目的 分析浙江省温州市2006-2011年人间狂犬病疫情流行病学特征,探讨狂犬病防制的重点策略和措施。方法 收集2006-2011年温州市狂犬病疫情资料和流行病学个案调查资料,进行流行病学分析。结果 温州市2006-2011年累计报告狂犬病37例,年均发病率为0.07/10万,病死率为100%。发病集中在秋冬季,年龄最小5岁,最大77岁;男性发病多于女性,男女病例比为2.36:1;病例以农民为主(48.65%),其次为民工(18.92%)。伤口暴露以Ⅲ级(85.71%)暴露为主,手部咬伤最多,占31.43%,其次为头面部和脚部(各占20%),头面部咬伤平均潜伏期最短,为18 d。37例狂犬病病例的个案调查资料显示,在暴露后接受正规伤口处置、接种狂犬病疫苗和注射免疫球蛋白的分别占8.57%、20.00%和2.86%。结论 应加强相关部门间密切配合,加强犬只管理和提高犬只免疫覆盖率,加大狂犬病健康教育宣传力度,设置规范化犬伤门诊,提高治疗水平,提高狂犬病疫苗、被动免疫制剂质量和接种率以及开展狂犬病监测。
Objective To understand the epidemiological characteristics of human rabies in Wenzhou, Zhejiang province and discuss the effective control measures. Methods Descriptive epidemiological analysis was conducted on the surveillance data of human rabies in Wenzhou from 2006 to 2011. Results Totally 37 human rabies cases were reported in Wenzhou during this period. The average annual incidence was 0.07/lakh and the case fatality was 100%. The cases mainly occurred in autumn and winter. The patients were aged from 5 to 77 years and farmers accounted for the highest proportion of the cases (48.65%). More cases occurred in males than in females with the ratio of 2.36:1. The wounds at grade Ⅲ accounted for 85.71%. The most common exposure site was hand (31.43%), followed by face and foot (20% for each). The average incubation period of the cases with wounds on heads was shortest (18 days). The cases receiving appropriate wound treatment, vaccination and rabies immune globulin accounted for 8.57%, 20.00% and 2.86% respectively. Conclusion It is necessary to strengthen the multi-sectoral cooperation to conduct health education about rabies, increase dog vaccination rate, standardize the performance of rabies clinics, improve rabies immunization and conduct rabies surveillance.