Brucellosis is a widespread zoonotic disease and a serious public health problem in developingcountries. Rapid diagnosis and precise quarantine are the keys to the prevention and control of brucellosis. Fluorescence polarization assay (FPA) is a method approved by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) to detect animal brucellosis. In recent years, there have been reports of using this assay to detect human brucellosis. This article summarizes the principle of FPA, the progress in research of humans and animal brucellosis to provide a theoretical basis for the future development of FPA in China.