中国老年缺血性脑卒中患者膳食状况分析

陈婧祎 李裕倩 贾珊珊 宋鹏坤 柳桢 满青青 宋爽 李程 王京钟 张坚

陈婧祎, 李裕倩, 贾珊珊, 宋鹏坤, 柳桢, 满青青, 宋爽, 李程, 王京钟, 张坚. 中国老年缺血性脑卒中患者膳食状况分析[J]. 疾病监测, 2021, 36(10): 1096-1102. doi: 10.3784/jbjc.202102070066
引用本文: 陈婧祎, 李裕倩, 贾珊珊, 宋鹏坤, 柳桢, 满青青, 宋爽, 李程, 王京钟, 张坚. 中国老年缺血性脑卒中患者膳食状况分析[J]. 疾病监测, 2021, 36(10): 1096-1102. doi: 10.3784/jbjc.202102070066
Chen Jingyi, Li Yuqian, Jia Shanshan, Song Pengkun, Liu Zhen, Man Qingqing, Song Shuang, Li Cheng, Wang Jingzhong, Zhang Jian. Dietary status of elderly patients with ischemic stroke in China[J]. Disease Surveillance, 2021, 36(10): 1096-1102. doi: 10.3784/jbjc.202102070066
Citation: Chen Jingyi, Li Yuqian, Jia Shanshan, Song Pengkun, Liu Zhen, Man Qingqing, Song Shuang, Li Cheng, Wang Jingzhong, Zhang Jian. Dietary status of elderly patients with ischemic stroke in China[J]. Disease Surveillance, 2021, 36(10): 1096-1102. doi: 10.3784/jbjc.202102070066

中国老年缺血性脑卒中患者膳食状况分析

doi: 10.3784/jbjc.202102070066
基金项目: 国家重大公共卫生服务项目
详细信息
    作者简介:

    陈婧祎,女,山东省潍坊市人,在读博士,从事老年营养研究工作,Email:jingyich@126.com

    通讯作者:

    张坚,Tel:010–66237147,Email:zhangjian@ninh.chinacdc.cn

  • 中图分类号: R211; R181.3

Dietary status of elderly patients with ischemic stroke in China

Funds: This study was supported by the National United States Public Health Service Major Project
More Information
  • 摘要:   目的  了解我国老年缺血性脑卒中患者知晓《中国居民膳食指南(2007)》[膳食指南(2007)]状况以及患者的膳食摄入状况,为我国老年缺血性脑卒中患者进行膳食指导和健康管理提供依据。  方法  以中国成人慢性病与营养监测(2015)中≥65岁缺血性脑卒中患者为样本,利用调查问卷及半定量食物频率问卷(FFQ)对脑卒中患者膳食指南(2007)的知晓及过去一年内的膳食营养状况进行调查,对城乡缺血性脑卒中患者膳食状况进行分析。  结果  我国老年缺血性脑卒中患者对膳食指南(2007)的知晓率为12.47%,其中城市患者的知晓率为18.75%,农村患者的知晓率为6.07%,城市患者的知晓率高于农村患者(P<0.001)。 在知晓膳食指南(2007)的患者中食用盐推荐摄入量知晓率为67.47%、食用油推荐摄入量知晓率为30.12%,农村患者的食用盐、食用油推荐量知晓率均低于城市患者(P=0.021、P=0.046)。老年缺血性脑卒中患者的新鲜蔬菜摄入频次高于1天3次的比例为19.46%。 新鲜水果、乳类、豆类每天摄入频次大于1次的比例分别为31.24%、23.37%、14.65%。 农村脑卒中患者谷类摄入量高于膳食指南推荐摄入量。 薯类、豆类、蔬菜类、水果类、乳类摄入量与膳食指南相比摄入不足,农村地区摄入量低于城市地区(P<0.05)。  结论  我国老年缺血性脑卒中患者膳食指南(2007)知晓率较低,城市患者膳食指南知晓率高于农村患者。 农村谷类摄入过量的比例相对较高,蔬菜类、水果类、豆类、水产品、奶类食品摄入频率较低且摄入量普遍不足,农村地区摄入不足情况较城市明显。
  • 图  1  缺血性脑卒中患者膳食摄入量与膳食指南(2016)推荐摄入量比较

