目的 了解陕西省铜川市流行性腮腺炎流行特征,为有效控制该病提供参考依据。 方法 采用描述流行病学方法,对铜川市2004-2009年流行性腮腺炎病例进行统计分析,采集腮腺炎患者唾液标本分离病毒,并在铜川市随机抽取健康人群采集静脉血检测腮腺炎IgG抗体。 结果 铜川市2004-2009年共报告腮腺炎病例1155例,年均发病率为22.87/10万,发病呈现两个季节高峰,以5~15岁儿童发病为主,职业分布上以中、小学生为多;共采集健康人群血样452份,腮腺炎抗体阳性率74.78%,抗体几何平均浓度(GMC)为830.51 U/ml;腮腺炎抗体阳性率及GMC均先随年龄增长而增高,抗体阳性率7~10岁最高为100%,GMC 5~6岁最高为1923.14 U/ml,以后随年龄增加抗体阳性率及GMC均略有下降,但仍然维持在较高水平。结论 近年来铜川市腮腺炎发病一直维持在较高水平,铜川市腮腺炎流行是由腮腺炎病毒F基因型引起,今后流行性腮腺炎防控的重点人群是7岁以下的儿童,尤其是1~3岁儿童。
Objective To understand the epidemiological characteristics of mumps in Tongchuan and provide scientific evidence for the effective control of the disease. Methods Descriptive epidemiological analysis was conducted on the incidence data of mumps in Tongchuan from 2004 to2009,saliva specimen were collected from mumps patients to isolate mumps virus and blood samples were taken from healthy people to detect IgG to mumps virus. Results A total of 1155 mumps cases were reported during this period with the average incidence of 22.87/lakh. Two incidence peaks occurred during a year. Most cases were children aged from 5-15 years and most cases occurred in students. Totally 452 serum specimens were collected from healthy people. The antibody positive rate was 74.78% and the geometric mean concentration(GMC)was 830.51 U/ml. The mumps virus antibody positive rate and GMC increased with age. The antibody positive rate was highest in children aged 7-10 years(100%)and the GMC was highest in children aged 5-6 years(1923.14 U/ml). Both the antibody positive rate and GMC decreased slightly with age, but still remained at high level. The antibody positive rate and GMC were lowest in children agedConclusion Mumps incidence remained at high level in Tongchuan in recent years. The major pathogen was mumps virus genotype F. The prevention and control of mumps should be strengthened in the key population of children aged<7 years, especially in the young children aged 1-3 years.