目的 了解北京市昌平区学龄前儿童乙型病毒性肝炎(乙肝)病毒(HBV)感染现状,评价疫苗接种效果和免疫状况,为制定预防控制措施提供依据。 方法 调查对象按分层随机抽样的原则,随机选取辖区15个镇(或社区)2128名常住人口的学龄前儿童为调查对象,采集每名对象静脉血,应用酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA)方法检测乙肝病毒表面抗原(HBsAg)、乙肝病毒表面抗体(抗-HBs)和乙肝病毒核心抗体(抗-HBc)。对母亲有无HBV感染史的儿童感染率进行统计学分析。 结果 昌平区学龄前儿童HBsAg、抗-HBs、抗-HBc和HBV年龄标化率分别为0.05%、63.27%、1.08%和1.08%。城区和农村1~6岁儿童抗-HBs阳性率分别为64.84%(924/1425)和62.85%(442/703);城区和农村1~6岁儿童HBV感染率分别为0.77%(11/1425)和1.56%(11/703)。男性和女性儿童抗-HBs阳性率分别为64.68%(718/1110)和63.65%(648/1018);男性和女性儿童HBV感染率分别为0.81%(9/1110)和1.28%(13/1018)。 结论 昌平区儿童 HBsAg 阳性率和 HBV 感染率继续保持低水平,说明乙肝疫苗纳入免疫规划管理以来防控效果显著。
Objective To understand the infection status of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in pre-school aged children in Changping, Beijing, evaluate the vaccination effect and herd immunity, and provide evidence for the development of prevention and control strategies. Methods Totally 2128 children aged 0-6 years were selected in local population in Changping by multistage random cluster sampling, and blood samples were taken from them to detect HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc with ELISA. Comparison was made on the infection rates between the children whose mothers had been infected with HBV or not. Results The positive rates of HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc were 0.05%, 63.27% and 1.08% respectively and the total HBV infection rate was 1.08%. The positive rate of anti-HBs was 64.84% (924/1425) in urban area and 62.85% (442/703) in rural area, the HBV infection rate was 0.77% (11/1425) in urban area and 1.56% (11/703) in rural area. The positive rate of anti-HBs was 64.68% (718/1110) in boys and 63.65% (648/1018) in girls, the HBV infection rate was 0.81% (9/1110) in boys and 1.28% (13/1018) in girls. Conclusion Both the HBsAg positive rate and HBV infection rate in children remained to be low in Changping, indicating the effectiveness of hepatitis B vaccination since its inclusion in immunization programme.