurantoin was 4.8%-9.1%, and the resistant rate to cotrimoxazole from 33.9% to 30.3%. The resistant rates to ampicillin / sulbactam, oxacillin, cefazolin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, gentamicin, clindamycin, erythromycin, tetracycline and rifampin were higher than 50.0%, the resistance to penicillin was up to 97.6%-100.0%. Conclusion The strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated in ICU increased year by year, but no significant increase in the proportion of MRSA was observed; no MRSA was found to be resistant to vancomycin and teicoplanin. The resistant rates of Staphylococcus aureus to nitrofurantoin and cotrimoxazole were slightly lower, but the resistant rates to other antibiotics were higher. Therefore, attention shall be paid to etiological examination and drug susceptibility test for the effective prevention and control of the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and the rational use of antibiotics.