    Figure  1.  Comparison of dietary intakes of patients with ischemic stroke with dietary guidelines

    表  1  中国老年缺血性脑卒中患者基本情况

    Table  1.   Characteristics of elderly patients with ischemic stroke in China

     基本情况合计城市农村χ2P
    病例数(例)构成比(%)病例数(例)构成比(%)病例数(例)构成比(%)
    性别1.5170.218
     男性74756.1236654.4638157.81
     女性58443.8830645.5427842.19
    年龄组(岁)18.335<0.001
     65~95571.7544766.5250877.09
     75~37628.2522533.4815122.91
    民族8.8420.003
     汉族1 23692.8663894.9459890.74
     其他民族95 7.1434 5.0661 9.26
    文化程度139.060<0.001
     小学及以下87565.7434451.1953180.58
     初中28321.2618627.689714.72
     高中及以上17313.0014221.1331 4.70
    婚姻状况1.3520.509
     未婚40.302 0.302 0.30
     已婚1 15386.6357585.5757887.71
     同居60.452 0.304 0.61
     丧偶/离婚/分居16812.629313.8475 11.38
    适宜体质量24.452<0.001
     低于1168.72416.1075 11.38
     适宜86564.9942162.6544467.37
     高于35026.3021031.2514021.24
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  中国老年缺血性脑卒中患者膳食指南及推荐食用油、食用盐摄入量知晓情况

    Table  2.   Awareness of the dietary guidelines and recommended intake of edible oil and salt in elderly patients with ischemic stroke in China

     知晓内容合计城市农村χ2P
    知晓数(人)构成比(%)知晓数(人)构成比(%)知晓数(人)构成比(%)
    膳食指南 49.006<0.001
     是16612.4712618.7540 6.07
     否1 16587.5354681.2561993.93
    食用盐推荐摄入量 5.3810.020
     是11267.479172.222152.50
     否5432.533527.781947.50
    食用油推荐摄入量 3.9880.046
     是5030.124334.13717.50
     否11669.888365.873382.50
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  中国老年缺血性脑卒中患者各类食物摄入频率(%)

    Table  3.   Frequencies of intakes of different foods in elderly patients with ischemic stroke in China

