目的 分析突发公共卫生事件的发现方式,为提高突发事件监测预警能力提供建议。 方法 根据2012年全国经突发公共卫生事件管理信息系统上报的突发公共卫生事件相关信息,分析每起事件的调查报告,获得突发事件发现方式。 结果 医疗机构发现的事件占49.86%,疾病预防控制中心(CDC)通过分析监测数据/审核浏览报告卡主动发现的事件占25.02%,学校发现的事件占11.84%。食物中毒事件主要通过医疗机构发现和卫生行政部门通报,分别占61.58%和17.37%。突发事件从首例病例发病至发现的时间间隔中位数为5 d,传染病事件发现时间间隔中位数为6 d,食物中毒事件发现时间间隔中位数为14 h。 结论 不同类型的事件发现方式不同,CDC主动发现事件的能力增强,但及时性仍需提高,应加快相关部门间信息共享机制建设,缩短数据分析周期,从而及时发现、有效控制突发事件。
Objective To understand the detection pattern of public health emergencies in China, and provide evidence for the improvement of public health emergency surveillance capability. Methods The public health emergency related information in China in 2012 were obtained from National Public Health Emergency Management Information System, the detection channel of each event was obtained by analyzing related epidemiological survey report. SPSS 17.0 software was used for statistical analysis. Results Up to 49.86% of the public health emergencies were detected by medical institutions; 25.02% were detected by disease control centers, 11.84% were detected by schools. The disease control centers were notified of food poisoning events mainly by medical institutions and health administrations, accounting for 61.58% and 17.37% of this type of events respectively. The median interval between the onset of events and the first case detection was 5 days, the median interval between the onset of infectious disease event and the first case detection was 6 days and the median interval between the onset of food poisoning and the first case detection was 14 hours. Conclusion The detecting pattern varied with the types of public heath emergencies, the capacity of disease control centers in detecting events actively has been improved, but the timeliness of the detection should be increased. It is necessary to accelerate the establishment of information sharing platform for related departments and shorten the data analysis time for the timely detection and effective control of public health emergency.