目的 作为月度风险评估，评估2014年3月中国（未包括香港、澳门和台湾地区）突发公共卫生事件及需要关注的传染病风险。方法 根据全国突发公共卫生事件报告及重点传染病监测等各种监测资料和部门通报信息，采用专家会商法进行评估。结果 根据近期传染病和突发公共卫生事件监测数据，结合既往突发公共卫生事件发生情况及传染病流行特点分析，3月全国突发公共卫生事件报告水平较低，主要以呼吸道传染病、非职业性一氧化碳中毒、食物中毒等为主。近期我国内地将继续出现人感染H7N9禽流感的散发病例；其他可感染人类的禽流感可能有零星散发病例报告。全国南北方流感呈下降趋势，但仍应注意预防学校暴发疫情。最近我国北方遭遇高强度、长时间的雾霾天气，在未消除环境污染的情况下雾霾天气可能会长期存在，应继续加强雾霾人群健康影响的监测、评估和相关研究。结论 2014年3月我国的突发公共卫生事件及传染病疫情发生态势与往年相似，处于全年较低水平；需重点关注人感染禽流感、流行性感冒和雾霾天气等引发的公共卫生风险。
Objective Assess the risk of public health emergency and concerned infectious diseases in China, November 2013. Methods Semi-structured interviews and discussions among subject matter experts based on surveillance data and public institute bulletins, et al. Results According to the surveillance data of infectious disease and public health emergency, the occurrence of public health emergency events in March will remain relatively low, and the events will mainly categorized as respiratory infectious disease, food poisoning and Non-occupational carbon monoxide poisoning. In the near future, the sporadic cases of human infection with H7N9 influenza virus will continue to appear, and a few cases of human infection with other avian influenza virus are probably being reported in the following month. The activity of flu is trending down in both northern and southern China, but precautions should be taken to prevent the outbreak in schools. Recently, north China has been suffering intensive and long-lasting hazy weather, and such bad weather is probably last a relatively long time. Endeavors that focus on surveillance, assessment and study the public health impact of hazy weather should be implemented. Conclusion It is expected that the national public health emergencies and epidemic situation of infectious diseases in March 2014 will remain relatively low. We need to strengthen surveillance and preparedness for human infection with avian influenza viruses, Flu, public health impact of hazy weather.