     食物种类摄入频率 合计(%) 城市(%) 农村(%)
    合计男性女性 小计男性女性 小计男性女性
    大米及其制品≥3次/d27.7227.9827.40 23.9622.6825.49 31.5633.0729.50
    2次/d25.6225.4425.86 27.2328.6925.49 23.9822.3126.26
    1次/d17.1317.8016.27 19.6420.7718.30 14.5714.9614.03
    <1次/d29.5328.7830.48 29.1727.8730.72 29.8929.6630.22
    小麦及其制品≥3次/d9.6910.318.90 7.748.746.54 11.6811.8111.51
    2次/d12.8513.9211.47 12.5013.3911.44 13.2014.4411.51
    1次/d29.8329.4530.31 31.8531.6932.03 27.7727.3028.42
    <1次/d47.6346.3249.32 47.9246.1750.00 47.3446.4648.56
    杂粮杂豆1~3次/周12.5511.2414.21 14.4313.3915.69 10.629.1912.59
    <1次/月87.4588.7685.79 85.5786.6184.31 89.3890.8187.41
    薯类≥1次/d17.3615.8019.35 14.5813.1116.34 20.1818.3722.66
    4~6次/周2.852.143.77 2.981.914.25 2.732.363.24
    1~3次/周62.0662.9260.96 66.0768.0363.73 57.9758.0157.91
    <1次/月17.7319.1415.92 16.3716.9415.69 19.1221.2616.19
    油炸类1次/周11.8714.868.05 12.6515.309.48 11.0814.446.47
    1次/月~1次/周19.8321.4217.81 20.6822.4018.63 18.9720.4716.91
    <1次/月68.2963.7274.14 66.6762.3071.90 69.9565.0976.62
    豆类及其制品≥1次/d14.6514.7314.55 18.9020.4916.99 10.329.1911.87
    4~6次/周12.5512.1813.01 16.3716.1216.67 8.658.408.99
    1~3次/月60.4861.7158.90 54.1752.1956.54 66.9270.8761.51
    <1次/月12.3211.3813.53 10.5711.209.80 14.1111.5517.63
    新鲜蔬菜≥3次/d19.4619.9518.84 14.1415.3012.75 24.8924.4125.54
    2次/d44.5545.3843.49 52.2351.3753.27 36.7239.6332.73
    1次/d26.6025.7027.74 27.6826.2329.41 25.4925.2025.90
    <1次/d9.398.979.93 5.957.104.58 12.9010.7615.83
    腌制蔬菜≥1次/d12.5512.4512.67 9.979.5610.46 15.1715.2215.11
    4~6次/周0.600.540.68 0.740.550.98 0.460.520.36
    1~3次/月31.4031.1931.68 24.5522.6826.80 38.3939.3737.05
    <1次/月55.4555.8254.97 64.7367.2161.76 45.9844.8847.48
    菌藻类≥1次/d6.095.097.36 10.279.0211.76 1.821.312.52
    4~6次/周6.467.634.97 11.4613.668.82 1.371.840.72
    1~3次/月60.7862.3858.73 64.4366.6761.76 57.0658.2755.40
    <1次/月26.6724.9028.94 13.8410.6617.65 39.7638.5841.37
    新鲜水果≥1次/d35.2432.2639.04 48.0745.9050.65 22.1519.1626.26
    4~6次/周0.900.940.86 1.191.370.98 0.610.520.72
    1~3次/月46.1347.3944.52 36.3136.3436.27 56.1558.0153.60
    <1次/月17.7319.4115.58 14.4316.3912.09 21.0922.3119.42
    乳类≥1次/d23.3722.0925.00 33.3331.6935.29 13.2012.8613.67
    4~6次/周2.182.282.05 2.983.012.94 1.371.571.08
    1~3次/月21.4121.2921.58 20.3920.2220.59 22.4622.3122.66
    <1次/月53.0454.3551.37 43.3045.0841.18 62.9763.2562.59
    畜肉≥1次/d26.3728.3823.80 32.2934.4329.74 20.3322.5717.27
    4~6次/周7.298.705.48 8.189.566.54 6.377.874.32
    1~3次/月57.5556.2259.25 52.5350.2755.23 62.6761.9463.67
    <1次/月8.796.6911.47 6.995.748.50 10.627.6114.75
    禽肉≥1次/d0.600.540.68 0.890.820.98 0.300.260.36
    4~6次/周0.150.270.00 0.300.550.00 0.000.000.00
    1~3次/次47.4148.7345.72 56.8558.7454.58 37.7839.1135.97
    <1次/月51.8450.4753.60 41.9639.8944.44 61.9160.6363.67
    动物内脏≥1次/d0.080.130.00 0.150.270.00 0.000.000.00
    1~3次/次8.7210.047.02 8.4810.116.54 8.959.977.55
    <1次/月91.2189.8392.98 91.3789.6293.46 91.0590.0392.45
    水产品≥1次/d3.383.882.74 5.366.014.58 1.371.840.72
    4~6次/周3.314.282.05 5.216.833.27 1.371.840.72
    1~3次/月56.6558.1054.79 63.9965.0362.75 49.1751.4446.04
    <1次/月36.6633.7340.41 25.4522.1329.41 48.1044.8852.52
    蛋类≥1次/d34.9437.2232.02 46.2849.7342.16 23.3725.2020.86
    4~6次/周4.284.424.11 4.614.374.90 3.954.463.24
    1~3次/次49.1447.7950.86 40.7738.2543.79 57.6656.9658.63
    <1次/月11.6510.5813.01 8.337.659.15 15.0213.3917.27
    坚果≥1次/d7.668.436.68 10.4211.489.15 4.865.513.96
    1~6次/周15.2513.3917.64 17.2614.2120.92 13.2012.6014.03
    <1次/周77.0878.1875.68 72.3274.3269.93 81.9481.8982.01
    糕点小吃≥1次/d8.649.108.05 11.9013.1110.46 5.315.255.40
    4~6次/周2.031.742.40 2.532.192.94 1.521.311.80
    1~3次/月33.7334.8132.36 33.6333.3333.99 33.8436.2230.58
    <1次/月55.6054.3557.19 51.9351.3752.61 59.3357.2262.23
    饮料≥1次/d1.581.741.37 1.491.641.31 1.671.841.44
    4~6次/周0.150.130.17 0.300.270.33 0.000.000.00
    1~3次/月13.5214.9911.64 11.7611.7511.76 15.3318.1111.51
    <1次/月84.7583.1386.82 86.4686.3486.60 83.0080.0587.05
    饮酒≥1次/d10.7417.142.57 11.9019.133.27 9.5615.221.80
    4~6次/周0.530.800.17 0.450.550.33 0.611.050.00
    1~3次/月10.8914.865.82 11.6116.675.56 10.1713.126.12
    <1次/月77.8467.2091.44 76.0463.6690.85 79.6770.6092.09
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  我国老年缺血性脑卒中患者食物摄入量[M(P25, P75)](g/d)

