Epidemic and control of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) in Tianjin municipality, 2009
摘要: 目的 分析和评价天津市2009年甲型H1N1流感暴发流行特征及控制措施效果。 方法 选取天津市2009年甲型H1N1流感社区广泛传播阶段的暴发,评价现场处置时间及停课等措施对控制疫情的影响。 结果 共报告流感样病例1498例,平均罹患率为2.12%。首发病例发病至报告疫情时间中位数为5 d,疫情流行时间中位数为12.5 d。首次现场处置时罹患率中位数为1.17%,处置后暴发持续时间中位数为6 d。首次现场处理时学校罹患率与总罹患率呈正相关(r=0.77,P=0.000)。在学校罹患率1%时处置疫情,总罹患率低于当罹患率1%报告时的总罹患率(P=0.000)。罹患率1%时停课总罹患率与罹患率1%停课的总罹患率差异无统计学意义。 结论 学校早期及时报告暴发疫情是有效控制甲型H1N1流感暴发的关键;在甲型H1N1流感社区广泛传播阶段,流感暴发时需做好隔离病例,开窗通风等综合的防控措施。Abstract: Objective To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) epidemic and evaluate the control measures in Tianjin in 2009. Methods The control effects of field response time and school closure were evaluated for 18 influenza A (H1N1) outbreaks in the communities in Tianjin. Results A total of 1498 influenza like illness cases were reported, the average attack rate was 2.12%. The median of the intervals between the onset of the first case and reporting was 5 days. The median of the outbreak durations was 12.5 days. The median of the attack rates at the first field response was 1.17%. The median of the outbreak durations after response was 6 days. The attack rate at the first response were positively correlated with the overall attack rate (r=0.77, P=0.000). If the response was taken when the attack rate in schools was 0.1%, the overall attack rate was lower than that when the attack rate in schools was 0.1% (P=0.000). The difference on the overall attack rate had no statistical significance when the school closure was taken if the attack rate was 0.1% or 0.1%. Conclusion Early reporting of the outbreak in school is the key to control pandemic influenza A (H1N1). When pandemic influenza A (H1N1) widely affects communities, it is necessary to take comprehensive control measures, such as case isolation and room ventilation.
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