    Table  4.   Food intakes of elderly patients with ischemic stroke in China[M(P25, P75)]

    食物种类推荐摄
    入量(g/d)
    合计男性女性ZP
    城市农村城市农村城市农村
    谷类200~250241
    (162.6,336.6)
    295.9
    (189.3,389)
    272.7
    (178.5,385.8)
    310.5
    (212.1,407.6)
    214.8
    (150,300)
    252.1
    (164.7,357)
    4.659<0.001
    薯类50~7514.79
    (4.93,50)
    17.1
    (3.29,56.99)
    21.37
    (6.58,56.99)
    16.44
    (3.29,50)
    14.25
    (4.11,50)
    21.37
    (4.93,64.11)
    0.388 0.698
    豆类及其制品1510.68
    (3.26,25.43)
    5.34
    (1.61,13.97)
    12.42
    (3.56,26.71)
    6.3
    (1.78,14.25)
    8.67
    (2.85,22.44)
    4.84
    (1.1,13.41)
    −6.875<0.001
    蔬菜类300~450251.5
    (160,450.8)
    210
    (115.3,401.8)
    300
    (171.4,500)
    230
    (120.2,410.4)
    227.1
    (150,412.8)
    200
    (102.8,400)
    −3.244 0.012
    水果类200~30064.27
    (14.4,180)
    21.37
    (3.29,68.38)
    58.14
    (14.25,200)
    21.37
    (3.95,60.6)
    72.72
    (19.73,165)
    21.37
    (3.29,85.48)
    −9.641<0.001
    乳类30028.22
    (0,200)
    0
    (0,35.62)
    14.52
    (0,200)
    0
    (0,35.62)
    33.25
    (0,220)
    0
    (0,28.49)
    −8.039<0.001
    肉类40~5032.41
    (13.27,62.89)
    18.41
    (7.12,47.23)
    38.08
    (17.1,74.52)
    24.93
    (9.3,50.49)
    24.74
    (8.66,51.92)
    14.1
    (4.05,32.12)
    −6.478<0.001
    水产品40~509.86
    (1.64,30.66)
    1.92
    (0,9.86)
    13.64
    (2.6,38.25)
    2.88
    (0,10.27)
    7.04
    (0.82,21.64)
    1.25
    (0,8.55)
    −10.959<0.001
    蛋类40~5034.99
    (14.29,56.61)
    17.53
    (5.42,50)
    43.9
    (17.1,60)
    21.37
    (7.12,50)
    29.05
    (14.25,53.95)
    15.67
    (3.62,45.7)
    −7.913<0.001
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-02-07
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-07-28
  • 刊出日期:  2021-10-30

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